C&i experiential appraisal model


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C&i experiential appraisal model

  1. 1. Running head: EXPERIENTIAL INSTRUCTIONAL APPRAISAL 1 Experiential Instructional Appraisal (ExpIA) Model Cynthia Crump University of Phoenix February 14, 2011
  2. 2. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 2 Experiential Instructional Appraisal (ExpIA) Model Educators suggest more collaborative, reflective, frequent assessment to replace the traditional evaluation procedures, in order to promote school-based professional development (Hooker, 2009; Marshall, 2009; Nolan & Hoover, 2008). Despite dissatisfaction voiced by critics, the observation tool continues to be the most important instrument to assess validly and objectively teacher performance (Marshall, 2009). From the many choices, an educator might have difficulty to find one applicable to a specific content area and/or theory of learning. Following, is a presentation of a curriculum and instruction appraisal model. Experiential learning provides the theoretical framework to guide the identification of domains and resulting characteristics. The outline gives a rationale for the development of the instrument, and procedures, which could assist the user during the various stages of observation. Other supportive, reflective procedures will show the importance of collaborative approach. The rubric will provide an objective tool to assess planning, execution and reflection of a lesson, expected to address the experiential methodology outlined in the social studies curriculum. Theoretical Underpinning Influential educators such as Rogers, Dewey, and Kolb promoted experiential learning as a philosophy and method of learning by experience – “… a process through which a learner constructs knowledge, to foster skills and values from direct experience” (Ives & Obenchain, 2006, p. 65). Educators must use differentiated approaches to meet the learners’ needs, (Wormeli, 2006). Teachers are responsible for planning and executing varied experiences so students can participate and achieve competencies (Marsh & Willis, 2003).
  3. 3. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 3 Experiential learning theory (ELT) is one model or theory that could influence differentiated procedures during instruction (Helms-Stevens & Griego, 2009). ELT supports student-centered, activity based learning that guides students to do, apply, and reflect (Dewey, 1997). During the teaching-learning experiences, the facilitator promotes experience and self- discovery, understanding a problem, and potential solutions (Kolb & Kolb, 2005). Kolb and Kolb named the four stages, which could influence planning and instruction: (a) concrete experience; (b) observation and reflection; (c) forming abstract concepts; and (d) active experimentation. Experiential Instructional Appraisal (ExpIA) Form ExpIA tool (Appendix B) will be an instrument to assess school-based professional development training of teachers to improve social studies teachers’ instructional skills outlined in the curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2009a). Dissatisfaction with the low level of competence of teacher planning and delivery of social studies (Ministry of Education, 2009b) triggered interest in a plan to improve the experiential instructional skills of novice and experienced teachers. University of the West Indies (UWI) assessment tool (Appendix C) is a general tool; supplementing said tool with ExpIA, which specifically addresses best practice in experiential teaching in social studies, could fill a void (See Reflection, Appendix D). The support of mentor or coach is an important feature of the process; complemented by ongoing instructional correction and adjustment to promote learner engagement (Carroll, 2009; Onchwari & Keengwe, 2008). The domains include: 1. Planning and Preparation for Instruction
  4. 4. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 4 a. Organization b. Goals and objectives c. Student characteristics d. Learning environment 2. Teaching a. Concrete experiences b. Observation and reflection c. Concept formation d. Active implementation 3. Self-monitoring a. reflection b. self-improvement Several levels of proficiency outlined by Boston Public Schools Dimensions of Effective Teaching and North Star Academic charter School (Marshall, 2009), and the University of the West Indies (UWI) Assessment Tool for Teachers influenced the application of the following rating scale: 4 Exemplary, 3 Mastering, 2 Inexperienced, 1 Beginning. Administration ExpIA signifies a paradigm shift in teacher preparation in social studies, focusing on learner-centered approaches and constructive alignment between curriculum and pedagogy (Harvey & Kamvounias, 2006; Lu, 2009). Facilitators could administer ExpIA weekly in the first few weeks. As the teachers’ instructional skills improve, facilitators could expand the
  5. 5. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 5 timeline to bi-weekly, then monthly; relying more on snap shots and mini observations (Hooker, 2009; Marshall, 2009). Sometimes, the facilitator could apply the instrument to observe selected domains, based on the observed and stated needs of the teacher (Marshall, 2009; Nolan & Hoover, 2008). Procedures. The main facilitator could create a collaborative team to include other teachers, principal, and supervisor (Campbell & Brummett, 2007; Lu, 2009). In-class observation might include (pre-observation conference, observation, and post observation (Hooker, 2009). The pre-observation form (Appendix A) will have evidence of simple biographic data to identify the teacher, and focus questions about the objective/outcomes, expectations of students’ behavior, pre and post topics, and sharing the observation rubric (Appendix B). Post conference will emphasize teacher’s reflection of practice, emphasizing teacher’s strengths, and areas for improvement. A reflective journal could register teachers’ reflection of the impact of the professional development on practice, and influence the development of an improvement plan (Hooker, 2009; McCabe, 2008). Feedback. Sharing and feedback are crucial components of the model, to develop quality instructional practice (Darling-Hammond, 2010; Hooker, 2009). Performance feedback is useful for teachers’ insight into their practice (McCabe, 2008). Reflection promotes awareness of the materials and methods they need to adjust their practice to be effective (Hooker, 2009). Modes of feedback could include (a) face to face assessment of teacher performance during the post observation sharing; (b) short notes of specific shortcomings and strengths, written and given to the teacher; but following up as soon as possible instead of waiting for the teacher to
