0
Planning and
Designing for Cyclists
Peter Leslie – Senior Engineer
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this workshop, candidates will be able to:
1. Discuss current policy and guidance aiding t...
By 2020, 10% of all
journeys in
Scotland will be by
bike.

3
Loon fae Aberdeen

150km of routes designed
and installed

Numerous more
reviewed/audited
Why was I not on site for the
M77 / M74 / AWPR?
Change Behaviour

Cycle Action Plan for Scotland
Sustrans (Funding)
CSGN -...
You - What is your role
How do you look to
change behaviour In
your work

Appin – Car Park
Cycle Action Plan for Scotland
Introduction
Presentation Content
• Why Cycling by Design?
• The Evolution of Cycling by Design
• A Tour of the Document
•...
Why Cycling by Design?

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25/11/2013

Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
Trunk Road Cycling Initiative

Policy

•Trunk Road Cycling Initiative
launched November 1995
•Five Actions Detailed in Off...
CAPS

Policy

•Launched June 2010 by
Transport Minister
•Contains 17 Actions to
Promote Cycling in Scotland
• Skills Devel...
CAPS

Policy

CBD Supports several CAPS
actions, but especially:
Action 8: To promote the use of
planning policy, access
l...
Road Safety

Policy

•Cyclists recognised as having
less protection if an accident
occurs

•Accidents involving
vulnerable...
Scotland PLC

Tourism

VisitScotland figures (2003):
• Cycle tourism responsible
for 1 million trips to
Scotland (8% of al...
Scotland PLC

National Cycle Network

Tourism

Trunk Road Network

High Interaction between NCN and Trunk Road Network
16
...
Public Health

Policy

Obesity Route Map Action
Plan, March 2011:
•to deliver the Cycle Action
Plan for Scotland
•to maint...
Planning

Policy

New development must:
•be accessible by cyclists
•make best use of or add to
existing cycle networks, or...
Designing Streets

Policy
• Complements principles
• Encourages direct and
coherent routes for cyclists
• Has presumption ...
Disability Discrimination

Policy
• Cyclist facilities often shared
with pedestrians

• Gradients and crossfalls
• Dropped...
Why Cycling by Design?

Policy

Cycling by Design aims to Implement these Policies for Cyclists
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Cycling by...
Why Cycling by Barriers to Cycling
Design?

Policy

What is the principal factor that deters you from
What factors deter y...
Evolution of Cycling by Design

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25/11/2013

Cycling by Design - 2010 Edition
Background

Cycling by Design

• Cycling by Design originally
published 1999 as a
consultative draft
• Updated June 2010
•...
2010 Update Process

Cycling by Design

Technical Guidance
1999 Consultation
Comments received

Cycling by Design 1999

In...
Key Changes

Cycling by Design
• Revisit aim of the document:
technical guidance not policy

• Technical update of design ...
A Tour of The Document

‹#›

25/11/2013

Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

1. Introduction
2. Planning for Cyclists
3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & Sp...
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

1. Introduction
2. Planning for Cyclists
3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & Sp...
Planning for Cyclists

Overview
Workshop

• Cyclists’ Needs & Trip
Purposes
• Core Design Principles
• Hierarchy of Measur...
Hierarchy of Measures

31

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Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide

Planning for Cyclists
On or Off Carriageway?

32

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Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide

Planning for Cyclists
Network Planning Process

33

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Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide

Planning for Cyclists
Skill Level

Skill Level
• Novice;
• Intermediate; and
• Experienced.
Journeys completed by Cyclists

•
•
•
•
•
•

Neighbourhood
Commuting
School
Day Trips
Touring
Sports

(Based on CBD 2010)
Design Principles
• Coherence –
• Door step
• Directness –
• Time Saving
• Safety –
• Feel Safe
• Comfort –
• Surface
• At...
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

1. Introduction

2. Planning for Cyclists
3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & S...
Geometric Design

Overview
Workshop
• Cycle Design Speed
What would you use as a
design speed?
Review

• Visibility Parame...
Geometric Design

Design Speed & Visibility
Visibility Envelope

Visibility Envelope

Eye Height
2.2m max

Eye Height
2.2m...
Geometric Design

Design Speed & Visibility
Y-Distance
(Refer to Table 3.3)

Y-Distance
(Refer to Table 3.3)

Carriageway
...
Vertical & Horizontal Alignment

Geometric Design
Network hierarchy

Design parameter

Long distance/
commuter

Local acce...
Vertical Alignment - DDA

Geometric Design

Location

Gradient

General cycle facility

Desirable Maximum

3%

Absolute Ma...
Facilities for Disabled People

Rest Areas on an Off-road Route

43

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Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide

Geome...
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

1. Introduction

2. Planning for Cyclists
3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & S...
Traffic Volume & Speed

Overview

• Appropriate Carriageway
Conditions
• Traffic Management
• Traffic Calming

• Rural Sit...
Carriageway Conditions

Traffic Volume & Speed

Good Conditions: <3,000 veh/day and <35kph 85th %ile speed
46

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...
Traffic Volume & Speed

Traffic Management
Various features may be used to
create road closures:
- Extended footway
- Land...
Traffic Volume & Speed

Traffic Calming
Clearance strip of min 0.5m
width to discourage
encroachment on cycle lane

Verge ...
Rural Situations

Traffic Volume & Speed

Diag No. 619

Diag No. 816

Diag No. 620

Diag No. 954.4

Field Access

Signs an...
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

Introduction

1. Planning for Cyclists
2. Geometric Design
3. Traffic Volume & Spee...
Carriageway Space

Overview
Workshop
• Cycle Lanes
Width of Lanes?
• Kerb Segregated Cycle Lanes

Two Way verus One Way
• ...
Carriageway Space

Cycle Lanes

52

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Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
Carriageway Space

Cycle Lanes

Standard

Width (m)

Comments

Maximum Width

2.5*

Lanes of this width should be used whe...
Carriageway Space

Cycle Lanes
Diag. 1057 at regular intervals
over length of parking bays
Diag. 1040.4 hatching.
1 in 10 ...
Carriageway Space

Dealing with Bus Stops
Back of
footway

Nominal footprint of
bus shelter 4.0m x 1.05m.

Nominal 12m

Bu...
Carriageway Space

Bus Lanes
Standard

Width (m)

Optimal Width

Desirable
Minimum Width

4.6

4.25

Absolute
Minimum Widt...
Workshop 3 – Route Objectives

57
Workshop 3 – Route Objectives – 5 minutes

You are the Local Authority
Who would you design it for – Change Behaviour?
Wha...
Workshop 3 – Actual Route Objectives

1. Remove Physical Barrier
2. Segregated Facility
3. Quality Infrastructure – Centra...
Existing Route - Characteristics
Town Centre
Grid Plan
Main East / West Links
Origin / Destination
Route set by Bridge and...
Workshop 4 - On Road Design
Waterloo Street
One Way Street – Towards M8
3 Travelling Lanes – Bus Stops/Route
North Side of...
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

1. Introduction
2. Planning for Cyclists
3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & Sp...
Off-Carriageway Facilities

Overview

• Principles
• Cycleways
• Cycle Paths
• Vehicle Restricted Areas
• Access Controls
...
Off-Carriageway Facilities

When to Segregate?
1000 peds/hr/metre width (0.2 peds/m length/m width)

2m
width
50m length
5...
Off-Carriageway Facilities

Segregated Cycleways
Footpath

Segregated
Cycleway

'Start' and 'End'
tactile area

Reminder t...
Off-Carriageway Facilities

Shared Cycleways
Facility
Segregated
cycleway or
cyclepath

Width (m)

One way cycles only

Co...
Off-Carriageway Facilities

Cyclepaths

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Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
Off-Carriageway Facilities

Access Controls
Preferably two gaps

Lockable/removable
bollard for maintenance

Gap 1.2m abso...
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

1. Introduction
2. Planning for Cyclists
3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & Sp...
Junctions & Crossings

Overview

• Crossing Assessment
• At Grade Junctions &
Crossings

• Grade Separated Junctions &
Cro...
Extent of warning
contrasting colour
treatment

Junctions & Crossings

Footway

At-Grade Crossing - Urban

Diag No.950
Not...
At-Grade Crossing - Rural
Cycles
crossing
XXX yds

Cycles
crossing
XXX yds

Diag No.950 with supplementary
plate to diagra...
At-Grade Crossing - Dual

Junctions & Crossings

Variable width

Cycles
crossing
XXX yds
White Admiral™ or similar
specifi...
Junctions & Crossings

