2014 03-13 Planning and Designing for Cyclists
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2014 03-13 Planning and Designing for Cyclists

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Planning and Designing for Cyclists course providing a review of Cycling by Design and workshops on how we can include cycling within our towns and cities.

Planning and Designing for Cyclists course providing a review of Cycling by Design and workshops on how we can include cycling within our towns and cities.

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2014 03-13 Planning and Designing for Cyclists 2014 03-13 Planning and Designing for Cyclists Presentation Transcript

  • Planning and Designing for Cyclists Peter Leslie – Senior Engineer
  • By the end of this workshop, candidates will be able to: 1. Discuss current policy and guidance aiding the delivery of cycle infrastructure in Scotland. 2. Identify design principles for planning and designing for cyclists. 3. Explain the basic principles of retrofitting cycle route design into existing infrastructure. Learning Outcomes
  • 3 By 2020, 10% of all journeys in Scotland will be by bike.
  • 180km of routes designed and installed Over 800km reviewed/audited Loon fae Aberdeen
  • Change Behaviour Why was I not on site for the M77 / M74 / AWPR? Cycle Action Plan for Scotland Sustrans (Funding) CSGN - Planning
  • How would you look to change people towards cycling in Aberdeen? You - What is your role
  • New Bridge for Cyclists Park and Bike Segregation along the Parkway? You - What is your role
  • 9 www.satinonline.org
  • 10 Active Travel Design Manuals  Netherlands - Crow – Design manual for bicycle traffic  UK – DFT – Cycle Infrastructure Design  Scotland – TS - Cycling By Design 2010
  • 11 Active Travel Design Manuals  UK – TFL – London Design Standards  Scotland – TS – Designing Streets
  • 12 Sustrans Publications - Guidelines  Connect 2 and Greenway Design Guide – 2007  The NCN – Guidelines and Practical Details -1997  Making Ways for the Bicycle – 1994  Greenways design guide  Audit before payment  Practical example  www.sustrans.org.uk/resources
  • 26/03/201413 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Introduction Presentation Content • Why Cycling by Design? • The Evolution of Cycling by Design • A Tour of the Document • The Cycle Audit Process • Summary
  • ‹#› 26/03/2014 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Why Cycling by Design?
  • 26/03/201415 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Trunk Road Cycling Initiative •Trunk Road Cycling Initiative launched November 1995 •Five Actions Detailed in Office Instruction 3/96 • Trunk Road/NCN Development • Co-operation with Sustrans • Redetermination of footways • A74(M) Cycleway • Consideration of cyclists in all new schemes Policy Led to the Creation of Cycling by Design 1999
  • 26/03/201416 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide CAPS •Launched June 2010 by Transport Minister •Contains 17 Actions to Promote Cycling in Scotland • Skills Development • The Network • Delivery •Multi-agency Approach Policy Vision: By 2020, 10% of All Journeys Taken in Scotland by Bike
  • 26/03/201417 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide CAPS CBD Supports several CAPS actions, but especially: Action 8: To promote the use of planning policy, access legislation and design guidance to a wide range of professionals; and to promote the outcomes of access legislation in the form of leisure activities. Outcome 8: More well designed, accessible cycling facilities across Scotland Policy CBD is the Design Guidance outlined in CAPS
  • 26/03/201418 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Road Safety •Cyclists recognised as having less protection if an accident occurs •Accidents involving vulnerable users including cyclists one of four main accident types •Action 11: “…improve cycling provision with cycle friendly design” Policy
  • 26/03/201419 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Scotland PLC Tourism VisitScotland figures (2003): • Cycle tourism responsible for 1 million trips to Scotland (8% of all visitors) • Revenue from cycle tourism: £219 Million • 50% increase in cycle tourism by 2015 • Scotland is a world leader in mountain biking • Sustrans National Cycle Network
  • 26/03/201420 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Scotland PLC Tourism National Cycle Network Trunk Road Network High Interaction between NCN and Trunk Road Network
  • 26/03/201421 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Designing Streets • Complements principles • Encourages direct and coherent routes for cyclists • Has presumption in favour of cyclists at access controls • Promotes permeability • Recognises at low volume/low speed dedicated facilities may not be required • CBD intended for wider area application, not just residential streets Policy CBD Compliments Designing Streets
  • 26/03/201422 Cycling by Design - 2010 Edition Why Cycling by Design? Policy Cycling by Design aims to Implement these Policies for Cyclists
  • Barriers to Cycling What factors deter you from cycling / cycling more often? 29 7 6 6 10 26 10 12 0 10 20 30 40 50 Danger from traffic Not enough road space Lack of good routes No access to bike Journey time too long Weather Too physical Other % Barriers to Cycling What factors deter you from cycling / cycling more ofte 29 7 6 6 10 26 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Danger from traffic Not enough road space Lack of good routes No access to bike Journey time too long Weather Too physic % What is the principal factor that deters you from cycling/ cycling more often? 26/03/201423 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Why Cycling by Design? Policy Infrastructure Related Issues - 49% of Responses Good Quality Design an Imperative!