  6. 6. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 6 make contact (Marshall, 2009). Figure 1 (Appendix B) represents the assessment form which supports the ExpIA model. The ExpIA model has implications for leaders at the Ministry of Education (MOE) and Department of Teacher Education (DTE), and schools, including principals and teachers. The procedures and feedback outlined could benefit stakeholders when applied to school-based professional development, especially improving social studies experiential instructional practice and ultimately learners (Darling-Hammond, 2010; Hooker, 2009; McCabe, 2008). A forum (Appendix D) is necessary to persuade the leaders in the Ministry of Education to support the application of ExpIA to assess social studies instruction and complement other assessment tools. .
  7. 7. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 7 References Campbell, M. R., & Brummett, N. M. (2007). Mentoring pre-service teachers for development and growth of personal knowledge. Music Educators Journal, 93(3), 50-55. doi:10.1177/002743210709300320 Carroll, T. (2009). The next generation of learning teams. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(2), 8-13. Retrieved from http://www.pdkmembers.org/members_online/members/orders.asp?action Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). Teacher education and the American Future. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 35-47. doi: 10.1177/0022487109348024 Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education (1st Touchstone ed.). City ST: Kappa Delta Pi. Harvey, A., & Kamvounias, P. (2006). Bridging the implementation gap: A teacher-as-learner approach to teaching learning policy. Higher Education Research and Development, 27(1), 31-41. doi:10.1080/07294360701658716 Helm-Stevens, R., & Griego, O. (2009). Evaluating experiential learning in organizational behavior: Taking measure of student perception regarding group experience. American Journal of Economics & Business Administration, 1(2), 138-140. Retrieved from http://www.scipub.org/fulltext/ajeba/ajeba12138-140.pdf Hooker, M. (2009). Models and best practice in teacher professional development. Retrieved from http://www.gesci.org/old/files/docman/Teacher_Professional_Development_Models.pdf
  8. 8. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 8 Ives, B. & Obenchain, K. (2006). Experiential education in the classroom and academic outcomes: For those who want it all. Journal of Experiential Education, 29(1), 61-77. doi: EJ740929 Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). The Kolb learning style inventory-Version 3.1: Technical specifications. Retrieved from http://www.learningfromexperience.com/images/uploads/Tech_spec_LSI.pdf Lu, H. L. (2009). Joint effect of peer-coaching and the student teaching triad: Perception of student teachers. South Eastern Teacher Education Journal, 2(2), 7-18. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2009.10.015 Marsh, C. & Willis, A. (2003). Curriculum: Alternative approaches, ongoing issues (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. Marshall, K. (2009). Rethinking teacher supervision and evaluation: How to work smart, build collaboration, and close the achievement gap. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. McCabe, H. (2008). Effective teacher training at the autism institute in the people’s Republic of China. Teacher Education and Special Education, 31(2), 103-107. doi:10.1177/088840640803100204 Ministry of Education. (2009a). Social Studies teachers’ guide: Social studies education for Democratic citizenship.. St. John’s, Antigua & Barbuda: Curriculum Development Unit Ministry of Education. (2009b). Curriculum pilot implementation report. St. Johns, Antigua & Barbuda: Curriculum Development Unit
  9. 9. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 9 Ministry of Education. (2009c). National Curriculum Framework policy. St. John’s, Antigua & Barbuda: Curriculum Development Unit Nolan, J. F., Jr., & Hoover, L. A. (2008). Teacher supervision & evaluation: Theory into practice (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Onchwari, G. & Keengwe, J. (2008). The impact of a mentor-coaching model on teacher professional development. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36, 19-24. doi: 10.1007/s10643-007-0233-0 Wormeli, R. (2006). Misleading in the middle: A rebuttal to those who doubt the middle school. California English, 12(1), 13-14
  10. 10. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 10 Appendix A Supervisory Observation Plan Teacher…………………………. Observer……………………….. Grade Level……………………. Subject………………………… Date……………………………. Time…………………………... Pre-observation Conference The observer will outline the purpose of the exercise. After outlining the procedures, the observer will require the consent of the student teachers (Appendix B). The following questions will guide the pre-observation conference (Parker Unified School District No. 27 Teacher Evaluation, n.d.): 1. Review the evaluation instrument with the teacher. 2. Explain the procedures for the observation/evaluation. 3. Review the criteria on the instrument and check for understanding. 4. Inform the teacher of any specific items or materials to be examined. 5. Establish period for the observation. 6. Identify experiential learning instructional skills and citizenship concepts in the plan. 7. Identify the use of differentiation in planning and executing the lesson. Specific Questions Completion of the Pre-Observation Conference Form will require responses from the student teacher with input from the cooperating teacher when necessary (See Lesson Plan, Appendix D)  What are the objectives of the lesson?  What kind of behavior do you expect students to display to show learning has occurred?  What specific strategies will you use?  What was the previous lesson about, and what will follow?  Is there any aspect of the lesson you would like focus on?