Side Road Crossings

Buff coloured blister tactile

Diag No.602

Diag No.956

Bendout

Absolute min...
Junctions & Crossings

Roundabouts
a) COMPACT ROUNDABOUT
FOR USE BY MIXED TRAFFIC
ICD range of 25m-35m

Single lane entry ...
Junctions & Crossings

Grade Separation
Pedestrians
(Refer to Table 6.2)

Cycles
(Refer to Table 6.2 and 6.3)

1.4m

Centr...
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

1. Introduction
2. Planning for Cyclists
3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & Sp...
Cycle Parking

Overview

• Planning for Cycle Parking
• Location and Access
• Detailed Design

78

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Cycling by ...
Planning for Cycle Parking

• Basic Requirements
• User Requirements
• Demand and Capacity
Requirements

79

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C...
Cycle Parking

Location & Access

• Proximity to Destinations
• Security
• On-street/Off-Street

80

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Cycling b...
Cycle Parking

Detailed Design
0.9m

2.0m Desirable Min
1.8m Absolute Min

1.8m Absolute
minimum
clearance

2.0m Desirable...
Cycling by Design 2010

Document Tour
1. Introduction
2. Planning for Cyclists

3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & Sp...
Public Transport

Overview

• Importance of Integration
• Bike and Ride
• Cycle Carriage
• Public Cycle Hire

83

25/11/20...
Public Transport

Integration

• Links to Rail Stations
• Parking at Stations
• Buses, Coaches & Ferries
• Cycle Hire Sche...
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

1. Introduction
2. Planning for Cyclists

3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & S...
Construction/Maintenance

Overview

• Sustainability
• Construction within
Carriageway

• Construction outwith
Carriageway...
Construction/Maintenance

Cycleway

Margin. (refer to note iii)
Surface Course
Kerb detail as
required

Typical road drain...
Construction/Maintenance

Rural Cyclepath

Minimum 60mm deep layer of DBM
(14mm stone). Path to have minimum
2.5% camber o...
Maintenance - Sweeping

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Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide

Construction/Maintenance
Maintenance - Cutting

90

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Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide

Construction/Maintenance
Document Tour

Cycling by Design 2010

1. Introduction

2. Planning for Cyclists
3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & S...
Trunk Road Audit Process

Cycle Audit Overview
• Cycle Audit part of wider audit
process on Trunk Roads
• Road Safety Audi...
Avoiding Imbalanced Needs

Source: David Owen / Warrington Cycle Campaign

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Cycling by Design – A User‟s Gu...
Audits in Scotland

Cycle Audit Overview

The objectives of Cycle Audit are as follows:
• To ensure that the current and f...
Roles & Responsibilities

Cycle Audit Overview

Project Sponsor
•

Key responsibility: approval

•

Agreeing the terms of ...
Process Overview

Cycle Audit in Action

Objective Setting and Context Report

Preliminary Design Audit
(Stage 1 Cycle Aud...
Context Report

Cycle Audit in Action
• Undertaken before design
commences

• Aim: to provide designers
with an understand...
S1 & S2 Design Audits
• Undertaken at key points in
design process

• Aim: to check that design
meets with defined
objecti...
Post Construction Audit

Cycle Audit in Action
• Undertaken once scheme in
use

• Aim: check the detail
• Have objectives ...
Cycling by Design 2010

Document Tour
1. Introduction

2. Planning for Cyclists
3. Geometric Design
4. Traffic Volume & Sp...
Appendix A

Appendices

• Details key features of
principal legislation
• Roads (Scotland) Act
• Road Traffic Regulation A...
Appendix B

Diag No 955
Route for use by pedal cycles only

Diag No 958
With-flow bus lane ahead

Appendices

Diag No 956
...
Evolution of Cycling By Design
Beyond 2010 Edition

‹#›

25/11/2013

Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
Beyond CBD 2010

Evolution
• Account will be taken of future
legislation/design changes

• Learning from implementation
• ...
Summary

‹#›

25/11/2013

Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
Summary
• CBD 2010 incorporates changes to legislation, latest best
practice and stakeholder comment

• Document includes ...
Are we different from the market leaders
CROW vs CBD?
107
Cycling Scotland 2012 Conference
Think Bike Workshop

108
How to design Bicycle facilities
Safety

Directness

Cohesion

5 main
requirements

Comfort

Attractiveness
109
Sustainable Safety

Function
of road

Function, form and use
in balance, from road safety
point of view

Design
of road
fu...
Road categorization
 Through roads: Long distance traffic
 Distributor roads: Connects areas
 Access roads: Access to p...
1970‟s: Turning point
Workshop - What changed their mind?

112
Space

113
Time

Traffic lights at National Museum:
20 cars in 40 seconds
> 50 cyclists in 10 seconds
114
115
How to design Network

116
Junction / crossing

Multi lane roundabout:

Single lane roundabout:

Outside build-up area
Priority to cars

117
118
Bicycle is King

119
Why monitor cycling?
 To measure impact on overarching objectives
 To measure and demonstrate trends and
progress
 To a...
 What do you monitor and why?

121
122
The Basics of Monitoring
 In essence, there are two levels:
– Strategic:
• Vision, Aim, Mission, etc.

– Specific:
• Obje...
Strategic – Vision, Aim, etc.
 What is the aspiration? What are you aiming for?
– More people on bikes…?
– More people ac...
Vision - Active Travel, Active
Scotland
“Our vision is for walking or cycling to be the
natural choice for short journeys,...
Getting More Specific – Objectives
 Objectives
– Specific, measurable steps
– What do you want to happen?
“To increase th...
Targets
 Targets
– Results to be achieved
– Mostly quantifiable
“To increase the number of children cycling to
school by ...
Targets (2)
 SMART
– Specific
– Measurable
– Achievable
– Realistic
– Time-bound
 Establish a baseline!
128
Targets (3)
 Inputs
– Resources used
• “Amount of time spent training children to cycle”

 Outputs
– Measurable activiti...
Targets (3)
 Indicators
– Help measure the target:
•
•
•
•

“number of children cycling to school”
“number of children re...
131
Targets Summary


Do:
–

Have a number of SMART targets

–

Have a plan that identifies targets and how they all link
tog...
Assessment
 What are the impacts of what we are doing and
how are we doing in each aspect?
 Use tools to help assess:
– ...
Assessment - STAG
 Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG)
– When?
• Gov‟t funding, support or approval for proposal...
Assessment - HEAT
 WHO Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT)
– When?
• To understand economic impact of health benefits
...
Assessment - SROI
 Social Return on Investment (SROI)
– When?
• Understanding social impacts of interventions

– What?
• ...
Assessment – National Assessment
 National Assessment of Cycling Policy
– When?
• Assess the policies in place in LAs to ...
Evaluation
 Comparative by nature
– past with present ( baseline data or starting
point or recall of where things were in...
Evaluation










Did we do what we planned to do? If not, why not?
What worked? Why?
What did not work? Why?
...
The Final Stage
 Doing something to act on the learning – MAKE
CHANGES!
 Without the final stage the evaluation is
usele...
Worked example…
 What is/are the vision/objectives/targets you
work towards in your organisation?
 What if vision/object...
By 2020, 10% of all
journeys in
Scotland will be by
bike.
What do you think the 10%
is now? Comments…

142
National Picture – Scotland Performs

143
National Picture – Scotland Performs
 Objectives
– Wealthier and Fairer
– Safer and Stronger
– Smarter
– Greener
– Health...
National Picture – Scotland Performs
 16 National Outcomes
– Key words for cycling...
•
•
•
•
•

“sustainable places”
“co...
National Picture – Scotland Performs
 50 National Indicators, cycling relevant?
– “Increase the proportion of journeys to...
National Picture – CAPS (2010)
 10% of journeys in Scotland by bike by 2020
 Local authorities
– CAPS Delivery Forum
– O...
Local Authority Picture
 32 different ways of doing things…

148
Local Authority Picture - Edinburgh
 Active Travel Action Plan
 “By 2030, to make Edinburgh‟s transport system one of
th...
What about data?









Scottish Household Survey
Scottish Recreation Survey
Hands Up Scotland Survey
Bikeabilit...
The Big Picture?
 Making sense of it all

151
Monitoring Cycle Use - MVA
 Review current information sources
– Desktop
– Consultation
 Make recommendations on appropr...
Monitoring Cycle Use – MVA (2)
 Consultation
– 40 stakeholders and key partners
– View on key aspects
– Awareness of rele...
Monitoring Cycle Use – MVA (3)
 Datasets and SHS
– Good potential for existing data, but not sure how
best to use it
– Ar...
Monitoring Cycle Use – MVA (4)
 Resource and budgets
– Limited and stretched resource
– Neglect of data collection and ma...
So what do you monitor?









