Day in a School Teacher Support (DiaS-TS) Change Model

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This presentation is an outline of a monitoring and teacher support model; suggesting the role of ministry personnel in collaboration with administrators and teachers in the school community to improve teacher performance and student achievement and ultimately school improvement

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  • The teaching practice of trained and/or certified teachers shows similar weaknesses as the uncertified/novice teachers. Observed shortcomings could affect student engagement negatively. An innovative change method of curriculum implementation is applicable before the situation gets worse. The presentation will outline team collaborative strategies and activities necessary to produce outcomes, in a cyclical time span using a teleological approach. The innovation will have implications for future change to achieve stated objectives.
  • The Ministry of Education (MOE) visions becoming “the foremost provider of quality education and training for the development of all persons, who will in turn, make a meaningful contribution to society” (National Curriculum Policy Framework, 2009, p. 7). The vision of the curriculum unit highlights “opportunities for professional development, sharing best practice and monitoring to foster effective planning and delivery” (National Curriculum Policy Framework, 2009, p.36). the mission which has a focus on student engagement and empowerment to equip learners “with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to be productive citizens…” (p. 37). At this stage of the island’s socio-economic development all students deserve the education and training that will foster the competencies necessary to achieve the stated goals.
  • The Curriculum Pilot Implementation Report (2008) support the view certified and uncertified teachers demonstrate overall low ratings (37%) of expected competencies to promote effective delivery, with minimal variation in approaches. Lesson planning continues to be a sore point since too many teachers offer excuses for not having their plan book or complete lesson plans. Evidence of past lessons exist; some interactive, but most of the classroom settings are sterile, bare of charts and learning centers. Teachers promised to improve the situation soon, but the Director believes they could benefit from a form of intervention (Extract from Minutes of Staff Meeting, 2009).
  • The teaching practice of trained and/or certified teachers shows similar weaknesses as the uncertified/novice teachers. Observed shortcomings could affect student engagement negatively. An innovative change method of curriculum implementation is applicable before the situation gets worse.
  • To honor the vision of the curriculum unit with particular focus on professional development of teachers and sharing best practice, the proposal of a support structure named Day in a School Teacher Support ( D ia S - TS ) model for three years is timely. The onsite approach will promote a paradigm shift in teacher preparation emphasizing student centered approaches and constructive alignment between curriculum and pedagogy (Harvey & Kamvounias, 2006). Performance feedback is useful for teachers’ insight into the use of the instructional materials and pedagogy (McCabe, 2009). METHOD TO IMPROVE INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICE.
  • The benefits link to the objectives. The specific objectives capture the expected role of teachers and EOs. Specific objectives To plan and deliver lessons emphasizing experiential approaches; To observe lessons preceded by pre observation conference To give opportunities for reflection during post observation conference; To heighten student classroom and out-of-class experience by exposing them to active, student-centered learning; To enrich the classroom environment. Harvey & Kamvounias (2006) argued “unless a teaching and learning initiative transforms teachers’ practice such that they can transform their students’ learning, the initiative cannot be interpreted as having been successful” (p. 2). The apparent attention on teachers and teaching became priority in the attempt to place emphasis on students and learning; the primary goal being to improve student learning experience. The change agent has the responsibility to develop a culture of trust and continually communicate the vision, listen actively, show understanding, keep the lines of communication open. Lewis et al. promoted the importance of creating a change culture, placing emphasis on the purpose and vision, and sharing clear and consistent information about the change. These approaches will create awareness, garner commitment, and lessen or eliminate resistance to the proposed change.
  • The change leaders include principals of 40 schools and 20 Technical Officers (EOs) from the MOE. Each has a supervisory role and function relating to (i) instructional leadership; (ii) curriculum review and revision; (iii) instructional monitoring; (iv) teacher professional development; and (v) school supervision. These change leaders will play the role similar to curriculum leaders. They should be able to work as a team to “…moderate [the innovation], strongly influence the attitudes of classroom teachers towards reform efforts, and in turn affect the teaching and learning process (Flett and Wallace, 2005, p. 212).
  • Some teachers might look forward to the promised support, but the possibility exists some might initially resist the initiative because of perceived increased work load in terms of preparation and delivery of lessons. Each group of change leaders might complain of already heavy schedules to carry out the described roles and functions; several other activities compete for their time. For example, they must attend regular meetings, deal with administrative matters and write reports without the assistance of a secretary, engage in studies, and sometimes travel overseas. The innovation might trigger some resistance if the change leaders consider the innovation an imposition on their time and effort and possible role overload (Anderson, 2010) but the state of affairs in our public schools requires a committed collaborative effort. Roberts et al. (2007) identified organizational factors including lack of leadership, which might result in resistance to the change process. Lack of understanding of change processes make leaders incompetent to assist, monitor, or support teachers.