  11. 11. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 11 Observation: Assessment Tool The assessment tool will be the social studies-specific ExpIA assessment tool (Appendix B) to complement any general assessment tool; for example assessment tool provided by the Department of Teacher Education (DTE) in conjunction with the University of the West, the instrument Indies, specifically for the teaching practicum (Appendix C). The observation could provide knowledge and insight into the extent to which the teacher demonstrates the following while executing the lesson: 1. Teach in harmony with the objectives; 2. Has knowledge of the content; 3. Implement best practice in the subject area, using the experiential methodology; 4. Differentiate instructional and assessment strategies to cater to the wide age rage in the class; 5. Explore relevant citizenship skills; 6. Use formative assessment activities; 7. Foster positive classroom interaction. Post Observation Conference Post observation conferencing will provide the opportunity for teacher to reflect on practice; (a) identifying strengths and weaknesses of the lesson; (b) identifying students’ strengths and needs; and (c) identifying appropriate follow up actions. The observer and teachers will discuss the performance, discussing alternative approaches and how to benefit from strengths and improve on weaknesses. Decisions could focus on the degree to which the students achieved the objectives or and whether to re-teach, review the stated follow up, or go on to the next topic (Nolan & Hoover, 2008; Marshall, 2009)
  12. 12. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 12 Appendix B Crump’s Experiential Instructional Appraisal (ExpIA) Assessment Form Date: _______________ Topic: ______________ Observer: ________________ Lesson: Start _______ Teacher: _________________ End _______ Grade: ___________ Rating Scale Domains 4 Exemplary 3 Mastering 2 Inexperienced 1 Beginner Planning and Preparation for Instruction: To address lesson plan, goals and objectives, student characteristics, and classroom environment, organized appropriately to promote experiential learning. (Despite absence of lesson plan, the observer will continue the assessment beginning with pre-observation conference). 4 3 2 1 Organization Prepares required lesson plan, that is well laid out and sequenced with appropriate sub- headings Prepares required plan, which is coherent but can improve with guidance Plan lacks coherence, with missing sub- headings No apparent plan available Goals and objectives States at least three clear relevant and achievable objectives, identifying at least one democratic citizenship skill; States at least two relevant and achievable objectives, identifying at least one democratic citizenship skill; States at least one relevant and achievable democratic citizenship skill objective; States one or more unclear general objectives, not including any democratic citizenship skill Student characteristics Plans a variety of activities to cater to classroom diversity Plans activities that meets the needs of most students Plans activities but inconsistently succeeds in meeting most students needs Plans activities that does not cater to students with special needs Learning environment Ample evidence of related learning materials/teaching aids; creating a climate conducive to learning; organizes furniture to support varied teaching experiences Adequate evidence of related materials/teaching aids in the classroom; Organizes classroom furniture to support the achievement of most lessons objectives Minimal evidence of related learning materials/teaching aids and organization of classroom furniture to support the lesson Bare and sterile classroom environment; traditional organization of furniture Total for Planning and Preparation for Instruction = Comments: Teaching: To integrate components of experiential learning, providing meaningful experiences appropriately; conducting formative assessment and adjustment to teaching and learning, and foster student engagement, motivation, and participation. 4 3 2 1 Concrete experiences – laboratory exercise, field trip, individual or group challenge, Gets all students involved in appropriate activity to promote Gets most students involved in appropriate activity to promote development and Makes attempt to get students involved in appropriate Loses most students’ interest in the attempt to get them
  13. 13. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 13 observation, role play, simulation development and application of skill(s) relevant to the lesson goal application of skill(s) relevant to the lesson goal activity to promote development and application of skill(s) relevant to lesson goals, but some students are not involved involved to promote development and application of skill(s) relevant to lesson goal Observation and reflection – questioning, brainstorming, investigation, journal, discussion Provides various opportunity for all students to reflect, describe, and learn from personal experiences; encourages learners to generate new ideas Relies on several methods, which do not adequately promote reflection and generation of ideas in a class of students with diverse needs Relies on inappropriate methods to promote