Philippines on Spanish Era


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Philippines on Spanish Era

  1. 1. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 I. The Magellan Expedition - The Magellan Expedition, Also known as “Magellan-delCano Circumnavigation” - The first voyage around the world in human history. - A Spanish expedition that sailed from Seville in 1519 under the command of Ferdinand Magellan. - A major breakthrough in perception of the Europeans towards world geography. - Objective was to discover this alternate path to Moluccas because of 1494’s Treaty of Tordesillas, a decree from Pope Alexander VI that had essentially divided the world in half between the Spanish and the Portuguese. - Lasted for 3 years (1519-1522) , Chronicled by Antonio Pigafetta Who is Ferdinand Magellan? - Ferdinand Magellan , A Portuguese explorer who sailed, under Spain, to reach Moluccas without crossing Portuguese territory. - Proposed route to Moluccas by sailing west and through an Atlantic passage to the Pacific could be found. - Discovered Philippines (named it Archipelago of St. Lazarus) - Introduced Christianity in the Philippines. Magellan-delCano Circumnavigation Route - Preparation: The Fleet September 20, 1519 - a royal commission was sent, allowing to head the expedition. - The Spanish Armada de Molucca consisted of five ships with 237 men: Santiago under Juan Rodriguez Serrano. San Antonio under Juan de Cartageña; Concepcion under Gaspar de Quesada; Trinidad (flagship) under Ferdinand Magellan Captain General Victoria under Louis de Mendoza; - The crew of about 237 included men from several nations: including Portuguese, Spanish, Italians, Germans, Flemish, Greeks, English and French.
  2. 2. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 - Spanish authorities were wary of Magellan, so that they almost prevented him from sailing, switching his mostly Portuguese crew to mostly men of Spain. - Nevertheless, it included about 40 Portuguese, among them Magellan's brother-in-law Duarte Barbosa, João Serrão, a relative of Francisco Serrão, Estêvão Gomes and also Magellan's indentured servant Enrique of Malacca. - Antonio Pigafetta, a Venetian scholar and traveller, had asked to be on the voyage accepting the title of "supernumerary" and a modest salary, becoming a strict assistant of Magellan and keeping an accurate journal. - The only other sailor to report the voyage would be Francisco Albo, who kept a formal logbook. Magellan Strait (Passage of Atlantic and Pacific Ocean) and Pacific Ocean - After Santiago was shipwrecked, four ships began an arduous trip through the 373-mile (600 km) long passage that Magellan called the Estrecho (Canal) de Todos los Santos, ("All Saints' Channel"), because the fleet travelled through it on 1 November or All Saints' Day. The strait is now named the Strait of Magellan. Magellan first assigned Concepcion and San Antonio to explore the strait, but the latter, commanded by Gómez, deserted and returned to Spain on 20 November. - On 20th of November the three remaining ships entered the South Pacific. Magellan named the waters the Mar Pacifico (Pacific Ocean) because of its apparent stillness. Magellan and his crew were the first Europeans to reach Tierra del Fuego just east of the Pacific side of the strait. II. The Discovery of the Philippines Arrival in the Philippines - March 17, 1521, they sighted Samar, part of a group of islands they called Archipelago of St. Lazarus (Philippines). They reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines, (their first meeting with the Filipinos) - March 31, 1521 - First catholic mass in Limasawa (Easter Sunday)
  3. 3. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 - April 1, 1521 - Arrival in Cebu, cordial relations with Raja Humabon (conversion of 800 natives with Humabon, his wife and daughter to Christianity), establishment of Magellan’s Cross. - April 27, 1521 – Had a war with Lapu-lapu, chief of Mactan and Humabon’s enemy, was fatally wounded with a poisoned arrow thus causing his death and his men to retreat. Significance of the Magellan Expedition - The main significance of his voyage was that he showed it was possible to sail around the world, and left a record of how to do it. - Magellan’s voyage vastly increased the geographical knowledge of mankind and proved once and for all that the earth is round. - Considering the inadequacy of marine instruments at the time, Magellan´s voyage can be considered as the greatest single trip ever undertaken. In terms of the hardships the men endured and the courage they displayed, Magellan’s maritime exploit has perhaps never been surpassed. The route he took to reach the Philippines was entirely new, and the Venetian monopoly of the trade route to the east was thus broken. Spain became the supreme power in the building of a colonial empire - His discovery of the Philippines brought the archipelago into the awareness of Europe. - Finally, the voyage paved the way to Spanish colonization and Christianization of the Philippines. The later voyages of Fernando de Villalobos and Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, to a certain extent, owed their success to Magellan’s epochal voyage to the Far East. - From the point of view of the Filipinos, Magellan’s expedition was significant because it paved the way for contacts between the Philippines and Western civilization III. The Mactan Battle Summary: - THE BATTLE OF MACTAN on April 27, 1521 marked the first organized resistance of the Filipinos against foreign invaders. - Raha Lapu-Lapu, a chieftain of Mactan Island, defeated Spanish sailors under Portuguese sea captain and explorer Ferdinand Magellan.