  • The change agent has the responsibility to develop a culture of trust and continually communicate the vision, listen actively, show understanding, keep the lines of communication open. Lewis et al. promoted the importance of creating a change culture, placing emphasis on the purpose and vision, and sharing clear and consistent information about the change. These approaches will create awareness, garner commitment, and lessen or eliminate resistance to the proposed change. The task of the change leaders is to use appropriate forms of leadership, communication, and reflection to lessen the anxiety and promote confidence. Collegiality should promote change effectively throughout the deliberation, development, design, and implementation stages of the proposed innovation. The ability to identify causes that may hinder or strengthen progress will also enable identification of best tactics to enhance the change.
  • A teleological and cyclical (Kezar, 2001) approach is appropriate when considering the goals and the procedures in enacting a planned initiative over an extended period. Researchers (Hooker, 2009; Colvin et al., 2009, Vacilotto and Cummings, 2007) provided insight into the implementation procedures they used to develop teacher competencies. The proposed steps include: Present data from curriculum implementation pilot, national assessment results; Clarify aims and objectives based on observed needs; Plan with participants to clarify roles; Develop teacher improvement plan; Provide training in monitoring strategies, including using the observation tool; Conduct pre-observation conference; including teacher awareness of the observation tool; Conduct observation followed by feedback and reflections; Analyze data to assess strengths and weaknesses on a monthly basis; Meet with teachers and officers to review teacher improvement plan; Share self-monitoring strategies. See Work pplan handout for details of strategies, activities, personnel, outcomes, and time span
  • The main purpose of the evaluation plan is to assess the stated objectives of D ia S-TS; to measure the effectiveness (success or failure) of the implementation. The continuous collection of data by various means is useful to provide ongoing qualitative and quantitative data. Examples of data collection methods will include focused observations, debriefings, reflections, questionnaires, interviews, and revised teacher improvement plans. Formative Evaluation Formative evaluation is mainly to survey the activities of the stakeholders to strengthen or improve the effectiveness of the implementation. The purpose can be two-fold, assessing the implementation delivery and the process involved in delivering the initiative (Knowledge Base). This is a new idea so examination will help to identify strengths and weaknesses. Attention to these factors will heighten the reliability of the innovation. Summative Evaluation Summative evaluation will focus on impact and outcome. The main focus will be on the outcomes of the innovation, including the impact on teaching practice (Knowledge Base). Professional development and curriculum implementation are two major concerns. The characteristics will address the effects within the school community, especially teacher planning, curriculum delivery, and student engagement.
  • The TDP initiatives proposed for the future will suggest the collaboration of expert and teacher, expert and expert, teacher and teacher, providing onsite teacher professional development. The training experienced by education officers and principals for the application of D ia S - TS is initial preparation for their role in future initiatives. The teachers accustomed to monitoring and support from supervisors inside and outside the school community and could look forward to the continuing help and be more competent in preparation and instruction. The experience could also equip teachers with the competencies to act as peer coaches. Challenges and inhibitors experienced will advise the development of future action plans, outlining improved techniques and approaches to ultimately sustain change in student learning. The results will advise further strategies and events to promote improvement in teaching, learning and assessment approaches. For example, similar interest identified in initiatives such as mentoring, coaching, and peer-coaching in schools. The TDP initiatives proposed for the future will suggest the collaboration of expert and teacher, expert and expert, teacher and teacher, providing onsite teacher professional development. The training experienced by education officers and principals for the application of D ia S - TS is initial preparation for the role they would have to play in future initiatives. The teachers will become accustomed to monitoring and support from supervisors inside and outside the school community and will look forward to the continuing help. The experience will also equip teachers with the competencies to act as peer coaches. Challenges and inhibitors experienced will advise the development of future action plans, outlining improved techniques and approaches to sustain change in student engagement and ultimately student learning.
