You have 30 seconds to remember as many
symbols ON THE NEXT SLIDE as possible
READY???
You have 30 seconds to remember as many
symbols as possible
1 = 5 =
2 = 6 =
3 = 7 =
4 = 8 =
9 =
Now write down as many as you can
1 = 5 = 9 =
2 = 6 =
3 = 7 =
4 = 8 =
How many did you get right???
1 = 5 =
2 = 6 =
3 = 7 =
4 = 8 =
9 =
This time I will give you five seconds to
remember them all...
1 = 5 =
2 = 6 =
3 = 7 =
4 = 8 =
9 =
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
1 = 5 = 9 =
2 = 6 =
3 = 7 =
4 = 8 =
 In groups
1. How would you define memory?
2. Is there anything that you do that does not
rely on memory?
3. What would y...
Memory is learning that has persisted
over time.
Memory is an active system that enables
us to acquire, store and retrieve...
1st Process
Encoding: Converting information into a
useable form
2nd Process
Storage: Holding this information in
memory f...
 In groups - consider learning for a test
1. What factors influence your ability to encode
memories?
2. What factors may ...
Sensory
memory
Short-term
memory
Long-term
memory
Attendedto
Encoded
andstored
Not attended to Forgotten if
not rehearsed
...
 Stores an exact copy of incoming
information for a few seconds or less; the
first stage of memory.
 Eg taste, feeling, ...
 Iconic: A fleeting mental image or visual
representation .
 This mental image persists for about 1/3rd of a
second.
 George Sperling - 1960s.
 Using a tachistoscope, Sperling showed his test
subjects letters arranged to form a box shape...
 The tachistoscope, invented in 1859 and
used to increase memory or reading speed,
is a projector apparatus that flashes ...
 Sperling recorded how many blocked
letters subjects could read during the visual
flash. Generally, participants could re...
Sperling’s results:
 Iconic store is transient, decaying to less
than 50% of peak performance within one
second.
 All it...
Iconic memory Test
http://playwithyourmind.com/memory-
workout-program/iconic-memory-game/
Why study Iconic Memory?
 Echoic: After a sound is heard, a brief
continuation of the sound in the auditory
system.
 Lasts for 2-4 seconds.
 Hel...
 Echoic memory is dramatically lower after 2
seconds, and disappears by 5 seconds.
 Holds small amounts of information
briefly
 Effectively retained for about 6s, declines
after 12, gone after 20s
 Ofte...
Google: short term memory test
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/stm0.
html
 Write a hypothesis
 Conduct the experiment and collect the data
 Describe any uncontrolled variables
 Describe any et...
Short-term memory is characterised by its limited
capacity and quick loss of information. In a test of
capacity, such as a...
 You can increase the amount of information
stored in the STM by using chunking.
 Eg Remember 18952012
 Remember 1895 2012
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDbAYMU
XpcA
 Why is some information in short-term
memory lost and can only be held in
storage for a short time?
 Information in short-term memory is lost
quickly; it can only be held in storage for a
short time.
 1. Decay - information is slowly lost,
(memories fade away over time).
 2. Interference, the information pushes
memorie...
Proactive Interference:
 Older memories make it more difficult to
encode new ones.
 Eg I have trouble recalling my new p...
Retroactive Interference:
 New memories disrupt and "push out" older
memories.
 I have trouble recalling my old phone nu...
 Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating
information silently to prolong its
presence in STM
 Elaborative Rehearsal: Links new
...
Finding nemo
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KuvF113uty4
Short term memory
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YrI8ibsiiZ4
Long ...
 Storing information relatively permanently
 Stored on basis of meaning and importance
 After a test how much informati...
Forgetting curve
The stronger the memory, the longer period of
time that a person is able to recall it. The
forgetting curve shows that hum...
 Learning again something that was
previously learned
 Used to measure memory of prior learning
 Savings Score: Amount ...
1. Procedural: Long-term memories of
conditioned responses and learned skills
–eg playing the piano, driving, sending an
S...
2. Declarative: LTM section that contains
factual information.
a. Semantic Memory: Facts and
everyday knowledge-
Melbourne...
 Supply or reproduce facts or information
with a minimum of external cues; direct
retrieval of facts or information
 Har...
http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology
/experiments/memtask.html
Recency Effect - Easiest to remember last
items in a list because they are still in STM
Primacy effect – Next easiest is t...