  • ‹#› 26/03/2014 Cycling by Design - 2010 Edition Evolution of Cycling by Design
  • 26/03/201425 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Background • Cycling by Design originally published 1999 as a consultative draft • Updated June 2010 • Contains information on cyclists’ needs, network planning, geometric standards and cycle audit • Consideration mandatory on the Trunk Road network • Commended for use by local authorities and others Cycling by Design
  • 26/03/201426 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide 2010 Update Process Cycling by Design 1999 Technical Expertise Cycle Designers, Roads Designers, Accessibility experts, Economists, Planners, Environmental Consultants, Maintenance experts, Road Safety Auditors Disability Discrimination Act Transport Scotland’s Good Practice Guide for Roads Independent Review Fife Council City of Edinburgh Council Glasgow City Council Forestry Commission Sustrans Good Practice Design Examples East Renfrewshire Clackmannanshire City of Edinburgh Fife Dumfries & Galloway Argyll & Bute Highland Technical Guidance UK Cycle Design Guidance (DfT, TfL, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, SESTRANS, Edinburgh) UK Roads Design Guidance (DMRB, Transport Scotland) European Cycle Design Guidance (CROW, Malmo, Copenhagen, Danish Cycle Parking) Cycling by Design 2010 1999 Consultation Comments received Cycling by Design
  • ‹#› 26/03/2014 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide A Tour of The Document
  • 26/03/201428 Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour
  • 26/03/201429 Overview Workshop • Cyclists’ Needs & Trip Purposes • Core Design Principles • Hierarchy of Measures Review • Link Specification Guide • Network Planning Process Planning for Cyclists Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201430 Hierarchy of Measures Planning for Cyclists Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201431 On or Off Carriageway? Planning for Cyclists Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201432 Network Planning Process Planning for Cyclists Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • Skill Level Skill Level • Novice; • Intermediate; and • Experienced.
  • Journeys completed by Cyclists • Neighbourhood • Commuting • School • Day Trips • Touring • Sports (Based on CBD 2010)
  • Design Principles • Coherence – • Door step • Directness – • Time Saving • Safety – • Feel Safe • Comfort – • Surface • Attractiveness – • Fit Surroundings
  • 26/03/201436 Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201437 Overview Workshop • Cycle Design Speed What would you use as a design speed? Review • Visibility Parameters • Alignment Geometric Design Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201438 Design Speed & Visibility Geometric Design 1.0m (min) Eye Height 2.2m max Visibility Envelope Dynamic Sight Distance 1.0m (min) Eye Height 2.2m max 1.0m (min) 2.2m Eye Height 2.2m max Visibility Envelope Stopping Sight Distance Dynamic Sight Distance Stopping Sight Distance Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Design parameter Network hierarchy Long distance/ commuter Local access Design Speed (kph) 30 20 Minimum Dynamic Sight Distance (DSD) (m) 65 45 Minimum Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) (m) 35 25