  4. 4. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 Background and Chronicles by Antonio Pigafetta: - After Magellan landed on the island of Homonhon on March 16, 1521, he parleyed with Rajah Calambu of Limasawa, who guided him to Cebu on April 7. - Through Magellan’s interpreter, a Malay servant by the name of Enrique, Rajah Humabon of Cebu became an ally. - Impressed by Magellan’s artillery (consisting of guns, swords, body armor, 12 cannons, and 50 cross-bows), - Rajah Humabon and Datu Zula suggested to Magellan that they go to the nearby island of Mactan and punish Lapu-Lapu. - According to the accounts of Antonio Pigaffeta, Magellan’s voyage chronicler, the Portuguese sea captain deployed 48 armored men, less than half his crew, with swords, axes, shields, cross-bows and guns. - Filipino historians note that because of the rocky outcroppings and coral near the beach, he could not land on Mactan. Forced to anchor far from shore, Magellan could not bring his ship’s firepower to bear on Lapu-Lapu’s warriors. - As the crew were retreating, Pigaffeta records that Magellan was surrounded by warriors. - His crew had to wade through the surf to make landing, Pigaffeta narrates. - Eight crewmen were killed. Pigafetta, the supernumerary on the voyage who later returned to Seville, Spain, records Lapu-Lapu had at least 1,500 native warriors in the battle. - Lapu-Lapu is the first Filipino to resist foreign invaders. - The Battle of Mactan, even if it was situated in the early years of Spanish invasion marks the start of an organized Filipino resistance against foreign aggression. - The defeat and death of Magellan is a humiliation in the part of Spain. - It only shows that even if the warriors of Lapu-lapu were outnumbered their bravery and patriotism ousted the Spanish troops. - Yet, the national consciousness of the Filipinos during that time is still futile compared to the uprisings centuries later that brought the Philippine Revolution to its peak.
  5. 5. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 IV. The Failed Expeditions The 5 ships of Magellan’s voyage experienced great setbacks - Santiago was destroyed by a typhoon. - San Antonio deserted the expedition. - Concepcion is burned down. - Victoria returned home. - Trinidad, headed by Magellan was the only ship reached the Philippines. Other Spanish Expeditions after Magellan - Loaysa’s Expedition (1525), The first post-Magellan expedition composed of 7 ships and 450 men. The expedition failed to reach the Philippines. - Cabot’s Expedition (1526), Composed of 4 ships and 250 men. Led by Sebastian Cabot. They failed to find the Strait of Magellan. - The Saavedra Expedition (1527), Composed of 3 ships and 110 men, among its objective was to investigate what had happened to the two earlier expeditions and rescue any survivors if there are any. - The Villalobos Expedition (1543), Composed of 6 ships and around 400 men. He followed the route taken by Magellan and reached Mindanao on February 2, 1543. - He established a colony in Sarangani but could not stay long because of insufficient food supply. - His fleet left the island and landed on Tidore in the Moluccas, where they were captured by the Portuguese. - Villalobos is remembered for naming our country Islas Filipinas, in honor of King Charles’ son, Prince Philip, who later became king of Spain. V. The Legazpi Expedition (1564) - The fleet consisted of 4 ships and 380 men. - On February 13, 1565, Legaspi's expedition landed in Cebu island.