Manual counts
Automatic counts
School travel
Cycle parking/usage
Census
Household...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
Manual counts:
 Can give a detailed picture
of cycle usage over a short
period
 Can be used to valida...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
Automatic cycle counts:
 Can give a detailed picture of
cycle usage over time
 Can be used to validat...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
Automatic cycle counts:
 Are generally more statistically reliable

 Off-road counts alone may give a...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
School travel counts:
 Can be effective and represent
an important target area
 Helps to reinforce ch...
MONITORING TOOLKIT

Travel plan surveys:
 Can be effective and represent an
important target area
 Help to reinforce the...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
Before and after monitoring:
 Should be carried out on all new
schemes
 Useful to establish precedent...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
Counts of cycle parking use:
 Can be carried out at specific
locations, such as health centres
 Can h...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
Census information:
 Measures journeys to work only
 Unparalleled accuracy of local information on
th...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
Household surveys / travel diaries:
 Useful data on attitudes (e.g. satisfaction and
perception) as we...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
Household surveys / travel diaries:
 Need high level of respondents to be
statistically reliable
 Mos...
MONITORING TOOLKIT
User surveys:
 Can provide useful data on user
attitudes, especially satisfaction
and perception
 Nee...
Worked example…
 What about the 10%?
– Who are we measuring?
– What is a „journey‟?
– How do we measure those journeys as...
169
Monitoring Cycle Use
 MVA Recommendations/findings:
– Any reporting of cycling mode share needs to
incorporate other mode...
Monitoring Cycle Use (2)
 Healthier
– HUSS, recreational trips, total trips/commuting trips,
casualty/KSI
 Greener
– Tot...
Taking Monitoring Forward
 Establishing a set of indicators to support monitoring the
10%
 But is it enough? No! So let‟...
Using Monitoring to Access Funding
 Varies depending on funding source, but cycling cuts
across many things
 Examples
– ...
Worked example…
 What types of monitoring would help you in
delivering cycling?
– Think about: partners, funding opportun...
Summary
 Strategic as well as specific
 Targets – Link to outcomes
 Ensure that you do monitor, but be clear on WHY you...
Relate this to Funding
Who are the funders for cycle projects at present?
Funders
Government / Transport Scotland
Sustrans
Leader
Awards for All
Local Authorities
For further information review Sp...
How much do they each
contribute?
The government through Transport Scotland / Sustrans
are still the predominate funder fo...
Sustrans – Community Links
Yesterday I provided information from my own projects
how monitoring has allowed me to provide ...
Sustrans – Community Links
Project Summary
Show Origin and Destinations
Places of Interest
Design – Use their manuals
Sustrans – Community Links
Project Endorsement
Community Council
Primary School
Sports Clubs
Sustrans – Community Links
Match Funding
RTPS
Other Council Projects
Community Funding
Celebrities
Sustrans – Community Links
Aims and Benefits
Using existing counts (nearby data)
Hands Up Survey
But how to turn them arou...
Sustrans – Community Links
Aims and Benefits
Using existing counts (nearby data)
Hands Up Survey
But how to turn them arou...
Stop Moaning
Justify a larger spend?
STAG – Project for a Bypass

We need to prove projects using the data which is of a
b...
Sustrans – Community Links
School Links
Bikeability
Transport Hubs
Get the providers to endorse the project
Council Depart...
Sustrans – Community Links
Community Engagement
Opportunities to see the project and participate
Equal Input / Influence
Sustrans – Community Links
Monitoring
Discussed this at length yesterday

I maintain get a counter in your bid
Sustrans – Community Links
Deliver and Phasing
Make sure the title includes Phase 1 – Prove you have
further projects.
Funders
Other Funders
Leader
CSGN
Active Places – 2014
Awards for All
Local Authority - CWSS
Summary
Taken you through funding application
So what are the next steps for you and Cycling
Scotland?
Thank You
The floor is open to you to question or
discuss any of the topics we’ve discussed
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Transcript of "2013 11-11 Planning and Designing for Cyclists"