  • References Anderson, D. (2010). Organization Development. Sage Publication. Colvin, G., Flannery, B., Sugai, G., & Monegan, J. (2008). Using observational data to provide feedback to teachers: A high school case study. Preventing School Failure, 53 (2), 95-104. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from EBSCOhost Journal Database. Curriculum Implementation Pilot Report. (2008) Curriculum Development Unit. Ministry of Education, Sports, Youth & Gender Affairs. Antigua and Barbuda. Flett, J.D., & Wallace, J. (2005). Leaders: Dealing with mandated change in schools. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 20 (3), 188-213. Harvey, A., & Kamvounias, P. (2006). Bridging the implementation gap: A teacher-as-learner approach to teaching learning policy. Higher Education Research and Development, 27 (1), 31-41. Retrieved November 01, 2009 from EBSCOhost Journal Database. Hooker, M. (2009). Models and best practice in teacher professional development . Retrieved October 28, 2009 from http://www.gesci.org/old/files/docman/Teacher_Professional_Development_Models.pdf Kezar, A. J. (2001). Understanding and facilitating change in the 21st century. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 28 (4), 1-162. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Knowledge Base. Introduction to evaluation. Retrieved December 07, 2008, from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intreval.htm Lewis, L.K., Schmisseur, A. M., Stephens, K. K., & Weir, K. E. (2008). Advice on communicating during organizational change. Journal of Business Communication, 43 (2), 113-117. Retrieved November 26, 2009 from EBSCOhost Journal Database. McCabe, H. (2008). Effective teacher training at the Autism institute in the people’s Republic of China. Teacher Education and Special Education, 31 (2), 103-107. Retrieved November, 02, 2009 from EBSCOhost Journal Database. National Curriculum policy Framework (2009). Curriculum Development Unit. Ministry of Education, Sports, Youth & Gender Affairs. Roberts, F. D., Kelly, C. L., & Medlin, B. D. (2007). Factors influencing accounting faculty members’ decision to adopt technology in the classroom. College Student Journal, 41 (1), 423-435. Retrieved November 13, 2009 from EBSCOhost Journal Database. Vacilotto, S., & Cummings, R. (2007). Peer coaching in TEFL/TESL programmes. ELT Journal: English Language Teachers Journal, 6 (12), 153-160. Retrieved November 1, 2009 from EBSCOhost Journal Database.
  • Day in a School Teacher Support (DiaS-TS) Change Model

    1. 1. Day in a School Teacher Support (DiaS-TS) Change Model Cynthia Crump December 14, 2009
    2. 2. Guiding Philosophy • Vision and Mission – Ministry of Education (MOE) • Quality education and training • Human resource development – Curriculum Development Unit (CDU) • Teacher Professional development • Sharing best practices • Monitoring
    3. 3. School Data:Teacher Competencies Bare walls
    4. 4. Balancing Teaching Practice Certified teacher Novice teacher
    5. 5. An Innovative change Model • Day in a School Teacher Support (DiaS-TS) Change Model • To provide teachers in primary schools with needed support through monitoring to improve their planning and delivery and student engagement. DiaS-TS
    6. 6. Objectives • To plan and deliver lessons emphasizing experiential approaches; • To observe lessons preceded by pre observation conference • To give opportunities for reflection during post observation conference; • To heighten student classroom and out-of-class experience by exposing them to active, student- centered learning • To improve the classroom environment
    7. 7. Benefits • Living the vision/Empowerment – Improving monitoring practices – Fostering collaboration and team work – Encouraging teacher planning – Improving teacher delivery – Heightening student engagement – Enriching the classroom environment
    8. 8. Change Leaders
    9. 9. Discussing Possible Inhibitors
    10. 10. Discussion: Promoting Success Trust communication Regular visits and sharing the vision and mission Purpose Active listening deliberation Identifying problems Discussions Collaboration Planning Training Collegiality Team work evaluation
    11. 11. Implementation Plan
    12. 12. Evaluation Methods Formative - ongoing Summative - annual
    13. 13. Looking Ahead • Developing skills set for future initiatives – action plans, – techniques and approaches – change in student learning experiences • Initiatives – Mentoring – Coaching – Peer-coaching
    14. 14. References • Anderson, D. (2010). • Colvin, G., Flannery, B., Sugai, G., & Monegan, J. (2008). • Curriculum Implementation Pilot Report. (2008). • Flett, J.D., & Wallace, J. (2005). • Harvey, A., & Kamvounias, P. (2006). • Hooker, M. (2009). • Kezar, A. J. (2001). • Knowledge Base. http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intreval.htm • Lewis, L.K., Schmisseur, A. M., Stephens, K. K., & Weir, K. E. (2008). • McCabe, H. (2008). • National Curriculum policy Framework (2009). • Roberts, F. D., Kelly, C. L., & Medlin, B. D. (2007). • Vacilotto, S., & Cummings, R. (2007).

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