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vsYCSmBc
M0
 A mnemonic device is a mind memory
and/or learning aid. Commonly,
mnemonic...
 Use mental pictures
 Make things meaningful
 Make information familiar
 Form bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental
a...
 Form a Story or Chain: Remember lists in
order, forming an exaggerated association
connecting item one to two, and so on...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grZuw
o_YlY0&feature=related
 Very persuasive in court
Often faulty due to
 High arousal levels
 Lack of attentional focus
 LTM can alter memories ...
 Police line-up evidence tainted due to
 Witness being “led” by police
 Witness eagerness to please police
 The false ...
 Bomber on the roof
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D7EpYl
KaBM8
 Line-up
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZPOHI
ndSVQ&fea...
The theory that information stored in LTM
sometimes changes over time to become
more consistent with our beliefs,
knowledg...
 False memories (confabulations) are as
“real” as real memories.
 Some memories may be distorted through
influences such...
 some are the result of the prodding, leading,
and suggestions of therapists and
counselors.
 Some are the result of bra...
 Dr. Elizabeth Loftus has shown it is
relatively easy to implant false memories,
especially in an individual with an inte...
 Memories created during times of personal
tragedy, accident, or other emotionally
significant events that are especially...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evj6q0eC
dd8
 Hippocampus: Brain structure associated
with information passing from short-
term memory into long-term memory;
also ass...
 Knowledge of Results: Feedback allowing
you to check your progress
 Recitation: Summarizing aloud while you
are rehears...
 Selection: Selecting most important
concepts to memorize
 Organization: Organizing difficult items into
chunks; a type ...
1. Identify the operations involved in the information-processing view of memory
and understand the three-stage theory of ...
9. Explain the serial position effect
10. Distinguish between deep and shallow processing in the levels of
processing mode...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8OEt2ap
YxU0
 Scroll down to episode 9 , click on Vod box
(video on demand)
 9. Remembering and Forgetting
This program looks at the ...
Horizon Documentary part 1 - 5
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pxVb6M8UPTQ
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HGXbY3fUOlg&featu...
http://quizlet.com/28825/psychology-
memory-flash-cards/
Other memory tests
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chme
mor...
Memory 2010
Memory 2010
Memory 2010
Memory 2010
Memory 2010
Memory 2010
Memory 2010
Memory 2010
Memory 2010
Memory 2010
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  • Subliminal messages
  • Memory 2010

    1. 1. You have 30 seconds to remember as many symbols ON THE NEXT SLIDE as possible READY???
    2. 2. You have 30 seconds to remember as many symbols as possible 1 = 5 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 = 9 =
    3. 3. Now write down as many as you can 1 = 5 = 9 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 =
    4. 4. How many did you get right??? 1 = 5 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 = 9 =
    5. 5. This time I will give you five seconds to remember them all... 1 = 5 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 = 9 =
    6. 6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
    7. 7. 1 = 5 = 9 = 2 = 6 = 3 = 7 = 4 = 8 =
    8. 8.  In groups 1. How would you define memory? 2. Is there anything that you do that does not rely on memory? 3. What would your day be like if you had no memory? 4. Could you learn if you could not remember? 5. Could you remember if you were unable to learn?
    9. 9. Memory is learning that has persisted over time. Memory is an active system that enables us to acquire, store and retrieve information.
    10. 10. 1st Process Encoding: Converting information into a useable form 2nd Process Storage: Holding this information in memory for later use 3rd Process Retrieval: Finding the information and retrieving out of storage
    11. 11.  In groups - consider learning for a test 1. What factors influence your ability to encode memories? 2. What factors may influence your ability to store memories? 3. What factors may influence your ability to retrieve memories?
    12. 12. Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Attendedto Encoded andstored Not attended to Forgotten if not rehearsed or encoded Interference
    13. 13.  Stores an exact copy of incoming information for a few seconds or less; the first stage of memory.  Eg taste, feeling, smell, sight, sound etc  Depends upon selective attention.
    14. 14.  Iconic: A fleeting mental image or visual representation .  This mental image persists for about 1/3rd of a second.