  1. 1. Planning and Designing for Cyclists Peter Leslie – Senior Engineer
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes By the end of this workshop, candidates will be able to: 1. Discuss current policy and guidance aiding the delivery of cycle infrastructure in Scotland. 2. Identify design principles for planning and designing for cyclists. 3. Explain the basic principles of retrofitting cycle route design into existing infrastructure.
  3. 3. By 2020, 10% of all journeys in Scotland will be by bike. 3
  4. 4. Loon fae Aberdeen 150km of routes designed and installed Numerous more reviewed/audited
  5. 5. Why was I not on site for the M77 / M74 / AWPR? Change Behaviour Cycle Action Plan for Scotland Sustrans (Funding) CSGN - Planning
  6. 6. You - What is your role How do you look to change behaviour In your work Appin – Car Park
  7. 7. Cycle Action Plan for Scotland
  8. 8. Introduction Presentation Content • Why Cycling by Design? • The Evolution of Cycling by Design • A Tour of the Document • The Cycle Audit Process • Summary 9 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  9. 9. Why Cycling by Design? ‹#› 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  10. 10. Trunk Road Cycling Initiative Policy •Trunk Road Cycling Initiative launched November 1995 •Five Actions Detailed in Office Instruction 3/96 • Trunk Road/NCN Development • Co-operation with Sustrans • Redetermination of footways • A74(M) Cycleway • Consideration of cyclists in all new schemes Led to the Creation of Cycling by Design 1999 11 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  11. 11. CAPS Policy •Launched June 2010 by Transport Minister •Contains 17 Actions to Promote Cycling in Scotland • Skills Development • The Network • Delivery •Multi-agency Approach Vision: By 2020, 10% of All Journeys Taken in Scotland by Bike 12 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  12. 12. CAPS Policy CBD Supports several CAPS actions, but especially: Action 8: To promote the use of planning policy, access legislation and design guidance to a wide range of professionals; and to promote the outcomes of access legislation in the form of leisure activities. Outcome 8: More well designed, accessible cycling facilities across Scotland CBD is the Design Guidance outlined in CAPS 13 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  13. 13. Road Safety Policy •Cyclists recognised as having less protection if an accident occurs •Accidents involving vulnerable users including cyclists one of four main accident types •Action 11: “…improve cycling provision with cycle friendly design” 14 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  14. 14. Scotland PLC Tourism VisitScotland figures (2003): • Cycle tourism responsible for 1 million trips to Scotland (8% of all visitors) • Revenue from cycle tourism: £219 Million • 50% increase in cycle tourism by 2015 • Scotland is a world leader in mountain biking • Sustrans National Cycle Network 15 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  15. 15. Scotland PLC National Cycle Network Tourism Trunk Road Network High Interaction between NCN and Trunk Road Network 16 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  16. 16. Public Health Policy Obesity Route Map Action Plan, March 2011: •to deliver the Cycle Action Plan for Scotland •to maintain and extend the National Cycle Network •ensuring development plans take into account walking and cycling 17 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  17. 17. Planning Policy New development must: •be accessible by cyclists •make best use of or add to existing cycle networks, or create new networks •prioritise walking and cycling above motorised modes Important for Development Management 18 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  18. 18. Designing Streets Policy • Complements principles • Encourages direct and coherent routes for cyclists • Has presumption in favour of cyclists at access controls • Promotes permeability • Recognises at low volume/low speed dedicated facilities may not be required • CBD intended for wider area application, not just residential streets CBD Compliments Designing Streets 19 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  19. 19. Disability Discrimination Policy • Cyclist facilities often shared with pedestrians • Gradients and crossfalls • Dropped kerbs and crossing points • Wheelchair and mobility scooter users • Visually impaired users CBD Guidance has Access for Disabled People Built In 20 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  20. 20. Why Cycling by Design? Policy Cycling by Design aims to Implement these Policies for Cyclists 21 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design - 2010 Edition
  21. 21. Why Cycling by Barriers to Cycling Design? Policy What is the principal factor that deters you from What factors deter you from cycling / cycling more often? cycling/ cycling more often? 50 Barriers to Cycling 40 What factors deter you from cycling / cycling more ofte 50 30 % 40 29 30 % 26 20 29 26 20 10 7 6 6 Not enough road space Lack of good routes No access to bike 10 10 0 Danger from traffic 10 7 6 6 Not enough road space Lack of good routes No access to bike 10 12 10 0 Danger from traffic Journey Weather Too time too physical long Other Infrastructure Related Issues - 49% of Responses Good Quality Design an Imperative! 22 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Journey Weather Too time too physic long
  22. 22. Evolution of Cycling by Design ‹#› 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design - 2010 Edition
  23. 23. Background Cycling by Design • Cycling by Design originally published 1999 as a consultative draft • Updated June 2010 • Contains information on cyclists’ needs, network planning, geometric standards and cycle audit • Consideration mandatory on the Trunk Road network • Commended for use by local authorities and others 24 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  24. 24. 2010 Update Process Cycling by Design Technical Guidance 1999 Consultation Comments received Cycling by Design 1999 Independent Review Fife Council City of Edinburgh Council Glasgow City Council Forestry Commission Sustrans 25 25/11/2013 UK Cycle Design Guidance (DfT, TfL, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire, SESTRANS, Edinburgh) UK Roads Design Guidance (DMRB, Transport Scotland) European Cycle Design Guidance (CROW, Malmo, Copenhagen, Danish Cycle Parking) Cycling by Design 2010 Disability Discrimination Act Transport Scotland’s Good Practice Guide for Roads Good Practice Design Examples Technical Expertise Cycle Designers, Roads Designers, Accessibility experts, Economists, Planners, Environmental Consultants, Maintenance experts, Road Safety Auditors East Renfrewshire Clackmannanshire City of Edinburgh Fife Dumfries & Galloway Argyll & Bute Highland Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  25. 25. Key Changes Cycling by Design • Revisit aim of the document: technical guidance not policy • Technical update of design guidance • Incorporate Scottish good practice • Improve navigation • New definitions of terminology • Clear definition of minimum widths • Rationalisation of design speeds • Taking the pragmatic view 26 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  26. 26. A Tour of The Document ‹#› 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  27. 27. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 28 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  28. 28. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 29 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  29. 29. Planning for Cyclists Overview Workshop • Cyclists’ Needs & Trip Purposes • Core Design Principles • Hierarchy of Measures Review • Link Specification Guide • Network Planning Process 30 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  30. 30. Hierarchy of Measures 31 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Planning for Cyclists
  31. 31. On or Off Carriageway? 32 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Planning for Cyclists
  32. 32. Network Planning Process 33 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Planning for Cyclists
  33. 33. Skill Level Skill Level • Novice; • Intermediate; and • Experienced.
  34. 34. Journeys completed by Cyclists • • • • • • Neighbourhood Commuting School Day Trips Touring Sports (Based on CBD 2010)
  35. 35. Design Principles • Coherence – • Door step • Directness – • Time Saving • Safety – • Feel Safe • Comfort – • Surface • Attractiveness – • Fit Surroundings
  36. 36. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 37 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  37. 37. Geometric Design Overview Workshop • Cycle Design Speed What would you use as a design speed? Review • Visibility Parameters • Alignment 38 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  38. 38. Geometric Design Design Speed & Visibility Visibility Envelope Visibility Envelope Eye Height 2.2m max Eye Height 2.2m max 1.0m (min) 1.0m (min) Eye Height 2.2m max 1.0m (min) 2.2m Stopping Sight Distance Dynamic Sight Distance Stopping Sight Distance Dynamic Sight Distance Network hierarchy Design parameter Long distance/ commuter Design Speed (kph) Minimum Dynamic Sight Distance (DSD) (m) Minimum Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) (m) 39 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Local access 30 20 65 45 35 25
  39. 39. Geometric Design Design Speed & Visibility Y-Distance (Refer to Table 3.3) Y-Distance (Refer to Table 3.3) Carriageway Visibility Envelope X-Distance (Refer to Table 3.2) Cycle Route Junction/Crossing Visibility Splay ‘X’ distance (m) Control and Comments 4.0m Cycle route approach to a road – Desirable Minimum 2.0m Cycle route approach to a road – Absolute Minimum 1.0m „Jug handle‟ crossing* – Absolute Minimum 85th Percentile speed of main road vehicles (kph) 120 100 85 70 60 50 30 Y-Distance (m) * 295 215 160 120 90 70 35 Also Reduced Values for Cycle/Pedestrian Networks in CBD 40 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  40. 40. Vertical & Horizontal Alignment Geometric Design Network hierarchy Design parameter Long distance/ commuter Local access Design Speed (kph) 30 20 Minimum Dynamic Sight Distance (DSD) (m) 65 45 Minimum Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) (m) 35 25 Horizontal alignment Desirable Minimum Radius (m) 25 15 Minimum Bellmouth Radius at junctions (m) 4.0 4.0 Desirable Minimum Crest (k) 14.1 6.8 Absolute Minimum Crest (k) 5.3 1.3 Vertical alignment Sag values are not likely to be a controlling factor at cycle speeds and are, therefore, not specified. Gradient 41 25/11/2013 3% 3% Absolute Maximum* Crossfall Desirable Maximum 7% 7% Absolute Maximum 2.5% 2.5% Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  41. 41. Vertical Alignment - DDA Geometric Design Location Gradient General cycle facility Desirable Maximum 3% Absolute Maximum 5% 7% On the immediate approach to priority junctions Absolute Maximum 3% On the approach ramp to a bridge or subway (7% also requires speed controls) Desirable Maximum 3% Absolute Maximum 5% 7% *DDA Implication – Gradients Above 5% are Considered a Ramp 42 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Over 5m* Over 10m* Over 5m* Over 10m*