reflection and generation of ideas Provides no opportunity to for students to reflect, generate new ideas, and learn from personal experiences Concept formation – lecture, vocabulary development, presentation, notes, class work Focuses students on relationships between concepts using a variety of methods appropriate to students’ needs Focuses students on relationship between concepts, using adequate methods to meet some students’ needs Attempts to students on relationship between concepts, but fails to meet most students’ needs Fails to focus students on relationship between concepts Active implementation – project, poster, chart, poem/song, displays Provides a variety of opportunities to tests students’ transfer of learning in a real-life situation, according to their interests and learning style Provides adequate opportunities to test students’ transfer of learning in a limited context Provides opportunity to test students’ transfer of learning, limited only to thinking about application in real-life No evidence of providing opportunities for testing students’ transfer of learning Total for teaching: Comments: Self-monitoring: Instructor demonstrates skillfulness in reflection into practice, identifying strengths and areas for improvement 4 3 2 1 Reflection Demonstrates reflection into practice consistently Engages in reflective practice, but needs support and supervision/guidance Is an inconsistent reflective practitioner Demonstrates lack of ability to reflect on practice Self Improvement Shows awareness of level of development; outlines a variety of collaborative practice to promote continuous improvement Is aware of level of development; seeks out effective ideas from a variety of sources Demonstrate limited awareness of level of development; self improvement is accidental Is not aware of level of development; shows no interest in ways to improve practice Total for Reflection: Comments: Figure 1
  14. 14. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 14 Experiential Learning Instructional Appraisal (ExpIA) Model Total Score - the sum of all ratings = The calculated mean score of all the observations will represent the overall progress of the instructor Beginner: Score < 20; Inexperienced: Score 21 – 29; Mastering: Score 30 – 36; Exemplary: Score 37 – 40
  15. 15. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 15 Appendix C University of the West Indies (UWI) Assessment Tool (Prescribed)
  16. 16. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 16
  17. 17. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 17
  18. 18. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 18
  19. 19. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 19 Appendix D Reflection The observation procedures conducted as outlined in the observation Plan (Appendix A) influenced the development of the experiential instructional appraisal (ExpIA) form. When viewing the social studies lesson the supervisor wished to identify the experiential methodologies outlined by Kolb and Kolb (2005), including the four componets in Figure 2 and the suggested student-centered strategies to foster experiential learning and develop social studies democratic citizenship skills. (This was influenced by a driving philosophy over time). Any assessment form prescribed by either the Department of Teacher Education or the Ministry of education cater to general instead of a subject-specifc observations, therefore, application was useful but limited for the purpose of best practice in social studies. The use of the stages/components of the cylce is flexible, but teachers should attempt to incorporate all four stages throughout a cycle to teach consecutive lessons of a series of lessons for a topic. The availability of the ExpIA form shoud (a) better provide teachers with description of best practice in social studies to improve their practice; and (b) provide observers with specific characteristics of best practice in experiential learning. Figure 1 The Experiential Learning Components experiential Learning concrete experience observation & reflection forming abstract concepts active experiemtnation
  20. 20. Experiential Instructional Appraisal 20 Appendix E Summary Reform of teacher assessment is a consideration in the 21st Century. Several appraoches could be used to persuade leaders in the Ministry of Education to consider and perhaps accept the application of the ExpIA model to the assessment of social studies instruction. First, to share the mission and vision of the curriculum unit, which emphasizes professional development, sharing best practice, support and monitoring to improve teacher practice (Ministry of Education, 2009c). Second, to present data showing the low level of competency presently demonstrated by teachers (Ministry of Education, 2009b). Third, to outline the components (domains and characterisitics) of the model and how a supervisor/observer could administer the instrument. Fourth, to share feedback from teachers exposed to the prescribed instrument and the Experiential Instructional Appraisal (ExpIA) form during assessment. Opportunity to ask questions, and further discussion could clarify the benefits to teachers and students, and the role of the leaders in the Ministry of Education in leading the process.