    15. 15.  George Sperling - 1960s.  Using a tachistoscope, Sperling showed his test subjects letters arranged to form a box shape, three letters tall and four letters across.
    16. 16.  The tachistoscope, invented in 1859 and used to increase memory or reading speed, is a projector apparatus that flashes images on a screen for only a fraction of a second.  http://sandfly.net.nz/apps/wordup/
    17. 17.  Sperling recorded how many blocked letters subjects could read during the visual flash. Generally, participants could read three or four letters during the iconic memory test.
    18. 18. Sperling’s results:  Iconic store is transient, decaying to less than 50% of peak performance within one second.  All items in the array are placed in the iconic store.
    19. 19. Iconic memory Test http://playwithyourmind.com/memory- workout-program/iconic-memory-game/
    20. 20. Why study Iconic Memory?
    21. 21.  Echoic: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system.  Lasts for 2-4 seconds.  Helps us understand speech.
    22. 22.  Echoic memory is dramatically lower after 2 seconds, and disappears by 5 seconds.
    23. 23.  Holds small amounts of information briefly  Effectively retained for about 6s, declines after 12, gone after 20s  Often called “working memory”
    24. 24. Google: short term memory test http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/stm0. html
    25. 25.  Write a hypothesis  Conduct the experiment and collect the data  Describe any uncontrolled variables  Describe any ethical considerations that would need to be taken into account if this was conducted as a formal experiment using participants
    26. 26. Short-term memory is characterised by its limited capacity and quick loss of information. In a test of capacity, such as a digit span task, it can hold only approximately seven (+ or - 2) items.
    27. 27.  You can increase the amount of information stored in the STM by using chunking.  Eg Remember 18952012
    28. 28.  Remember 1895 2012 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jDbAYMU XpcA
    29. 29.  Why is some information in short-term memory lost and can only be held in storage for a short time?
    30. 30.  Information in short-term memory is lost quickly; it can only be held in storage for a short time.
    31. 31.  1. Decay - information is slowly lost, (memories fade away over time).  2. Interference, the information pushes memories out of the short-term storage. Two types of interference: proactive and retroactive.
    32. 32. Proactive Interference:  Older memories make it more difficult to encode new ones.  Eg I have trouble recalling my new phone number, because I get it mixed up with my old number. (My old memories project (interfere) with my new memories. )  A student finds a new concept to be hard to understand because she confuses it with similar ideas she has already learned.
    33. 33. Retroactive Interference:  New memories disrupt and "push out" older memories.  I have trouble recalling my old phone number, because I get it mixed up with my new number.  A student understood a concept two weeks ago, but can no longer discuss the concept correctly, because he confuses it with a new concept he studied yesterday.
    34. 34.  Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM  Elaborative Rehearsal: Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM  Good way to transfer STM information into LTM
    35. 35. Finding nemo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KuvF113uty4 Short term memory http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YrI8ibsiiZ4 Long term memory http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQqhJXfK5dg&fe ature=video_response
    36. 36.  Storing information relatively permanently  Stored on basis of meaning and importance  After a test how much information do you remember – a) After 5 minutes? b) After 5 hours? c) After 5 days?
    37. 37. Forgetting curve
    38. 38. The stronger the memory, the longer period of time that a person is able to recall it. The forgetting curve shows that humans tend to halve their memory of newly learned knowledge in a matter of days or weeks unless they consciously review the learned material.
    39. 39.  Learning again something that was previously learned  Used to measure memory of prior learning  Savings Score: Amount of time saved when relearning information
    40. 40. 1. Procedural: Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills –eg playing the piano, driving, sending an SMS list 3 more
    41. 41. 2. Declarative: LTM section that contains factual information. a. Semantic Memory: Facts and everyday knowledge- Melbourne is the capital of Victoria b. Episodic: Personal experiences linked with specific times and places – Remembering your holiday to Melbourne
    42. 42.  Supply or reproduce facts or information with a minimum of external cues; direct retrieval of facts or information  Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list; known as Serial Position Effect  Easiest to remember last items in a list because they are still in STM
    43. 43. http://www.essex.ac.uk/psychology /experiments/memtask.html
    44. 44. Recency Effect - Easiest to remember last items in a list because they are still in STM Primacy effect – Next easiest is to remember items at the beginning of the list Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list;
    45. 45.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vsYCSmBc M0  A mnemonic device is a mind memory and/or learning aid. Commonly, mnemonics are verbal—such as a very short poem or a special word used to help a person remember something—but may be visual, kinesthetic or auditory.