  42. 42. Facilities for Disabled People Rest Areas on an Off-road Route 43 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Geometric Design Rest Areas on a Bridge Structure
  43. 43. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 44 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  44. 44. Traffic Volume & Speed Overview • Appropriate Carriageway Conditions • Traffic Management • Traffic Calming • Rural Situations 45 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  45. 45. Carriageway Conditions Traffic Volume & Speed Good Conditions: <3,000 veh/day and <35kph 85th %ile speed 46 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  46. 46. Traffic Volume & Speed Traffic Management Various features may be used to create road closures: - Extended footway - Landscape planters/tree planting - Permanent and lockable bollards - Emergency gates Bollards Two way road Build-out may be provided to prevent parked cars obstructing cyclists. 1.5m Desirable Minimum 1.2m Absolute Minimum 1.5m Desirable Minimum 1.2m Absolute Minimum Diag No.955 Diag No.616 Minor Road Closure Bollards Build-out may be provided to prevent gap being obstructed by parked cars. Bollards 1.5m Desirable Minimum 1.2m Absolute Minimum Diag No.616 Diag No.955 False One-way Street Presumption Cyclists Exempt from Access Restrictions & One Way Streets 47 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  47. 47. Traffic Volume & Speed Traffic Calming Clearance strip of min 0.5m width to discourage encroachment on cycle lane Verge marker posts Cycle Lane 3.0m 1.5m desirable min 1.2m absolute min Crossing point where appropriate Verge marker post Verge marker post 1.5m desirable min 1.2m absolute min Cycle Lane Verge marker posts Segregation kerb of min 0.5m width to prevent vehicles encroaching on cycle lane. Central Island Pinch Point Verge marker posts W A Verge marker posts Chicane Desirable Min 1.5m, Absolute Min 1.2m – But don’t forget the Gullies! 48 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  48. 48. Rural Situations Traffic Volume & Speed Diag No. 619 Diag No. 816 Diag No. 620 Diag No. 954.4 Field Access Signs and combinations of signs to be used for restricted access to roads. Further options include: - Weight/width restrictions - "unfit for Motor Traffic" sign - "Road Closed...Miles Ahead" sign - "Gated Road" sign Road closure or gate. Gate can be left locked or unlocked. Typical Restricted Access Plan 1.2m min 1.5m preferred max. Optional cattle grid Typical Gated Road Closure 49 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  49. 49. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 Introduction 1. Planning for Cyclists 2. Geometric Design 3. Traffic Volume & Speed 4. Allocating Carriageway Space 5. Off-Carriageway Facilities 6. Junctions & Crossings 7. Cycle Parking 8. Public Transport Integration 9. Construction & Maintenance 10.Cycle Audit System Appendices 50 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  50. 50. Carriageway Space Overview Workshop • Cycle Lanes Width of Lanes? • Kerb Segregated Cycle Lanes Two Way verus One Way • Bus Lanes Width? • Cycle Lanes at Bus Stops Design out the issue 51 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  51. 51. Carriageway Space Cycle Lanes 52 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  52. 52. Carriageway Space Cycle Lanes Standard Width (m) Comments Maximum Width 2.5* Lanes of this width should be used where cycle flows are expected to be >150 cycles/ peak hour and therefore cycles overtaking within the lane can be expected. Desirable Minimum Width 2.0* The minimum width that should be considered for a cycle lane with width for cyclists to pass each other. Absolute Minimum Width 1.5** The running width of the lane should be free from obstructions such as debris and unsafe gullies. * Cycle lanes over 2.0m wide in areas of car parking may attract drivers to park in them. Physical barriers, mandatory lane markings or parking and loading restrictions can prevent this. ** Lane widths narrower than 1.5m can present a hazard to cyclists and motor vehicle drivers. Only in exceptional circumstances should widths down to 1.0m be considered where it is safe to do so – for example where stationary traffic blocks the route to an advance stop line and the proposed lane is safe from obstructions such as gullies. Similar Tables also Provided for Contraflow and Kerbed Cycle Lanes 53 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  53. 53. Carriageway Space Cycle Lanes Diag. 1057 at regular intervals over length of parking bays Diag. 1040.4 hatching. 1 in 10 taper Diag. 1004 Coloured surfacing Footway Parking bays Refer to Table 5.3 Refer to Table 5.2 Parking bays Diag 1024 (1600 high) Footway Standard Desirable Minimum Absolute Minimum Width (m) Comments 1.0* Ensures that a cyclist does not need to deviate if a car door is opened fully. 0.5 Will require a cyclist to deviate within the cycle lane if a car door is opened. The cycle lane width in this case should be at least 1.5m, otherwise the cyclist will need to leave the cycle lane to avoid collision. * Where required, a clearance strip of 1.5m will permit access for disabled people, without affecting cyclists using an adjacent lane. 54 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  54. 54. Carriageway Space Dealing with Bus Stops Back of footway Nominal footprint of bus shelter 4.0m x 1.05m. Nominal 12m Bus Layby Mandatory cycle lane Mandatory cycle lane Advisory cycle lane Tactile Paving & Drop kerbs 2m desirable min (1.5m absolute min) Tactile Paving & Drop kerbs Kerb-face inlet gullies Footway Refer to Table 5.2 Mandatory cycle lane Mandatory cycle lane Nominal footprint of bus shelter 4.0m x 1.05m Nominal footprint of bus shelter 4.0m x 1.05m. Kerb face inlet gullies Back of footway ramp 3.6m ramp 1.8m ramp 1.8m 0.5m Mandatory cycle lane ramp 3.6m 0.5m Refer to Table 5.2 Access kerb & transitions Nominal 7.6m Mandatory cycle lane Guidance on On/Off-Street Transitions also Given 55 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  55. 55. Carriageway Space Bus Lanes Standard Width (m) Optimal Width Desirable Minimum Width 4.6 4.25 Absolute Minimum Width Limiting Width 4.0 3.0 – 3.2 Comments* This width allows a bus to pass a cyclist within the bus lane. A 1.5m wide advisory cycle lane may be provided within the bus lane if considered desirable. Although a bus is still able to pass a cyclist within the bus lane, safe passing width is affected and this width of lane should only be provided over short distances. A 1.2m wide advisory cycle lane may be provided within the bus lane if desirable. An Absolute Minimum width of 4.0m allows cyclists to pass stopped buses within the bus lane but may encourage unsafe overtaking of cyclists by buses, particularly where the adjacent traffic lane has queuing traffic. The width of the bus lane to prevent overtaking within the lane itself. A bus will be required to straddle adjacent lanes to pass a cyclist, thereby encouraging safe overtaking. Lane Widths between 3.2m and 4m Should be Avoided 56 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  56. 56. Workshop 3 – Route Objectives 57
  57. 57. Workshop 3 – Route Objectives – 5 minutes You are the Local Authority Who would you design it for – Change Behaviour? What would be your 3 main objectives of the project? 58
  58. 58. Workshop 3 – Actual Route Objectives 1. Remove Physical Barrier 2. Segregated Facility 3. Quality Infrastructure – Central Station – Destination 4. Deprived Area 5. Active Travel and Route Connections 59
  59. 59. Existing Route - Characteristics Town Centre Grid Plan Main East / West Links Origin / Destination Route set by Bridge and Station 60
  60. 60. Workshop 4 - On Road Design Waterloo Street One Way Street – Towards M8 3 Travelling Lanes – Bus Stops/Route North Side of Street – Horizontal Parking 61
  61. 61. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 62 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  62. 62. Off-Carriageway Facilities Overview • Principles • Cycleways • Cycle Paths • Vehicle Restricted Areas • Access Controls 63 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  63. 63. Off-Carriageway Facilities When to Segregate? 1000 peds/hr/metre width (0.2 peds/m length/m width) 2m width 50m length 500 peds/hr/metre width (0.1 peds/m length/m width) 2m width 50m length 300 peds/hr/metre width (0.06 peds/m length/m width) 2m width 50m length 200 peds/hr/metre width (0.04 peds/m length/m width) 2m width 50m length 100 peds/hr/metre width (0.02 peds/m length/m width) 2m width 50m length Based on a walking pace of 5km / hr Combined density (users/hr/m)* < 100 Shared use is usually appropriate (cycles give way). 101 – 199 > 200 64 25/11/2013 Recommended arrangement Segregation may be considered. Segregation should be considered. Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  64. 64. Off-Carriageway Facilities Segregated Cycleways Footpath Segregated Cycleway 'Start' and 'End' tactile area Reminder tactile area 2.4m Carriageway Shared Cyclepath 2.4m 0.8m 0.8m 2.4m Segregated Cyclepath 2.4m Ladder tactile Tramline tactile Max 50mm vertical kerb Pedestrians Only SEGREGATED BY KERB Cycles Only Cycles Only Pedestrians Only Pedestrians Only 65 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide 1.0m Verge SEGREGATED BY CENTRAL DELINEATOR STRIP (NOTE 2) Cycles Only SEGREGATED BY VERGE
