Respiration 2010

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Respiration 2010

  1. 1. Life support
  2. 2. How long can you live without... • Eating? • Drinking? • Breathing? • Your heart beating?
  3. 3. How long can you live without... • Eating? ~4 – 6 weeks • Drinking? ~ 3 days • Breathing? ~4 – 5 minutes • Your heart beating? ~about 4 minutes
  4. 4. How can we support life?
  5. 5. How can we support life? • Drips • Feeding tubes • Oxygen masks • Ventilators
  6. 6. Is switching off life support murder? Is it humane to continue life if a person is suffering and in pain? Is it humane to continue someone’s life who has no chance for a reasonable life? Is it humane to continue life if a person has no way to consent to treatment? Who decides?
  7. 7. Positives and Negatives What benefit to the individual or society? What costs to individual or society?
  8. 8. Martha Mason of Lattimore, North Carolina died on May 4, 2009, after spending 60 of her 72 years in an iron lung.
  9. 9. Coma Miracle
  10. 10. Premature Baby’s First Few Minutes
  11. 11. Respiratory System
  12. 12. Function • To exchange gases with the surrounding environment O2 in CO2 out
  13. 13. Control Mechanism • CO2 is a waste product of the cells • CO2 makes carbonic acid in the blood (changes pH) • The medulla oblongata keeps track of pH, controls breathing
  14. 14. Organ Overview • Mouth, Nose • Epiglottis (stops foood entering trachea) • Trachea (wind pipe) • Bronchus (branch) • Bronchioles (little branches) • Alveoli
  15. 15. Nose and Mouth • Humidifies and warms air
  16. 16. Lung Protection • Mucous –sticky to trap dirt and bacteria • Cilia (little hairs) to – Filter dirt/bacteria – Remove dirt/bacteria with their wave action
  17. 17. Epiglottis • Flap of cartilage • Covers trachea when eating to prevent food from entering
  18. 18. Trachea • A large tube supported from collapse by rings of cartilage.
  19. 19. Bronchi • two, one going to each lung • similar structure to the trachea with cartilage rings
  20. 20. Respiration 3D
  21. 21. Alveoli (pl) • Site of gas exchange • We have ~ 300 million • Surface area equivalent to a tennis court! • Capillaries surround each alveolus.
  22. 22. How does it work? • Lungs are not muscles • Diaphragm is a muscle – Diaphragm contracts – Ribcage expands – Lungs expand – Air rushes in to fill up empty space
  23. 23. How does it work? • Exhaling is generally a passive process – Diaphragm relaxes – Lungs compress – Forces out air • You can also use the muscles around your ribcage to constrict your chest more, expelling more air
  24. 24. Diffusion • Gases move from high concentration to low concentration.
  25. 25. Diffusion
  26. 26. When good lungs go bad... Bronchitis – narrowed bronchioles Emphysema – alveoli walls broken down
  27. 27. Pneumonia
  28. 28. Intubation
  29. 29. Cardiopulmonary Respiration

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