  • 26/03/201439 Design Speed & Visibility Geometric Design Cycle Route Visibility Envelope Carriageway Y-Distance (Refer to Table 3.3) Y-Distance (Refer to Table 3.3) X-Distance (Refer to Table 3.2) Junction/Crossing Visibility Splay Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide ‘X’ distance (m) Control and Comments 4.0m Cycle route approach to a road – Desirable Minimum 2.0m Cycle route approach to a road – Absolute Minimum 1.0m ‘Jug handle’ crossing* – Absolute Minimum 85th Percentile speed of main road vehicles (kph) 120 100 85 70 60 50 30 Y-Distance (m) * 295 215 160 120 90 70 35 Also Reduced Values for Cycle/Pedestrian Networks in CBD
  • 26/03/201440 Vertical & Horizontal Alignment Geometric Design Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Design parameter Network hierarchy Long distance/ commuter Local access Design Speed (kph) 30 20 Minimum Dynamic Sight Distance (DSD) (m) 65 45 Minimum Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) (m) 35 25 Horizontal alignment Desirable Minimum Radius (m) 25 15 Minimum Bellmouth Radius at junctions (m) 4.0 4.0 Vertical alignment Desirable Minimum Crest (k) 14.1 6.8 Absolute Minimum Crest (k) 5.3 1.3 Sag values are not likely to be a controlling factor at cycle speeds and are, therefore, not specified. Gradient Desirable Maximum 3% 3% Absolute Maximum* 7% 7% Crossfall Absolute Maximum 2.5% 2.5%
  • 26/03/201441 Vertical Alignment - DDA Geometric Design Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Location Gradient General cycle facility Desirable Maximum 3% Absolute Maximum 5% 7% Over 5m* Over 10m* On the immediate approach to priority junctions Absolute Maximum 3% On the approach ramp to a bridge or subway (7% also requires speed controls) Desirable Maximum 3% Absolute Maximum 5% 7% Over 5m* Over 10m* *DDA Implication – Gradients Above 5% are Considered a Ramp
  • 26/03/201442 Facilities for Disabled People Geometric Design Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Rest Areas on an Off-road Route Rest Areas on a Bridge Structure
  • 26/03/201443 Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201444 Overview • Appropriate Carriageway Conditions • Traffic Management • Traffic Calming • Rural Situations Traffic Volume & Speed Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201445 Carriageway Conditions Traffic Volume & Speed Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Good Conditions: <3,000 veh/day and <35kph 85th %ile speed
  • 26/03/201446 Traffic Management Traffic Volume & Speed 1.5m Desirable Minimum 1.2m Absolute Minimum Twowayroad 1.5m Desirable Minimum 1.2m Absolute Minimum Build-out may be provided to prevent parked cars obstructing cyclists. Various features may be used to create road closures: - Extended footway - Landscape planters/tree planting - Permanent and lockable bollards - Emergency gates Diag No.955 Diag No.616 Bollards Diag No.616Diag No.955 1.5m Desirable Minimum 1.2m Absolute Minimum Build-out may be provided to prevent gap being obstructed by parked cars. Bollards Bollards Minor Road Closure False One-way Street Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Presumption Cyclists Exempt from Access Restrictions & One Way Streets
  • 26/03/201447 Traffic Calming Traffic Volume & Speed Central Island Pinch Point 1.5m desirable min 1.2m absolute min Segregation kerb of min 0.5m width to prevent vehicles encroaching on cycle lane. Crossing point where appropriate Cycle Lane 1.5m desirable min 1.2m absolute min Cycle Lane Clearance strip of min 0.5m width to discourage encroachment on cycle lane Verge marker postVerge marker post 3.0m Verge marker posts Verge marker posts W A Verge marker posts Verge marker posts Chicane Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Desirable Min 1.5m, Absolute Min 1.2m – But don’t forget the Gullies!