  65. 65. Off-Carriageway Facilities Shared Cycleways Facility Segregated cycleway or cyclepath Width (m) One way cycles only Comments * ** The running width required that is free from obstructions such as debris, gullies, line markings and street furniture. Desirable Minimum 3.0 Operates satisfactorily for two-way flows up to 300 cycles per hour. 2.0* Operates satisfactorily for two-way flows of up to 200 cycles per hour free from obstructions such as debris, surface gullies, line markings and street furniture. Desirable Minimum 2.0 The minimum width in normal circumstances to permit unobstructed passage by opposing wheelchairs. 1.5 Acceptable over short distances in specifically constrained environments, such as at bus stops or where obstacles are unavoidable (Transport Scotland 2009). Desirable Minimum 3.0 Typically regarded as the minimum acceptable for combined flows of up to 300 per hour. Absolute Minimum Pedestrian and cycle space 1.5 Absolute Minimum Shared cycleway or cyclepath Operates satisfactorily for one-way flows of up to 150 cycles per hour with minimal overtaking anticipated. Absolute Minimum Pedestrian only space 2.0 Absolute Minimum Two way cycles only Desirable Minimum 2.0** Can operate for combined flows of up to 200 per hour but will require cycles and pedestrians to frequently take evasive action to pass each other. Widths as low as 1.5m may be acceptable over short distances where there is no alternative. In particularly constrained situations or for combined flows of less than 100 per hour, a width of 1.5m may be considered over short distances where no alternative is available. Guidance also Provided for Clearances to Fixed Objects 66 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  66. 66. Off-Carriageway Facilities Cyclepaths 67 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  67. 67. Off-Carriageway Facilities Access Controls Preferably two gaps Lockable/removable bollard for maintenance Gap 1.2m absolute min 1.5m Preferred max 3.0m desirable min 2.0m desirable min 1.5m absolute min Note: Rider meets barrier on left hand side first 68 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  68. 68. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 69 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  69. 69. Junctions & Crossings Overview • Crossing Assessment • At Grade Junctions & Crossings • Grade Separated Junctions & Crossings 70 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  70. 70. Extent of warning contrasting colour treatment Junctions & Crossings Footway At-Grade Crossing - Urban Diag No.950 Note: Distance plate Diag No.572 may be applied. Reflective bollards Min 10m Build-out Diag No.956 Cyclepath Cyclepath Coloured surface preferred Diag No.956 Footway Buff coloured blister tactile Diag No.950 Dimensions for Central Islands also Provided 71 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  71. 71. At-Grade Crossing - Rural Cycles crossing XXX yds Cycles crossing XXX yds Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 Edge of carriageway marking Verge Admiral™ or similar specification bollards Chicane Refer to Note 1 Diag No.1012.1 (width of line 150mm) 55m 10m Diag No.956 2.5m absolute minimum 5.75m min Buff coloured blister tactile Diag No.956 Verge High Friction Surfacing (black calcined bauxite) should only be used on roads with speed limits > 40mph Rumble strips (15mm height, vertical face not to exceed 6mm) Cycles crossing XXX yds Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 72 25/11/2013 Cycles crossing XXX yds Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Junctions & Crossings
  72. 72. At-Grade Crossing - Dual Junctions & Crossings Variable width Cycles crossing XXX yds White Admiral™ or similar specification bollards 3.0m min Diag No.956 Buff coloured blister tactile 10m desirable minimum Chicane Refer to Note 1 Min 10.0m Extent of warning contrasting colour treatment 2.5m absolute min. Min 5.0m Verge Diag No.956 Cycles crossing XXX yds 73 Diag No.950 with supplementary plate to diagram No. 950.1 25/11/2013 Drop kerb at crossing point to be flush with carriageway. Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  73. 73. Junctions & Crossings Side Road Crossings Buff coloured blister tactile Diag No.602 Diag No.956 Bendout Absolute min 2.5m (Refer to note 1) Diag No.956 Restrict on-street parking to ensure visibility Diag No.950 Note: Distance plate Diag No.572 may be applied. 74 Diag 610 Illuminated Bollard 25/11/2013 3.0m desirable minimum (Refer to note 2) Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  74. 74. Junctions & Crossings Roundabouts a) COMPACT ROUNDABOUT FOR USE BY MIXED TRAFFIC ICD range of 25m-35m Single lane entry and exit width (4.25m) Minimal flares on entries Narrow circulating lane width (5-7m) Central overrun area may be provided Red coloured blister tactile Entry and exits are perpendicular to the centre of roundabout Central island diameter range of 16-25mm Ladder tactile Toucan crossing (staggered) Tramline and ladder tactiles to indicate segregated cycleway Segregated cycleway facility Shared cycleway Buff coloured blister tactile Priority crossing Ladder tactile For transitions refer to Figure 6.8 75 25/11/2013 It is recommended that the cycleway should be two-way wherever possible. Cycle lanes b) ROUNDABOUT WITH CYCLEWAYS Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  75. 75. Junctions & Crossings Grade Separation Pedestrians (Refer to Table 6.2) Cycles (Refer to Table 6.2 and 6.3) 1.4m Central delineator strip FIGURE 7.17A : NEW BRIDGE SECTION Existing parapets should be retained subject to safety audit and monitoring 2.0m min one way 3.0m min two way 0.5m Clearance where practical (Refer to Table 6.3) Shared cycleway Where required, consideration should be given to reducing carriageway lane widths in order to widen the cycleway. FIGURE 7.17B : EXISTING ROAD BRIDGE SECTION 76 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  76. 76. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 77 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  77. 77. Cycle Parking Overview • Planning for Cycle Parking • Location and Access • Detailed Design 78 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  78. 78. Planning for Cycle Parking • Basic Requirements • User Requirements • Demand and Capacity Requirements 79 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Cycle Parking
  79. 79. Cycle Parking Location & Access • Proximity to Destinations • Security • On-street/Off-Street 80 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  80. 80. Cycle Parking Detailed Design 0.9m 2.0m Desirable Min 1.8m Absolute Min 1.8m Absolute minimum clearance 2.0m Desirable Min 1.8m Absolute Min 1.2m Desirable Min 1.0m Absolute Min Sheffield stands 0.6m Desirable Min 0.5m Absolute Min 2.5m Desirable minimum clearance 1500mm 0.9m 1500mm 1500mm In Line Configuration 1500mm 1500mm Parallel Configuration 1900mm Unit height : 1400mm Door Opening : /50mm Door Arcs : 95° 650mm Recommended 1500mm access aisles around three sides of units. 81 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Note: All dimensions are in millimetres 900mm typ. 1500mm
  81. 81. Cycling by Design 2010 Document Tour 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 82 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  82. 82. Public Transport Overview • Importance of Integration • Bike and Ride • Cycle Carriage • Public Cycle Hire 83 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  83. 83. Public Transport Integration • Links to Rail Stations • Parking at Stations • Buses, Coaches & Ferries • Cycle Hire Schemes 84 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  84. 84. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 85 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  85. 85. Construction/Maintenance Overview • Sustainability • Construction within Carriageway • Construction outwith Carriageway • Lighting • Maintenance Regime 86 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  86. 86. Construction/Maintenance Cycleway Margin. (refer to note iii) Surface Course Kerb detail as required Typical road drainage Refer to note ii 375x150mm Class ST1 concrete kerb foundation and haunch Binder Course Subbase Fall=2.5% FORMATION 200x50mm flat-topped P.C heel kerb, laid flush 300x100mm Class ST 1 concrete kerb foundation and haunch 87 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  87. 87. Construction/Maintenance Rural Cyclepath Minimum 60mm deep layer of DBM (14mm stone). Path to have minimum 2.5% camber on dismantled railway, fall to suit tie-ins at disused road. Formation to be sprayed with approved non-toxic weedkiller Minimum 100mm deep sub-base of Type 1, compacted to refusal. Desirable width of soft verge 500m Geotextile FORMATION 2500mm Shared cyclepath 3500mm Absolute minimum width of Type 1 verge to be 300mm. Desirable minimum width to be 500mm. 88 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Use additional Type 1 to blind off any exposed geotextile, and build up edge of path. Difference between level of path edge and verge to be between 40mm and 60mm. 500mm
  88. 88. Maintenance - Sweeping 89 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Construction/Maintenance
  89. 89. Maintenance - Cutting 90 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Construction/Maintenance
  90. 90. Document Tour Cycling by Design 2010 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 91 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  91. 91. Trunk Road Audit Process Cycle Audit Overview • Cycle Audit part of wider audit process on Trunk Roads • Road Safety Audits and Accessibility Audits also undertaken • Key Principle – Designers design, Auditors audit • Audits to advise Designers/Project Sponsor of issues for consideration • Final decisions on priorities taken by the Designer/Project Sponsor, not the Auditors • Audits need to be seen in the context of the scheme as a whole 92 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  92. 92. Avoiding Imbalanced Needs Source: David Owen / Warrington Cycle Campaign 93 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Cycle Audit Overview
  93. 93. Audits in Scotland Cycle Audit Overview The objectives of Cycle Audit are as follows: • To ensure that the current and future needs of cyclists within a scheme are recognised and developed; • To ensure that the infrastructure provided for cyclists is in accordance with current best practice; and • To ensure that there are no elements of infrastructure within a scheme that will endanger or unnecessarily impede cyclists or other users. Key Objective – Meeting the Needs of Cyclists 94 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  94. 94. Roles & Responsibilities Cycle Audit Overview Project Sponsor • Key responsibility: approval • Agreeing the terms of reference for the scheme • Providing appropriate background information • Approves proposed Design Team Cycle Auditor Design Team Leader • Key responsibility: facilitation. • Ensure that the objectives of the scheme are fully understood by team • Ensures audit findings process flows through to the design itself • Proposes the Design Team Cycle Auditor Design Team Cycle Auditor • Key responsibility: to set cycling objectives and audit design against them • Consults with stakeholders, analyses & gathers of background data • Available to discuss issues and advise design team – a continuous process 95 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  95. 95. Process Overview Cycle Audit in Action Objective Setting and Context Report Preliminary Design Audit (Stage 1 Cycle Audit) Detailed Design Audit (Stage 2 Cycle Audit) Post-Construction Audit (Stage 3 Cycle Audit) Progression from Each Stage only after Project Sponsor Approval 96 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  96. 96. Context Report Cycle Audit in Action • Undertaken before design commences • Aim: to provide designers with an understanding of cyclists’ needs • Review trip patterns • Generators/attractors • User characteristics • Opportunities and constraints • Consult with stakeholders • Define scheme objectives 97 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  97. 97. S1 & S2 Design Audits • Undertaken at key points in design process • Aim: to check that design meets with defined objectives • Demonstrate to Project Sponsor that cyclists’ needs are being met • Check compliance with current best practice • Highlight scheme constraints where limitations may apply for consideration 98 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide Cycle Audit in Action
