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The process of evaluating English cycle cities



Kevin Mayne, Cycling England

Kevin Mayne, Cycling England



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  • Personal Travel Fact Sheet produced by the DfT reported that: 87% of adults agree that everyone should be encouraged to cycle to assist their health help the environment (79%) ease congestion (73%)
  • € 1.467bn rounded up to €1.5bn
  • The existing six Cycling Demonstration Towns were appointed in 2005. The Towns have continued apace over the last year with their programmes to embed cycling firmly into their cultures, and have seen significant increases in cycling levels as a result. They will continue to be funded for the next three years to ensure that their initial successesare translated into long term and sustained behaviour change.
  • The core hypothesis was that investment at European levels and co-ordinated activity on both infrastructure improvements and ‘smarter choice’ behavioural change measures, cycling could be shifted to year on year growth – provided that investment was maintained continuously and consistently. Each town developed its own programme of activities, designed to take best advantage of local opportunities. Three principle characteristics on which selection of the Towns was based: Ambition of their programme to increase short urban trips by bike The commitment and involvement of senior members and officers The commitment of the local authority to match fund the CD grant
  • Each of the six towns focused on different but equally effective strategies and tactics to get more people in their region pedalling – both hard and soft measures spanning infrastructure and promotion. For example, Aylesbury has built seven cycle routes which are named and coloured after gemstones and are easily identifiable to the public.  It has also pursued a radical new approach to the signage on all the routes, obtaining Department for Transport permission to count down to destinations in minutes rather than miles.  Aylesbury – The Aylesbury Gemstone Cycle Network links communities with schools, hospitals and places of work Brighton and Hove – Cycle Freeway Network and Personalised Travel Planning Programme Darlington – The Local Motion campaign was launched to help people consider their travel options, new routes into the town centre were created and 96% of primary schools in the area run Bikeability training Derby – Focus on children and young people, introducing everything from after school clubs to revamping the BMX track Exeter – Engaged with local employers to help encourage more people to cycle to work Lancaster with Morecambe – Expanded cycle routes in the area by 30km, created over 700 new parking spaces and more than 1,000 people have benefited from some kind of cycle training
  • A number of programme elements were common to all six towns; for example, a focus in schools – cycle parking, Bike It officer support, Bikeability training; engagement with the local business community; major cycling events and publicity.   This section highlights only those key features of each town’s specific focus of activity.
  • Across the six CDTs, cycling levels increased on average by 28% in 3 years. This exceeds the growth rate in London. The biggest increase was 57% in Darlington. This was in sharp contrast to the trend for other medium urban areas, which showed no overall increase over a similar period.   The proportion of occasional cyclists (people cycling for at least 30 minutes a month) increased in the CDTs, but not in other local authorities.   The proportion of regular cyclists (people cycling for at least 30 minutes, three times per week) also increased in the CDTs, but not in other local authorities.   The CDT programme benefitted even the most physically inactive people: there was a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of people classed as “physically inactive” in the six towns. This is especially important in terms of public health benefits.
  • With the success of the original six Cycling Demonstration Towns, we sought to expand the programme further. In June 2008, Bristol was announced as the UK's first official Cycling City, together with a further 11 Cycling Towns across England winning a share of a record £100m investment package to pioneer innovative ways to increase cycling in their areas. Our 11 other towns are launching similar programmes – collectively amounting to a £100m investment package. With the expansion of the Cycling Towns programme, over 2.5 million adults and children will now benefit from levels of investment equivalent to the best European cycling cities. 11 other towns: Blackpool Cambridge Chester Colchester Leighton/Linslade Shrewsbury Southend on Sea Southport with Ainsdale Stoke Woking York

The process of evaluating English cycle cities The process of evaluating English cycle cities Presentation Transcript