  • 26/03/201448 Rural Situations Traffic Volume & Speed Road closure or gate. Gate can be left locked or unlocked. Field Access Signs and combinations of signs to be used for restricted access to roads. Further options include: - Weight/width restrictions - "unfit for Motor Traffic" sign - "Road Closed...Miles Ahead" sign - "Gated Road" sign 1.2m min 1.5m preferred max. Optional cattle grid Diag No. 619 Diag No. 816 Diag No. 620 Diag No. 954.4 Typical Restricted Access Plan Typical Gated Road Closure Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201449 Cycling by Design 2010 Introduction 1. Planning for Cyclists 2. Geometric Design 3. Traffic Volume & Speed 4. Allocating Carriageway Space 5. Off-Carriageway Facilities 6. Junctions & Crossings 7. Cycle Parking 8. Public Transport Integration 9. Construction & Maintenance 10.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201450 Overview Workshop • Cycle Lanes Width of Lanes? • Kerb Segregated Cycle Lanes Two Way verus One Way • Bus Lanes Width? • Cycle Lanes at Bus Stops Design out the issue Carriageway Space Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201451 Cycle Lanes Carriageway Space Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201452 Cycle Lanes Carriageway Space Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Standard Width (m) Comments Maximum Width 2.5* Lanes of this width should be used where cycle flows are expected to be >150 cycles/ peak hour and therefore cycles overtaking within the lane can be expected. Desirable Minimum Width 2.0* The minimum width that should be considered for a cycle lane with width for cyclists to pass each other. Absolute Minimum Width 1.5** The running width of the lane should be free from obstructions such as debris and unsafe gullies. * Cycle lanes over 2.0m wide in areas of car parking may attract drivers to park in them. Physical barriers, mandatory lane markings or parking and loading restrictions can prevent this. ** Lane widths narrower than 1.5m can present a hazard to cyclists and motor vehicle drivers. Only in exceptional circumstances should widths down to 1.0m be considered where it is safe to do so – for example where stationary traffic blocks the route to an advance stop line and the proposed lane is safe from obstructions such as gullies. Similar Tables also Provided for Contraflow and Kerbed Cycle Lanes
  • Diag. 1040.4 hatching. 1 in 10 taper Refer to Table 5.2 Diag 1024 (1600 high) Diag. 1004 Diag. 1057 at regular intervals over length of parking bays Coloured surfacing Parking bays Parking bays Refer to Table 5.3 Footway Footway 26/03/201453 Cycle Lanes Carriageway Space Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Standard Width (m) Comments Desirable Minimum 1.0* Ensures that a cyclist does not need to deviate if a car door is opened fully. Absolute Minimum 0.5 Will require a cyclist to deviate within the cycle lane if a car door is opened. The cycle lane width in this case should be at least 1.5m, otherwise the cyclist will need to leave the cycle lane to avoid collision. * Where required, a clearance strip of 1.5m will permit access for disabled people, without affecting cyclists using an adjacent lane.
  • 26/03/201454 Dealing with Bus Stops Carriageway Space Nominal footprint of bus shelter 4.0m x 1.05m. Mandatory cycle lane Advisory cycle lane Mandatory cycle lane Back of footway Nominal 12m Bus Layby Nominal footprint of bus shelter 4.0m x 1.05m 2m desirable min (1.5m absolute min) Kerb-face inlet gullies Refer to Table 5.2 Footway Tactile Paving & Drop kerbs Tactile Paving & Drop kerbs Mandatory cycle lane Mandatory cycle lane Back of footway Refer to Table 5.2 Access kerb & transitions Nominal 7.6m Nominal footprint of bus shelter 4.0m x 1.05m. ramp 1.8m ramp 1.8m Mandatory cycle lane Mandatory cycle lane 0.5m ramp 3.6m ramp 3.6m 0.5m Kerb face inlet gullies Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Guidance on On/Off-Street Transitions also Given
  • 26/03/201455 Bus Lanes Carriageway Space Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Standard Width (m) Comments* Optimal Width 4.6 This width allows a bus to pass a cyclist within the bus lane. A 1.5m wide advisory cycle lane may be provided within the bus lane if considered desirable. Desirable Minimum Width 4.25 Although a bus is still able to pass a cyclist within the bus lane, safe passing width is affected and this width of lane should only be provided over short distances. A 1.2m wide advisory cycle lane may be provided within the bus lane if desirable. Absolute Minimum Width 4.0 An Absolute Minimum width of 4.0m allows cyclists to pass stopped buses within the bus lane but may encourage unsafe overtaking of cyclists by buses, particularly where the adjacent traffic lane has queuing traffic. Limiting Width 3.0 – 3.2 The width of the bus lane to prevent overtaking within the lane itself. A bus will be required to straddle adjacent lanes to pass a cyclist, thereby encouraging safe overtaking. Lane Widths between 3.2m and 4m Should be Avoided
  • 26/03/201456 Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201457 Overview • Principles • Cycleways • Cycle Paths • Vehicle Restricted Areas • Access Controls Off-Carriageway Facilities Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201458 When to Segregate? Off-Carriageway Facilities 1000 peds/hr/metre width (0.2 peds/m length/m width) 50m length 2m width Based on a walking pace of 5km / hr 500 peds/hr/metre width (0.1 peds/m length/m width) 300 peds/hr/metre width (0.06 peds/m length/m width) 200 peds/hr/metre width (0.04 peds/m length/m width) 100 peds/hr/metre width (0.02 peds/m length/m width) 50m length 50m length 50m length 50m length 2m width 2m width 2m width 2m width Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Combined density (users/hr/m)* Recommended arrangement < 100 Shared use is usually appropriate (cycles give way). 101 – 199 Segregation may be considered. > 200 Segregation should be considered.