  6. 6. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 - After a short struggle with the natives, he proceeded to Leyte, then to Camiguin and to Bohol. - Legaspi made a blood compact with the chieftain, Datu Sikatuna as a sign of friendship. - Legaspi was able to obtain spices and gold in Bohol due to his friendship with Sikatuna. On April 27, 1565, Legaspi returned to Cebu; destroyed the town of Raja Tupas and establish a settlement. - On orders of the King Philip II, 2,100 men arrived from Mexico. - They built the the port of Fuerza de San Pedro which became the Spanish trading outpost and stronghold for the region. - His successful conquest was the start of the colonization of the archipelago for more than three centuries. VI. Rajah Soliman and Manila Conquest Rajah Soliman (1558 – 1575) - The last native Muslim king of Maynila, now the site of the capital of the Philippines, Manila. - He was one of three chieftains, along with Rajah Matanda and Rajah Lakandula, who played a significant role in the Spanish conquest of the kingdoms of the Manila Bay- Pasig river area; first by Martín de Goiti, and Juan de Salcedo in 1570; and later by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1571. Spanish Conquest in Manila - Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi, searching for a suitable place to establish his capital after being compelled to move from Cebu to Panay by Portuguese pirates and hearing of the existence of a prosperous kingdom in Luzon, sent an expedition under Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo to explore its location and potentials. - Goiti anchored at Cavite and established his authority peaceably by sending a message of friendship to various nations in Manila. - Rajah Sulayman, who had been ceded authority over their settlements by his aging uncle Rajah Matanda, was willing to accept the friendship that the Spaniards were
  7. 7. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 offering, but did not want to submit its sovereignty unto them, and waged war against them due to disputes and hostility. - As a result, Goiti and his army attacked the Muslim nations in Manila on June 1570 and occupied the villages before returning to Panay. VII. Changes in Spanish Colonial Period A. Political Changes - Spain established a centralized colonial government in the Philippines that was composed of a national government and the local governments that administered provinces, cities, towns and municipalities. - The cooperation of the local governments the national government maintained peace and order, collected taxes and built schools and other public works. - The Governor General: As the King's representative and the highest-ranking official in the Philippines, the governor general saw to it that royal decrees and laws emanating from Spain were implemented in the Philippines. - He had the power to appoint and dismiss public officials, except those personally chosen by the King. He also supervised all government offices and the collection of taxes. - The governor general exercised certain legislative powers, as well. He issued proclamations to facilitate the implementation of laws. - The Residencia: This was a special judicial court that investigates the performance of a governor general who was about to be replaced. - The residencia, of which the incoming governor general was usually a member, submitted a report of its findings to the King. - The Visita: The Council of the Indies in Spain sent a government official called the Vistador General to observe conditions in the colony. The Visitador General reported his findings directly to the King. - The Royal Audiencia: Apart from its judicial functions, the Royal Audiencia served as an advisory body to the Governor General and had the power to check and a report on his abuses. The Audiencia also audited the expenditures of the colonial government and sent a yearly report to Spain. The Archbishop and other
  8. 8. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 government officials could also report the abuses of the colonial government to be Spanish king. Despite all these checks, however, an abusive governor general often managed to escape stiff fines, suspension, or dismissal by simply bribing the Visitador and other investigators. - The Provincial Government: The Spaniards created local government units to facilitate the country’s administration. - There were two types of local government units – the alcadia and the corregimiento. The alcadia, led by the alcalde mayor, governed the provinces that had been fully subjugated: the corregimiento, headed by corregidor, governed the provinces that were not yet entirely under Spanish control. The alcalde mayors represented the Spanish king and the governor general in their respective provinces. They managed the day-to-day operations of the provincial government, implemented laws and supervised the collection of taxes. Through they were paid a small salary, they enjoyed privileges such as the indulto de comercio, or the right to participate in the galleon trade. - The Municipal Government: Each province was divided into several towns or pueblos headed by Gobernadordcillos, whose main concerns were efficient governance and tax collection. Four lieutenants aided the Governardorcillo: the Teniente Mayor (chief lieutenant), the Teniente de Policia (police lieutenant), the Teniente de Sementeras (lieutenant of the fields) and the Teniente de Ganados (lieutenant of the livestock). B. Economic Change - The Encomienda System: Spain owed the colonization of the Philippines to Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, who valiantly and loyally served the Spanish crown. - To hasten the subjugation of the country, King Philip II instructed Legazpi to divide the Philippines into large territories called encomiendas, to be left to the management of designated encomenderos.
