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Respiration 2010

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Transcript

  • 1. Life support
  • 2. How long can you live without...
    Eating?
    Drinking?
    Breathing?
    Your heart beating?
  • 3. How long can you live without...
    Eating? ~4 – 6 weeks
    Drinking? ~ 3 days
    Breathing? ~4 – 5 minutes
    Your heart beating? ~about 4 minutes
  • 4. How can we support life?
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. How can we support life?
    Drips
    Feeding tubes
    Oxygen masks
    Ventilators
  • 9. Is switching off life support murder?
    Is it humane to continue life if a person is suffering and in pain?
    Is it humane to continue someone’s life who has no chance for a reasonable life?
    Is it humane to continue life if a person has no way to consent to treatment?
    Who decides?
  • 10. Positives and Negatives
    What benefit to the individual or society?
    What costs to individual or society?
  • 11. Martha Mason of Lattimore, North Carolina died on May 4, 2009, after spending 60 of her 72 years in an iron lung.
  • 12. Coma Miracle
  • 13. Premature Baby’s First Few Minutes
  • 14. Respiratory System
  • 15. Function
    To exchange gases with the surrounding environment
    O2 in CO2 out
  • 16. Control Mechanism
    CO2 is a waste product of the cells
    CO2 makes carbonic acid in the blood (changes pH)
    The medulla oblongata keeps track of pH, controls breathing
  • 17. Organ Overview
    Mouth, Nose
    Epiglottis (stops foood entering trachea)
    Trachea (wind pipe)
    Bronchus (branch)
    Bronchioles (little branches)
    Alveoli
  • 18. Nose and Mouth
    Humidifies and warms air
  • 19. Lung Protection
    Mucous –sticky to trap dirt and bacteria
    Cilia(little hairs) to
    Filter dirt/bacteria
    Remove dirt/bacteria with their wave action
  • 20. Epiglottis
    Flap of cartilage
    Covers trachea when eatingto prevent foodfrom entering
  • 21. Trachea
    A large tube supported from collapse by rings of cartilage.
  • 22. Bronchi
    two, one going to each lung
    similar structure to the tracheawith cartilage rings
  • 23. Respiration 3D
  • 24. Alveoli (pl)
    Site of gas exchange
    We have ~ 300 million
    Surface area equivalent to a tennis court!
    Capillaries surround each alveolus.
  • 25. How does it work?
    Lungs are not muscles
    Diaphragm is a muscle
    Diaphragm contracts
    Ribcage expands
    Lungs expand
    Air rushes in to fill up empty space
  • 26. How does it work?
    Exhaling is generally a passive process
    Diaphragm relaxes
    Lungs compress
    Forces out air
    You can also use the muscles around your ribcage to constrict your chest more, expelling more air
  • 27. Diffusion
    Gases move from high concentration to low concentration.
  • 28. Diffusion
  • 29. When good lungs go bad...
    Bronchitis – narrowed bronchioles
    Emphysema – alveoli walls broken down
  • 30. Pneumonia
  • 31. Intubation
  • 32. Cardiopulmonary Respiration