  • 26/03/201459 Segregated Cycleways Off-Carriageway Facilities Carriageway 2.4m 2.4m 2.4m Footpath Segregated Cycleway 0.8m 0.8m Shared Cyclepath Reminder tactile area 'Start' and 'End' tactile area 2.4m Segregated Cyclepath Tramline tactile Ladder tactile Max 50mm vertical kerb SEGREGATED BY KERB SEGREGATED BY CENTRAL DELINEATOR STRIP (NOTE 2) SEGREGATED BY VERGE Pedestrians Only Cycles Only1.0m Verge Cycles Only Cycles Only Pedestrians Only Pedestrians Only Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201460 Shared Cycleways Off-Carriageway Facilities Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Facility Width (m) Comments Segregated cycleway or cyclepath One way cycles only Desirable Minimum 2.0 Operates satisfactorily for one-way flows of up to 150 cycles per hour with minimal overtaking anticipated. Absolute Minimum 1.5 The running width required that is free from obstructions such as debris, gullies, line markings and street furniture. Two way cycles only Desirable Minimum 3.0 Operates satisfactorily for two-way flows up to 300 cycles per hour. Absolute Minimum 2.0* Operates satisfactorily for two-way flows of up to 200 cycles per hour free from obstructions such as debris, surface gullies, line markings and street furniture. Pedestrian only space Desirable Minimum 2.0 The minimum width in normal circumstances to permit unobstructed passage by opposing wheelchairs. Absolute Minimum 1.5 Acceptable over short distances in specifically constrained environments, such as at bus stops or where obstacles are unavoidable (Transport Scotland 2009). Shared cycleway or cyclepath Pedestrian and cycle space Desirable Minimum 3.0 Typically regarded as the minimum acceptable for combined flows of up to 300 per hour. Absolute Minimum 2.0** Can operate for combined flows of up to 200 per hour but will require cycles and pedestrians to frequently take evasive action to pass each other. * Widths as low as 1.5m may be acceptable over short distances where there is no alternative. ** In particularly constrained situations or for combined flows of less than 100 per hour, a width of 1.5m may be considered over short distances where no alternative is available. Guidance also Provided for Clearances to Fixed Objects
  • 26/03/201461 Cyclepaths Off-Carriageway Facilities Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201462 Access Controls Off-Carriageway Facilities Preferably two gaps 1.5m Preferred max Gap 1.2m absolute min Lockable/removable bollard for maintenance 3.0m desirable min Note: Rider meets barrier on left hand side first 2.0m desirable min 1.5m absolute min Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201463 Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201464 Overview • Crossing Assessment • At Grade Junctions & Crossings • Grade Separated Junctions & Crossings Junctions & Crossings Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201465 At-Grade Crossing - Urban Junctions & Crossings Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide Diag No.956 Diag No.956 Build-out Footway Coloured surface preferred Min 10m Diag No.950 Note: Distance plate Diag No.572 may be applied. Diag No.950 Extent of warning contrasting colour treatment CyclepathCyclepath Reflective bollards Footway Buff coloured blister tactile Dimensions for Central Islands also Provided
  • 26/03/201466 At-Grade Crossing - Rural Junctions & Crossings Diag No.956 Verge Diag No.956 Verge Rumble strips (15mm height, vertical face not to exceed 6mm) High Friction Surfacing (black calcined bauxite) should only be used on roads with speed limits > 40mph Edge of carriageway marking Diag No.1012.1 (width of line 150mm) Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 XXX yds crossing Cycles 55m XXX yds crossing Cycles Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 XXX yds crossing Cycles XXX yds crossing Cycles Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 2.5m absolute minimum Chicane Refer to Note 1 5.75m min 10m Admiral™ or similar specification bollards Buff coloured blister tactile Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • Diag No.956 Drop kerb at crossing point to be flush with carriageway. Variable width Verge Diag No.956 10mdesirableminimum 3.0m min Chicane Refer to Note 1 2.5mabsolute min. Min 10.0m Extent of warning contrasting colour treatment Min 5.0m Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 Cycles crossing XXX yds Cycles crossing XXX yds Buff coloured blister tactile specification bollards White Admiral™ or similar 26/03/201467 At-Grade Crossing - Dual Junctions & Crossings Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201468 Side Road Crossings