  98. 98. Post Construction Audit Cycle Audit in Action • Undertaken once scheme in use • Aim: check the detail • Have objectives been met in practice? • How are cyclists using the scheme? • Is the route clear as expected? • Is the quality of infrastructure right? • Did anything change during construction? • Are Improvements Possible? 99 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  99. 99. Cycling by Design 2010 Document Tour 1. Introduction 2. Planning for Cyclists 3. Geometric Design 4. Traffic Volume & Speed 5. Allocating Carriageway Space 6. Off-Carriageway Facilities 7. Junctions & Crossings 8. Cycle Parking 9. Public Transport Integration 10.Construction & Maintenance 11.Cycle Audit System Appendices 100 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  100. 100. Appendix A Appendices • Details key features of principal legislation • Roads (Scotland) Act • Road Traffic Regulation Act • Town & Country Planning (Scotland) Act • Land Reform (Scotland) Act • Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2005 • Equality Act 2010 101 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  101. 101. Appendix B Diag No 955 Route for use by pedal cycles only Diag No 958 With-flow bus lane ahead Appendices Diag No 956 Route for use by pedal cycles and pedestrians only Diag No 957 Route comprising two ways, separated by the marking shown in Diag No. 1049 or 1049.1 or by physical means, for use by pedal cycles only and by pedestrians Diag No 956 With-flow bus lane which pedal cycles may also use. Note: Any vehicle may enter the bus lane to stop, load or unload where this is not prohibited Diag No 958.1 With-flow cycle lane ahead • General design principles on signs and markings • Sign sizes • Avoiding ambiguity and coherence Diag No 959.1 With-flow cycle lane Diag No 960 Contra-flow bus lane. Note: Any vehicle may enter the bus lane to stop, load or unload where this is not prohibited. (Cycle symbol may be added below the bus symbol) Diag No 960.1 Contra-flow cycle lane • Legislation and guidance • Examples Diag No 962.1 Cycle lane on road at junction ahead or cycle track crossing road Diag No 963.1 Cycle lane with traffic proceeding from right (Sign for pedestrians) Diag No 962.2 Contra-flow bus lane which pedal cycles may also use on road at junction ahead 102 25/11/2013 Diag No 952.1 Cycle lane on road at junction ahead or cycle track crossing road Diag No 968 Parking for pedal cycles Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  102. 102. Evolution of Cycling By Design Beyond 2010 Edition ‹#› 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  103. 103. Beyond CBD 2010 Evolution • Account will be taken of future legislation/design changes • Learning from implementation • Comments welcomed from users of the document, cycling groups and individuals • Document will evolve over time • Acknowledgement that UK research base limited • Further research may be undertaken 104 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  104. 104. Summary ‹#› 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  105. 105. Summary • CBD 2010 incorporates changes to legislation, latest best practice and stakeholder comment • Document includes simpler navigation; more focus on guidance rather than policy • Clearer definitions and emphasis on cyclist needs • Cycle Audit system - an objective led approach • Complements Other Scottish Government Policy • Requirement on Trunk Roads • Commended to others • Understanding needs is key to success 106 25/11/2013 Cycling by Design – A User‟s Guide
  106. 106. Are we different from the market leaders CROW vs CBD? 107
  107. 107. Cycling Scotland 2012 Conference Think Bike Workshop 108
  108. 108. How to design Bicycle facilities Safety Directness Cohesion 5 main requirements Comfort Attractiveness 109
  109. 109. Sustainable Safety Function of road Function, form and use in balance, from road safety point of view Design of road function: design: use: Use of road use of the road as intended by the road authority the physical design and layout properties of the infrastructure actual use of the infrastructure and behaviour of the road user 110
  110. 110. Road categorization  Through roads: Long distance traffic  Distributor roads: Connects areas  Access roads: Access to properties  Urban area:  Distributor road  Access road Consequences: •Network •Routes •Sections •Junctions 111
  111. 111. 1970‟s: Turning point Workshop - What changed their mind? 112
  112. 112. Space 113
  113. 113. Time Traffic lights at National Museum: 20 cars in 40 seconds > 50 cyclists in 10 seconds 114
  114. 114. 115
  115. 115. How to design Network 116
  116. 116. Junction / crossing Multi lane roundabout: Single lane roundabout: Outside build-up area Priority to cars 117
  117. 117. 118
  118. 118. Bicycle is King 119
  119. 119. Why monitor cycling?  To measure impact on overarching objectives  To measure and demonstrate trends and progress  To account for the use of funds at local and regional level  To demonstrate links with other projects/departments 120
  120. 120.  What do you monitor and why? 121
  121. 121. 122
  122. 122. The Basics of Monitoring  In essence, there are two levels: – Strategic: • Vision, Aim, Mission, etc. – Specific: • Objectives, Targets, Goals, etc. 123
  123. 123. Strategic – Vision, Aim, etc.  What is the aspiration? What are you aiming for? – More people on bikes…? – More people active…? 124
  124. 124. Vision - Active Travel, Active Scotland “Our vision is for walking or cycling to be the natural choice for short journeys, creating a healthier, socially inclusive, economically vibrant, environmentally friendly Scotland.” 125
  125. 125. Getting More Specific – Objectives  Objectives – Specific, measurable steps – What do you want to happen? “To increase the number of children cycling to school” 126
  126. 126. Targets  Targets – Results to be achieved – Mostly quantifiable “To increase the number of children cycling to school by 15%” 127
  127. 127. Targets (2)  SMART – Specific – Measurable – Achievable – Realistic – Time-bound  Establish a baseline! 128
  128. 128. Targets (3)  Inputs – Resources used • “Amount of time spent training children to cycle”  Outputs – Measurable activities, things we make/do • “Length of on-road cycle network”  Outcomes – Impacts from outputs, benefits of what we make/do • “Number of children cycling to school” 129
  129. 129. Targets (3)  Indicators – Help measure the target: • • • • “number of children cycling to school” “number of children receiving cycle training” “number of bicycles repaired” “number of cyclists on a particular road” 130
  130. 130. 131
  131. 131. Targets Summary  Do: – Have a number of SMART targets – Have a plan that identifies targets and how they all link together – Use both output and outcome performance indicators  Do NOT: – Have few and/or ill-defined targets – Rely on output performance indicators alone – Use a limited range of monitoring techniques – Have no idea what you are monitoring 132
  132. 132. Assessment  What are the impacts of what we are doing and how are we doing in each aspect?  Use tools to help assess: – STAG – HEAT – SROI – National Assessment 133
  133. 133. Assessment - STAG  Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance (STAG) – When? • Gov‟t funding, support or approval for proposals to change transport system – What? • Environment, Safety, Economy, Integration, Access and Social Integration – Who? • SG, LAs, developers and transport operators www.transportscotland.gov.uk/stag 134
  134. 134. Assessment - HEAT  WHO Health Economic Assessment Tool (HEAT) – When? • To understand economic impact of health benefits from cycling and walking – What? • Savings in costs and mortality from walking/cycling interventions – Who? • Anyone, but limited to adults and better at „population level‟ www.heatwalkingcycling.org 135
  135. 135. Assessment - SROI  Social Return on Investment (SROI) – When? • Understanding social impacts of interventions – What? • Measure the difference made to people‟s lives and the level of impact – Who? • Third sector normally http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/People/ 15300/SROI and http://www.sroi-uk.org/ 136
  136. 136. Assessment – National Assessment  National Assessment of Cycling Policy – When? • Assess the policies in place in LAs to support cycling – What? • Looks at three elements: Planning, Action and Monitoring – Who? • Local Authorities (and Nat‟l Parks in future) http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/People/ 15300/SROI and http://www.sroi-uk.org/ 137
  137. 137. Evaluation  Comparative by nature – past with present ( baseline data or starting point or recall of where things were in comparison with now) – comparing examples of similar projects or programmes 138
  138. 138. Evaluation          Did we do what we planned to do? If not, why not? What worked? Why? What did not work? Why? What difference, if any, does the project make? How have things changed over time and for whom ? Is the project meeting needs? Whose needs? What do users/members/beneficiaries think about the work? Is the donor's money well spent? Is it achieving what the donor intended? What could we do differently? How can we use the learning to develop the work? 139
  139. 139. The Final Stage  Doing something to act on the learning – MAKE CHANGES!  Without the final stage the evaluation is useless 140
  140. 140. Worked example…  What is/are the vision/objectives/targets you work towards in your organisation?  What if vision/objectives/targets change abruptly? 141
  141. 141. By 2020, 10% of all journeys in Scotland will be by bike. What do you think the 10% is now? Comments… 142