  • The process of evaluating English cycle cities Kevin Mayne
  • The opportunity .
    • Growing recognition that cycling contributes to tackling:
    • Obesity
    • Traffic congestion
    • Climate change
    • Improving quality of life
    • Creating wealth through tourism and leisure
    • Rising transport prices
    • Recession
  • Planning for cycling – the value of cycle infrastructure Economic case for cycling Analysis of the cycling towns investment 1 2 3 Making the economic case Cycling as a mainstream mode of transport
  • Economic case
  • But where’s the evidence? . Economic benefits of cycling are not fully understood Cycling not viewed as a mainstream mode of transport Systematic under investment
  • Translating benefits into hard numbers – the SQW study .
    • The measurable benefits of cycling:
      • Improvements in general health and fitness
      • Cutting pollution and CO2 emissions
      • Contribution to easing congestion
  • 10% of 10 yr olds are clinically obese, 29% are overweight Adult obesity currently costs £8bn pa 50,000 deaths pa are from illnesses caused by inactivity
  • Valuing the benefits of cycling .
    • The value of cycling is higher where:
    • Inactive people become active
    • Older people are persuaded to cycle
    • Where cycling replaces a car trip, particularly in urban areas
    • Where the journey is a regular trip
    • These are conservative indications - no allowance has been made for reductions in obesity / for children cycling / for the social benefits of cycling
  • Low High Low High Age of additional cyclists Proportion of cycle trips that replace car trips Health Health/pollution congestion Pollution/ congestion £176 per additional cyclist £382 per additional cyclist £87 per additional cyclist £293 per additional cyclist The value of a cyclist
  • Economic case > Investment case
  • The investment case .
    • A 50% increase in trips between 2005 and 2015 will generate savings of £1.3 billion
    • Investment in cycling projects shows a return of between 3:1 and 4.5:1
  • Implications for infrastructure . Cost of project Number of additional cyclists needed £10,000 1 £100,000 11 £1,000,000 109
  • Investment case > evidence base
  • Cycling City and Towns
    • Phase one:
    • Original six Cycling Demonstration Towns appointed in 2005
    • Cycling England has invested £17m in these six towns
  • Phase one: The CDT programme
    • First phase: October 2005 – October 2008
    • All towns funded at approx £5 per head per year, matched by the local authority – total investment £10 per head
    • All towns ‘medium-sized’; larger ones focussed effort on part of their population
    • Consistent, co-ordinated investment and ‘joined-up’ measures leads to a step-change in cycling levels
  • Phase one: A taste of CDT achievements
    • Aylesbury – Gemstone Cycle Network
    • Brighton and Hove – Cycle Freeway Network and Personalised Travel Planning
    • Darlington – Local Motion campaign
    • Derby – Focus on children and young people
    • Exeter – Engaged with local employers
    • Lancaster with Morecambe – Expanded cycle routes in the area
  • Cycling Demonstration Towns – programme ingredients
    • Cycle parking in schools
    • Bike It
    • Bikeability training
    • Engagement with the local business community
    • Major cycling events
    • Publicity
    • The results
  • Source data
      • Continuous cycle count data
      • Quarterly manual cycle count data
      • School travel data
      • Counts of parked bikes
      • Behaviour and attitude surveys
      • Workplace travel survey data
  • Major themes addressed by findings
      • The effectiveness of targeting investment
      • The importance of high quality provision
      • Distribution of cycling activity
      • Lessons in growing cycling
  • Key results from phase one
    • Cycle counts up in all six towns, by between 10% and 57%
    • Cycling levels increased on average by 28% in the three years
    • Increase in number of people cycling
    • Increase in physical activity amongst the most inactive
    • Comparator towns do not show this
  • Physical activity assessment
    • European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)
    • Asks about activity in usual week
    • Includes cycling in categories
    • Validated against accelerometers
    • Predictive of all-cause mortality
  • The effectiveness of targeting investment: growth in cycling to schools Data from Darlington
  • Lessons in growing cycling: a marked change in the rate of growth Data from Darlington
  • Lessons in growing cycling: increasing the rate of growth Data from Derby
  • Headline comparison with London Caution! Figures are approximate and indicative only; work in progress Base year for London = first year of strategic London-wide focus & investment Base year for CDTs = first full calendar year of CDT project
  • Lift Off for Cycling
    • Appraisal by the Department for Transport
      • The benefit to cost ratio is at least 3:1, and may be as high as 5 or 6:1 if benefits are sustained over 30 years.
      • These calculations are based on conservative assumptions, and do not include all the benefits of the programme.
  • Phase two: The Cycling City and Towns
    • In 2008 another 11 more Cycling Towns and a Cycling City were recruited
    • CDTs now in the second phase – all Towns funded until 2011
    • New Towns are benefiting from the experience of the original six
    • £100m investment package
    • Over 2.5 million people to benefit
  • Planning for cycling – the value of cycle infrastructure Economic case for cycling Analysis of the cycling towns investment 1 2 3 Conclusion: The Economic case proven! Cycling as a mainstream mode of transport