Junctions & Crossings Buff coloured blister tactile Diag No.956 3.0m desirable minimum Diag No.956 Diag No.602 Absolute min 2.5m (Refer to note 1) Diag No.950 Note: Distance plate Diag No.572 may be applied. Restrict on-street parking to ensure visibility Bendout Diag 610 Illuminated Bollard (Refer to note 2) Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201469 Roundabouts Junctions & Crossings a) COMPACT ROUNDABOUT FOR USE BY MIXED TRAFFIC Central overrun area may be provided Single lane entry and exit width (4.25m) Narrow circulating lane width (5-7m) Toucan crossing (staggered) Segregated cycleway facility Priority crossing Cycle lanes Shared cycleway b) ROUNDABOUT WITH CYCLEWAYS ICD range of 25m-35m Entry and exits are perpendicular to the centre of roundabout Central island diameter range of 16-25mm Minimal flares on entries It is recommended that the cycleway should be two-way wherever possible. Red coloured blister tactile Buff coloured blister tactile Ladder tactile For transitions refer to Figure 6.8 Ladder tactile Tramline and ladder tactiles to indicate segregated cycleway Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201470 Grade Separation Junctions & Crossings Pedestrians Cycles Central delineator strip 1.4m FIGURE 7.17A : NEW BRIDGE SECTION 3.0m min two way 2.0m min one way 0.5m Clearance where practical (Refer to Table 6.3) Shared cycleway FIGURE 7.17B : EXISTING ROAD BRIDGE SECTION Existing parapets should be retained subject to safety audit and monitoring Where required, consideration should be given to reducing carriageway lane widths in order to widen the cycleway. (Refer to Table 6.2) (Refer to Table 6.2 and 6.3) Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201471 Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201472 Planning for Cycle Parking • Basic Requirements • User Requirements • Demand and Capacity Requirements Cycle Parking Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201473 Location & Access • Proximity to Destinations • Security • On-street/Off-Street Cycle Parking Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201474 Detailed Design Cycle Parking Sheffield stands 1.8m Absolute minimum clearance 0.9m 1.2m Desirable Min 1.0m Absolute Min 0.6m Desirable Min 0.5m Absolute Min 2.0m Desirable Min 1.8m Absolute Min 2.0m Desirable Min 1.8m Absolute Min 0.9m 2.5m Desirable minimum clearance 1500mm 1500mm Parallel Configuration 1500mm In Line Configuration Recommended 1500mm access aisles around three sides of units. Note: All dimensions are in millimetres 650mm 900mm typ. 1500mm 1900mm1500mm1500mm Unit height : 1400mm Door Opening : /50mm Door Arcs : 95° Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201475 Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201476 Overview • Importance of Integration • Bike and Ride • Cycle Carriage • Public Cycle Hire Public Transport Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201477 Integration • Links to Rail Stations • Parking at Stations • Buses, Coaches & Ferries • Cycle Hire Schemes Public Transport Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201478 Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201479 Overview • Sustainability • Construction within Carriageway • Construction outwith Carriageway • Lighting • Maintenance Regime Construction/Maintenance Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201480 Cycleway Construction/Maintenance Fall=2.5% Surface Course Binder Course Subbase 300x100mm Class ST 1 concrete kerb foundation and haunch 200x50mm flat-topped P.C heel kerb, laid flush FORMATION Kerb detail as required 375x150mm Class ST1 concrete kerb foundation and haunch Typical road drainage Refer to note ii Margin. (refer to note iii) Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201481 Rural Cyclepath Construction/Maintenance Minimum 60mm deep layer of DBM (14mm stone). Path to have minimum 2.5% camber on dismantled railway, fall to suit tie-ins at disused road. 2500mm Shared cyclepath Formation to be sprayed with approved non-toxic weedkiller Minimum 100mm deep sub-base of Type 1, compacted to refusal. Use additional Type 1 to blind off any exposed geotextile, and build up edge of path. Difference between level of path edge and verge to be between 40mm and 60mm. Desirable width of soft verge 500m Geotextile 3500mm 500mm Absolute minimum width of Type 1 verge to be 300mm. Desirable minimum width to be 500mm. FORMATION Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201482 Maintenance - Sweeping Construction/Maintenance Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201483 Maintenance - Cutting Construction/Maintenance Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201484 Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201485 Trunk Road Audit Process Cycle Audit Overview • Cycle Audit part of wider audit process on Trunk Roads • Road Safety Audits and Accessibility Audits also undertaken • Key Principle – Designers design, Auditors audit • Audits to advise Designers/Project Sponsor of issues for consideration • Final decisions on priorities taken by the Designer/Project Sponsor, not the Auditors • Audits need to be seen in the context of the scheme as a whole Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201486 Avoiding Imbalanced Needs Cycle Audit Overview Source: David Owen / Warrington Cycle Campaign Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201487 Audits in Scotland The objectives of Cycle Audit are as follows: • To ensure that the current and future needs of cyclists within a scheme are recognised and developed; • To ensure that the infrastructure provided for cyclists is in accordance with current best practice; and • To ensure that there are no elements of infrastructure within a scheme that will endanger or unnecessarily impede cyclists or other users. Cycle Audit Overview Key Objective – Meeting the Needs of Cyclists Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201488 Roles & Responsibilities Project Sponsor • Key responsibility: approval • Agreeing the terms of reference for the scheme • Providing appropriate background information • Approves proposed Design Team Cycle Auditor Design Team Leader • Key responsibility: facilitation. • Ensure that the objectives of the scheme are fully understood by team • Ensures audit findings process flows through to the design itself • Proposes the Design Team Cycle Auditor Design Team Cycle Auditor • Key responsibility: to set cycling objectives and audit design against them • Consults with stakeholders, analyses & gathers of background data • Available to discuss issues and advise design team – a continuous process Cycle Audit Overview Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201489 Process Overview Objective Setting and Context Report Cycle Audit in Action Preliminary Design Audit (Stage 1 Cycle Audit) Detailed Design Audit (Stage 2 Cycle Audit) Post-Construction Audit (Stage 3 Cycle Audit) Progression from Each Stage only after Project Sponsor Approval Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201490 Context Report • Undertaken before design commences • Aim: to provide designers with an understanding of cyclists’ needs • Review trip patterns • Generators/attractors • User characteristics • Opportunities and constraints • Consult with stakeholders • Define scheme objectives Cycle Audit in Action Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201491 S1 & S2 Design Audits • Undertaken at key points in design process • Aim: to check that design meets with defined objectives • Demonstrate to Project Sponsor that cyclists’ needs are being met • Check compliance with current best practice • Highlight scheme constraints where limitations may apply for consideration Cycle Audit in Action Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201492 Post Construction Audit • Undertaken once scheme in use • Aim: check the detail • Have objectives been met in practice? • How are cyclists using the scheme? • Is the route clear as expected? • Is the quality of infrastructure right? • Did anything change during construction? • Are Improvements Possible? Cycle Audit in Action Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201493 Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices Document Tour Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201494 Appendix A • Details key features of principal legislation • Roads (Scotland) Act • Road Traffic Regulation Act • Town & Country Planning (Scotland) Act • Land Reform (Scotland) Act • Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005 • Equality Act 2010 Appendices Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201495 Appendix B • General design principles on signs and markings • Sign sizes • Avoiding ambiguity and coherence • Legislation and guidance • Examples Appendices Diag No 955 Route for use by pedal cycles only Diag No 956 Route for use by pedal cycles and pedestrians only Diag No 957 Route comprising two ways, separated by the marking shown in Diag No. 1049 or 1049.1 or by physical means, for use by pedal cycles only and by pedestrians Diag No 958 With-flow bus lane ahead Diag No 958.1 With-flow cycle lane ahead Diag No 956 With-flow bus lane which pedal cycles may also use. Note: Any vehicle may enter the bus lane to stop, load or unload where this is not prohibited Diag No 