Brain and behaviour 2010
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Brain and behaviour 2010






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Brain and behaviour 2010 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Brain and Behaviour
  • 2. What are nerves?
    How do they work?
    Where do you find them in the body?
    Can our bodies function without nerves?
  • 3. Structure of the Nervous system
  • 4.
  • 5. Central Nervous System
    Brain + spinal cord.
    Oversees everything we do, feel and think
  • 6. Peripheral Nervous System
    Relays messages to and from outer parts of the body (periphery) and the brain.
    Sensory nerves collect information from the senses.
    Motor nerves control the muscles. (pg 289. 9.3)
  • 7. Autonomic nervous system
    the part of the nervous system outside conscious control
    affects the cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive and respiratory organs.
    sympathetic parasympathetic
    (fight/flight) (restores calm)
    (Pg 289 activity 9.4)
  • 8. Nerves
    Nerves  Collections of neurons that are joined together by connective tissue.
    Responsible for transferring impulses from receptors to CNS and back to effectors (muscles or glands).
  • 9. The Neuron
    the basic functional unit of the nervous system.
    is a cell that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signaling
    You have around 100 billion neurons
  • 10. Basic Neuron Structure
  • 11. Dendrite extensions that receive information from other neurons
    Cell Body or Soma The control center of the neuron, contains nucleus
    Axon transmits infomation from dendrites to other neurons
    Myelin Sheath  An insulating layer around an axon.
  • 12. Types of Neurons
    1. Sensory Neurons Neurons located in receptororgans (skin, eyes, ears). Function: receive incoming stimuli from the environment.
    2. Motor Neurons Neurons located near effectors (muscles and glands) Function: Carry impulses to initiate a response.
    3. Interneurons Neurons that relay messages between other neurons eg between sensory and motor neurons. (found most often in brain and spinal cord).
  • 13. Motor end plates
    © David B. Fankhauser, Ph.D., Professor of Biology and Chemistry, University of Cincinnati Clermont College
  • 14. Don’t draw
  • 15.
  • 16. Communication within neurons is electrical
    An electrical signal is sent down the length of the axon. This electrical signal is called an “action potential”
  • 17. Neurotransmisson
  • 18. Communication between neurons is chemical
    When the electrical impulse reaches the terminal buttons, they release chemicals called neurotransmitters(NTs) into the synapse.
  • 19. Communication between neurons is chemical
    These NTs connect with receptor sites of nearby neurons. The neurotransmitters “fit in” to these receptor sites like a key into a lock.
  • 20. Neurotransmitters…
    …are chemicals that are released into the synapse by neurons.
    These NTs are “taken back up” into the terminal buttons of neurons through the process of reuptake
  • 21.
  • 22. How anxiety effects the body
  • 23. Excitoryvs Inhibitory neurotransmitters
    Depending on the neurotransmitter released into the synapse it either excites or inhibits the next neuron from firing.
    Some neurotransmitters do both!
  • 24.
  • 25. Drugs Interfere with Neurotransmission
    Drugs can affect synapses at a variety of sites and in a variety of ways, including:
    Increasing number of impulses
    Release neurotransmitters from vesicles with or without impulses
    Block reuptake or block receptors
    Produce more or less neurotransmitters
    Prevent vesicles from releasing neurotransmitters
  • 26. Drugs That Influence Neurotransmitters
  • 27. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical activity of the surface of the brain.
  • 28. Computed tomography (CT)
    brain-imaging method using computer controlled X-rays of the brain.
  • 29. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    • brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain.
  • Functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
    • Functional MRI (fMRI) – computer makes a sort of “movie” of changes in the activity of the brain using images from different time periods.
  • 30. Positron emission tomography (PET)
    brain-imaging method in which a radioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer compiles a color-coded image of the activity of the brain with lighter colors indicating more activity.
  • 31. Brain Plasticity
    Neuroplasticity or brain plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to CHANGE through­out life.
    The brain has the amazing ability to reorganise itself by forming new connections between neurons.
  • 32. Brain Plasticity