  9. 9. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 - To show his gratitude to his conquistadors, the King made them the first encomenderos in the colony. As the King’s representatives in their respective encomiendas, the encomenderos had the right to collect taxes. However, the encomiendas were not there to own. The encomenderos were only territorial overseers who had the duty to: 1) protect the people in the encomienda; (2) maintain peace and order; (3) promote education and health programs; and (4) help the missionaries propagate Christianity. The Galleon Trade - The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of economic income for the colony during its early years. Service was inaugurated in 1565 and continued into the early 19th century. - The Galleon trade brought silver from New Spain and silk from China by way of Manila. This way, the Philippines earned its income through buy and sell - that is, they bought silk from China for resale to New Spain and then bought American silver for resale to China. - The trade was very prosperous. But neglected the development of the colony's local industries which affected the Indio’s since agriculture was their main source of income. - In addition, the building and operation of galleons put too much burden on the colonists' annual polo y servicio, resulted in cultural and commercial exchanges between Asia and the Americas that led to the introduction of new crops and animals to the Philippines notably tobacco that gave the colony its first real income which benefit extended to the common Indio. - The trade lasted for over two hundred years, and ceased in 1821 with the secession of American colonies from Spain. C. Socio and Cultural Change Adoption of Hispanic Names - Decreed by Gov. Narciso Claveria in 1849
  10. 10. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 - Based on compiled names of saints, indigenous and Chinese patronymics, flora and fauna, geographical names, and the arts were obligated to adopt surnames like Rizal, Del Pilar or Luna althugh some ndigenous like Mabini, Malantic, Dandan and Paganiban, were retained - Catagalogo alfabetico de apellidos contained some derogatory names like “Utut”, “Ung- goy”, and even “Casillas” Houses - Bahay na bato with a wide azotea (batalan in original), retaining the banguerahan and providing an aljibe or a well for water – supply Foreign Cuisines - Spanish indigenized dishes like adobo, menudo, sarciado, puchero or mechado and the Chinise – derived noodle preparations Filipinized into pancit malabon and pancit luglog Change in Dressing - kanggan and bahag to barong tagalog or camisa chino - putong to hats - Shoes and slippers as part of men’s fashion - Baro and saya for women developed into mestiza dress - Jewelry and ornaments, gold and tortoise peineta, earrings of different sizes and shapes Spanish Loan Words - dasal from rezar - Dalandan from naraja - Sinigwelas from ciruela - Conversely, the Filipino also contributed to enrich the Spanish language - Camarin from camalig - Carinderia from karihan - Molave from mulawin - Compadrazgo (ritual co – parenthood) came with baptism and marriages
  11. 11. Outline in History CAPUSO, Czarilyn A. | BBA MM 3-3 Conversion of the Filipinos - Fiestas honoring the saints - Fiestas during Holy Week, on Corpus Christi, and the feast day of the patron saint - Pomp and pageantry of the religious processions - Exotic Hispanic dances and music - Religious dramas of the sinakulo and the komedya or moro – moro - Cofadias and sodalities of the Filipino laymen and laywomen honoring the Virgin Mary Formal Educational System - The missionaries took charge in teaching, controlling and maintaining the rules and regulations imposed to the students. - These missionaries emphasized the teachings of the Catholic religion starting from the primary level to the tertiary level of education. - The students in the primary level were taught the Christian Doctrines, the reading of Spanish books and a little of the natives' language. Science and Mathematics were not very much taught to the students even in the universities. - Aside from the Christian Doctrines taught, Latin was also taught to the students instead of Spanish. - The schools before were exclusive for the Spaniards. - The Filipinos were only able to enter the school in the late 19th century. The schools also limited their accommodations to the sons of wealthy Filipino families in 1863. - The schools for boys and girls were separated.