959.1 With-flow cycle lane Diag No 960 Contra-flow bus lane. Note: Any vehicle may enter the bus lane to stop, load or unload where this is not prohibited. (Cycle symbol may be added below the bus symbol) Diag No 960.1 Contra-flow cycle lane Diag No 962.1 Cycle lane on road at junction ahead or cycle track crossing road Diag No 963.1 Cycle lane with traffic proceeding from right (Sign for pedestrians) Diag No 952.1 Cycle lane on road at junction ahead or cycle track crossing road Diag No 962.2 Contra-flow bus lane which pedal cycles may also use on road at junction ahead Diag No 968 Parking for pedal cycles Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • ‹#› 26/03/2014 Evolution of Cycling By Design Beyond 2010 Edition Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201497 Beyond CBD 2010 • Account will be taken of future legislation/design changes • Learning from implementation • Comments welcomed from users of the document, cycling groups and individuals • Document will evolve over time • Acknowledgement that UK research base limited • Further research may be undertaken Evolution Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • ‹#› 26/03/2014 Summary Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 26/03/201499 Summary • CBD 2010 incorporates changes to legislation, latest best practice and stakeholder comment • Document includes simpler navigation; more focus on guidance rather than policy • Clearer definitions and emphasis on cyclist needs • Cycle Audit system - an objective led approach • Complements Other Scottish Government Policy • Requirement on Trunk Roads • Commended to others • Understanding needs is key to success Cycling by Design – A User’s Guide
  • 100 Are we different from the market leaders CROW vs CBD?
  • 101 Cycling Scotland 2012 Conference Think Bike Workshop
  • 102 How to design Bicycle facilities Safety Attractiveness Directness Cohesion Comfort 5 main requirements
  • 103 Sustainable Safety Function, form and use in balance, from road safety point of view function: use of the road as intended by the road authority design: the physical design and layout properties of the infrastructure use: actual use of the infrastructure and behaviour of the road user Function of road Design of road Use of road
  • 104 Road categorization  Through roads: Long distance traffic  Distributor roads: Connects areas  Access roads: Access to properties  Urban area:  Distributor road  Access road Consequences: •Network •Routes •Sections •Junctions
  • 105 1970’s: Turning point Workshop - What changed their mind?
  • 106 Space
  • 107 Traffic lights at National Museum: 20 cars in 40 seconds > 50 cyclists in 10 seconds Time
  • 108
  • 109 How to design Network
  • 110 Single lane roundabout: Outside build-up area Priority to cars Multi lane roundabout: Junction / crossing
  • 111
  • 112 Bicycle is King
  • A81
  • TP&E 2013/14 - Initial Design (Funding) Design - Issues • Car Parking • Residential • Railway Stations • Shop - Hubs • Side Roads • Existing Design (Monoblock) • Driveways • Drainage (Cost) • White Lining (Removal) • Existing Surface
  • Review Segregation Question – What type of segregation?
  • TP&E 2013/14 - Initial Design (Funding) Review Segregation
  • What type? Segregation (Recent) 1) Ireland – Design Manual 2) London 3) Barcelona 4) Glasgow
  • Design Considerations ·Bus Corridor (3.2m) ·Development (Cala and Waitrose) ·Segregated Cycle Infrastructure ·Behaviour Change ·Local Hub Design (Kessington and Hillfoot) ·Links with existing network ·Residential Car Parking ·Junction Capacity Considered during Initial Design • Cost • Drainage • Underground Services – Water
  • Workshop Which segregation and why What would you do at the hubs? Shared Space / Segregation? What would you do at driveways?
  • 120 Route Objectives 1. Remove Physical Barrier 2. Segregated Facility 3. Quality Infrastructure – Central Station – Destination 4. Deprived Area 5. Active Travel and Route Connections
  • 121 Existing Route - Characteristics Town Centre Grid Plan Main East / West Links Origin / Destination Route set by Bridge and Station
  • 122 Workshop - On Road Design Waterloo Street One Way Street – Towards M8 3 Travelling Lanes – Bus Stops/Route North Side of Street – Horizontal Parking
  • 123 Workshop – On Road Design On Road Designs – Split into your groups and discuss the provisions including the width of cycle facility you would install on Waterloo Street:
  • 124
  • 125 Workshop Junctions and Crossings
  • 126 Workshop - Crossing Waterloo Street Side Road Entrances Pedestrians
  • The floor is open to you to question or discuss any of the topics we’ve discussed Thank You