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Emotion annesley 2010

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    Emotion annesley 2010 Emotion annesley 2010 Presentation Transcript

    • Emotion
    • Subjective
      Physiological
      Behavioral
      Social
      Aspects of Emotion
    • Components of Emotion
      Cognitive component
      subjective conscious feelings—thoughts, values and expectations
    • Components of Emotion
      Physiological (arousal) component
      controlled by certain brain structures and autonomic nervous system
    • “Fight or Flight”
      Restore Calm
    • Components of Emotion
      Behavioural component
      (emotional expression—facial expressions, gestures, body position, use of eye gaze, touch and tone of voice)
    • Why do we feel emotion?
      What purpose does it serve?
      Are humans the only animals that feel emotion?
      How many emotions are there?
    • James-Lange Theory
      A stimulus directly produces physiological changes and behavior, and then these events produce the feeling of an emotion.
    • James-Lange Theory
      Smiling makes you feel happy
      Crying makes you feel sad
    • Class experiment
      Hold a pen/pencil in your mouth
      Group 1: hold pen with lips
      Group 2: hold pen with teeth
      Group 3: hold pen in
      non-dominant hand
    • Rate the following cartoons for the
      level of humour 1 – 5
      1 not humourous
      2 a bit humourous
      3 moderately humourous
      4 very humourous
      5 extremely humourous
    • Facial Feedback Hypothesis
      Facial feedback is interpreted by the brain as being a certain emotion.
      Once an emotion is activated, the
      whole body becomes aroused.
      Arousal and external stimuli maintain the emotion after facial feedback initiates it.
    • Facial Feedback Hypothesis:The modern version of James-Lange theory
      Facial
      expressions
      Emotional
      experience
    • Passive Facial Feedback Participants and apparatus (do not note)
      • One hundred and eight-nine Japanese undergraduates (101 males and 88 females) participated.
      • One hundred and thirteen were assigned to the experimental condition, and 76 to the control condition.
      • Small plastic pipettes and warmed water were used.
    • Method
      • Water dripped on the participants cheeks or temples.
      • Then, the raters rated their subjective emotion on a seven point scale.
      Experimental Condition
      Control Condition
    • Water dropping on the cheeks tended to cause the sad emotion more often than the cheerfulness.
    • Cannon-Bard Theory
      Theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion occur at the same time.
    • Theory of Cognitive Appraisal
      (Schachter-Singer 2 factor theory of emotion)
      A two-stage theory stating that for an emotion to occur, there must be
      physiological arousal and
      an explanation for the arousal
    • Two key variables manipulated-
      Arousal
      Emotional Explanation for the Arousal were the two
      Participants injected with “suproxin”
      Placebo or Epinephrine
      Participants either informed or misinformed about the effects of the drug
      Confederate acted angry or euphoric
      Schachter and Singer (1962)Experiment
    • Epinephrine uninformed more angry/happy than informed because they attributed their arousal (which was drug induced) to the situation.
      Implication:
      Emotions are somewhat arbitrary, depending on what the most plausible explanation for the arousal happens to be.
    • Evaluation of Emotion Theories
      Emotional responses vary more than any one theory allows depending on the situation.
      Currently no emotional theory is accepted as completely correct .
    • Three Ways to Measure Emotion
      Body/Physical
      Thoughts
      Behavior
    • Culture and Emotional Expression
      Basic emotions are similar
      Social rules about display of emotions vary from culture to culture eg Japanese vs Italian
    • Three Ways to Measure Emotion
      • Body/Physical
      • blood pressure
      • heart rate
      • epinephrine levels
      • muscle activity when smiling, frowning, etc.
      • neural images
      • posture
      • tears,
      • perspiration
      • lie detector readings
    • Three Ways to Measure Emotion
      • Thoughts (observed indirectly through)
      • spoken and written words on rating scales
      • answers to open-ended questions on surveys and during interviews
      • self-assessments or perceptions regarding the behavior and intentions of others
      • other cognitive operations such as rational/logical thinking
    • Three Ways to Measure Emotion
      • Behavior
      • facial expressions
      • activity level
      • alertness
      • screaming
      • laughing
      • smiling
      • aggression
      • approach/avoidance
      • attention/distraction
      • insomnia
    • Ethical Issues of Polygraphs
      Lie detectors only 75% reliable
      Some people better at hiding facial/body expression of emotion
    • Overview of General Theories of Emotion
      James-Lange Theory (arousal and expression produce emotion)
      ii. Cannon-Bard Theory (cognitions, arousal and expression are simultaneous)
      iii. Facial-Feedback Hypothesis (expression produces emotion)
      iv. Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory (emotions depend on 2 factors—physical arousal and cognitive labelling of that arousal)
    • Ms Collins Psychology Class Semester 2 2009Facial Feedback Experiment
      Results show that facial expression has an affect on how humorous a participant found a series of cartoons.