    46. 46.  Use mental pictures  Make things meaningful  Make information familiar  Form bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental associations  Keyword Method: Memory aid; using a familiar word or image to link two items
    47. 47.  Form a Story or Chain: Remember lists in order, forming an exaggerated association connecting item one to two, and so on  Take a Mental Walk: Mentally walk along a familiar path, placing objects or ideas along the path  Use a system
    48. 48. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grZuw o_YlY0&feature=related
    49. 49.  Very persuasive in court Often faulty due to  High arousal levels  Lack of attentional focus  LTM can alter memories (eg false memories)
    50. 50.  Police line-up evidence tainted due to  Witness being “led” by police  Witness eagerness to please police  The false belief that the perpertrator is present in the line-up.
    51. 51.  Bomber on the roof http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D7EpYl KaBM8  Line-up http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oZPOHI ndSVQ&feature=related
    52. 52. The theory that information stored in LTM sometimes changes over time to become more consistent with our beliefs, knowledge, and expectations. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzbRpMlEHzM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bfhIuaD183I
    53. 53.  False memories (confabulations) are as “real” as real memories.  Some memories may be distorted through influences such as the incorporation of new information.
    54. 54.  some are the result of the prodding, leading, and suggestions of therapists and counselors.  Some are the result of brain damage or lesions – (Korsakoff's syndrome)
    55. 55.  Dr. Elizabeth Loftus has shown it is relatively easy to implant false memories, especially in an individual with an internal desire to please or to conform. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PQr_IJvYzbA Wrongful conviction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QtEZYJRq7s
    56. 56.  Memories created during times of personal tragedy, accident, or other emotionally significant events that are especially vivid  Where were you when you heard that the USA was attacked on September 11th, 2001?  Includes both positive and negative events  Not always accurate  Great confidence is placed in them even though they may be inaccurate
    57. 57. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evj6q0eC dd8
    58. 58.  Hippocampus: Brain structure associated with information passing from short- term memory into long-term memory; also associated with emotion  If damaged, person can no longer “create” long-term memories and thus will always live in the present  Memories prior to damage will remain intact
    59. 59.  Knowledge of Results: Feedback allowing you to check your progress  Recitation: Summarizing aloud while you are rehearsing material  Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently)  Elaborative Rehearsal: Look for connections to existing knowledge
    60. 60.  Selection: Selecting most important concepts to memorize  Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of reordering
    61. 61. 1. Identify the operations involved in the information-processing view of memory and understand the three-stage theory of memory. 2. Know the characteristics of the sensory registers (ionic, echoic). 3. Define short-term memory and understand how its life span and capacity can be influenced. 4. Discuss the ways in which long-term memory differs from short-term memory. 5. Describe the three kinds of long-term memory: procedural, declarative - episodic and declarative- semantic. 6. Explain the effect of maintenance and elaborative rehearsal and the uses of mnemonics in storage of information in LTM
    62. 62. 9. Explain the serial position effect 10. Distinguish between deep and shallow processing in the levels of processing model and understand the role of elaboration. 11. Distinguish among the major theories of forgetting: decay theory, interference theory (proactive and retroactive inhibition), and motivated forgetting. 12. Understand how information is organized in long-term memory. 13. Understand the purpose of schemas. 14. Describe the formation of false memories and flashbulb memories. 15. Understand the results of research relating eyewitness testimony and memory.
    63. 63. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8OEt2ap YxU0
    64. 64.  Scroll down to episode 9 , click on Vod box (video on demand)  9. Remembering and Forgetting This program looks at the complex process called memory: how images, ideas, language, and even physical actions, sounds, and smells are translated into codes, represented in the memory and retrieved when needed.  http://www.learner.org/resources/series138.html?pop=yes&pid=1528
    65. 65. Horizon Documentary part 1 - 5 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pxVb6M8UPTQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HGXbY3fUOlg&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBfKbOEWR6I&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyMAtDPA4uM&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pikAnZw38CI&feature=related
    66. 66. http://quizlet.com/28825/psychology- memory-flash-cards/ Other memory tests http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chme mory.html
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