  142. 142. National Picture – Scotland Performs 143
  143. 143. National Picture – Scotland Performs  Objectives – Wealthier and Fairer – Safer and Stronger – Smarter – Greener – Healthier Which of these are relevant to cycling? Why? 144
  144. 144. National Picture – Scotland Performs  16 National Outcomes – Key words for cycling... • • • • • “sustainable places” “communities” “environment” “environmental impact” “employment opportunities” 145
  145. 145. National Picture – Scotland Performs  50 National Indicators, cycling relevant? – “Increase the proportion of journeys to work made by public or active transport” – “Reduce Scotland‟s carbon footprint” – “Increase physical activity” – “Reduce traffic congestion” – “Increase people‟s use of outdoors” – “Reduce premature mortality” – “Increase proportion of healthy weight in children” 146
  146. 146. National Picture – CAPS (2010)  10% of journeys in Scotland by bike by 2020  Local authorities – CAPS Delivery Forum – Other action-specific forums  Other organisations – CS, Sustrans, Transport Scotland  Other forums? – NCIG, CPG, Vulnerable Road Users, etc. 147
  147. 147. Local Authority Picture  32 different ways of doing things… 148
  148. 148. Local Authority Picture - Edinburgh  Active Travel Action Plan  “By 2030, to make Edinburgh‟s transport system one of the most environmentally friendly, healthiest and most accessible in northern Europe…” – Transport 2030  Objectives – Better health; Better road safety; Better environment; Benefits to businesses; Wider economic benefits  Targets (by 2020) – Cycling: 10% overall; 15% to work – Walking: 35% overall; 22% to work 149
  149. 149. What about data?         Scottish Household Survey Scottish Recreation Survey Hands Up Scotland Survey Bikeability Scotland data Local cycling counts (automatic/manual) Local surveys (e.g., Citizen Panels) Project specific/event specific feedback On and on… 150
  150. 150. The Big Picture?  Making sense of it all 151
  151. 151. Monitoring Cycle Use - MVA  Review current information sources – Desktop – Consultation  Make recommendations on appropriate methods for LAs and others on collecting information for monitoring progress against SG targets/vision 152
  152. 152. Monitoring Cycle Use – MVA (2)  Consultation – 40 stakeholders and key partners – View on key aspects – Awareness of relevant datasets – How project could benefit – Views on „good‟ and „bad‟ practice 153
  153. 153. Monitoring Cycle Use – MVA (3)  Datasets and SHS – Good potential for existing data, but not sure how best to use it – Are datasets relevant at local level? – Inconsistency on questions – Support for HUSS  Auto/manual counters – Main focus at a local level – Issues with consistency of data, resource and maintenance 154
  154. 154. Monitoring Cycle Use – MVA (4)  Resource and budgets – Limited and stretched resource – Neglect of data collection and maintenance – Not always a priority – Concerns on ability to match fund  STANDARD GUIDANCE REQUESTED! 155
  155. 155. So what do you monitor?         Manual counts Automatic counts School travel Cycle parking/usage Census Household surveys/travel diaries User surveys Others? 156
  156. 156. MONITORING TOOLKIT Manual counts:  Can give a detailed picture of cycle usage over a short period  Can be used to validate automatic counts  Care needs to be taken in the location of counts 157
  157. 157. MONITORING TOOLKIT Automatic cycle counts:  Can give a detailed picture of cycle usage over time  Can be used to validate manual counts  Care needs to be taken in the siting of counters, especially on-road cycling 158
  158. 158. MONITORING TOOLKIT Automatic cycle counts:  Are generally more statistically reliable  Off-road counts alone may give a skewed picture  Data can be collected remotely 159
  159. 159. MONITORING TOOLKIT School travel counts:  Can be effective and represent an important target area  Helps to reinforce children‟s enthusiasm  Ideally should be carried out as part of a school travel plan 160
  160. 160. MONITORING TOOLKIT Travel plan surveys:  Can be effective and represent an important target area  Help to reinforce the organisation‟s commitment  Questionnaires should gather both qualitative and quantitative data on cycling  High response rate achievable  Allows for an incremental approach to provision e.g. parking 161
  161. 161. MONITORING TOOLKIT Before and after monitoring:  Should be carried out on all new schemes  Useful to establish precedents for similar schemes elsewhere  May not be representative of whole authority  Capital costs for automatic counters can be found as part of overall scheme 162
  162. 162. MONITORING TOOLKIT Counts of cycle parking use:  Can be carried out at specific locations, such as health centres  Can help to assess the effectiveness of policies to encourage cycling to these destinations  If carried out regularly can be used as a proxy for overall cycling levels 163
  163. 163. MONITORING TOOLKIT Census information:  Measures journeys to work only  Unparalleled accuracy of local information on these journeys  Useful to assess relative levels in different local authority areas  Unsatisfactory for assessment of objectives, since monitoring only occurs every 10 years 164
  164. 164. MONITORING TOOLKIT Household surveys / travel diaries:  Useful data on attitudes (e.g. satisfaction and perception) as well as usage  Also information on modal choice factors  Can measure background factors, such as car ownership, income levels and place of work but … 165
  165. 165. MONITORING TOOLKIT Household surveys / travel diaries:  Need high level of respondents to be statistically reliable  Most useful carried out in conjunction with regular usage monitoring  National Travel Survey add-ons are possible but expensive - only feasible in large urban areas 166
  166. 166. MONITORING TOOLKIT User surveys:  Can provide useful data on user attitudes, especially satisfaction and perception  Need to be targeted carefully  Are useful if looking at reasons for choice of mode and route 167
  167. 167. Worked example…  What about the 10%? – Who are we measuring? – What is a „journey‟? – How do we measure those journeys as a proportion of all journeys? – What are some limitations? 168
  168. 168. 169
  169. 169. Monitoring Cycle Use  MVA Recommendations/findings: – Any reporting of cycling mode share needs to incorporate other modes as well – Household-based travel diary – Phrasing matters! „Usual mode‟ questions are biased against cycling  Other datasets can inform other targets, but they do not feed into the 10%! 170
  170. 170. Monitoring Cycle Use (2)  Healthier – HUSS, recreational trips, total trips/commuting trips, casualty/KSI  Greener – Total trips/commuting trips, HUSS  Wealthier – Total trips/commuting trips, tourism, cycling related jobs  Safer – 20mph zones, casualty/KSI  Smarter – Improved school performance, productivity 171
  171. 171. Taking Monitoring Forward  Establishing a set of indicators to support monitoring the 10%  But is it enough? No! So let‟s look at a few more things: – Cycling to work/education – Cycling to school – Cycle training (adults and children) – Safety – Health – Economic benefit – Return on investment – Environmental impacts 172
  172. 172. Using Monitoring to Access Funding  Varies depending on funding source, but cycling cuts across many things  Examples – Cycling Scotland • Bikeability Scotland, Support Plus – How many schools are delivering on-road training now? How many will deliver on-road training as a result of the funding? • Cycle Friendly & Sust. Communities – Project aims, modal share changes, emissions, impact on sustainability in community, project partners, + or – outcomes, barriers? – Sustrans • Accurate stats on usage and benefits, auto- or manual counts, surveys of users. 173
  173. 173. Worked example…  What types of monitoring would help you in delivering cycling? – Think about: partners, funding opportunities  What should you monitor to help „future-proof‟ delivery of cycling? 174
  174. 174. Summary  Strategic as well as specific  Targets – Link to outcomes  Ensure that you do monitor, but be clear on WHY you are monitoring  Ensure that what you monitor provides evidence to support your vision and objectives  Cycling cuts across many departments, utilise this to the fullest 175
  175. 175. Relate this to Funding Who are the funders for cycle projects at present?
  176. 176. Funders Government / Transport Scotland Sustrans Leader Awards for All Local Authorities For further information review Spokes Briefing
  177. 177. How much do they each contribute? The government through Transport Scotland / Sustrans are still the predominate funder for active travel projects http://www.spokes.org.uk/wordpress/2012/10/spokesbulletin-114/
  178. 178. Sustrans – Community Links Yesterday I provided information from my own projects how monitoring has allowed me to provide job satisfaction.
  179. 179. Sustrans – Community Links Project Summary Show Origin and Destinations Places of Interest Design – Use their manuals
  180. 180. Sustrans – Community Links Project Endorsement Community Council Primary School Sports Clubs
  181. 181. Sustrans – Community Links Match Funding RTPS Other Council Projects Community Funding Celebrities
  182. 182. Sustrans – Community Links Aims and Benefits Using existing counts (nearby data) Hands Up Survey But how to turn them around Money Talks – North Sea Cycle Route – £33 a day
  183. 183. Sustrans – Community Links Aims and Benefits Using existing counts (nearby data) Hands Up Survey But how to turn them around Money Talks – North Sea Cycle Route – £33 a day
  184. 184. Stop Moaning Justify a larger spend? STAG – Project for a Bypass We need to prove projects using the data which is of a benefit to the projects. Adrian Davies / John Parkin
  185. 185. Sustrans – Community Links School Links Bikeability Transport Hubs Get the providers to endorse the project Council Departments Sounds daft but Access Officer, Planner and Parks for instance
  186. 186. Sustrans – Community Links Community Engagement Opportunities to see the project and participate Equal Input / Influence
  187. 187. Sustrans – Community Links Monitoring Discussed this at length yesterday I maintain get a counter in your bid
  188. 188. Sustrans – Community Links Deliver and Phasing Make sure the title includes Phase 1 – Prove you have further projects.
  189. 189. Funders Other Funders Leader CSGN Active Places – 2014 Awards for All Local Authority - CWSS
  190. 190. Summary Taken you through funding application So what are the next steps for you and Cycling Scotland?
  191. 191. Thank You The floor is open to you to question or discuss any of the topics we’ve discussed
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