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- 1. Heredity, Genetics Punnett Squares & Probability Mr. Miller
- 2. Lets find out if the two pigeons on the left produce offspring that have the traits of the pigeon on the right
- 3. To do this we must understand how to use a Punnet Square <ul><li>What is a Punnet Square? </li></ul><ul><li>A chart that allows us to determine the different genotypes that offspring can inherit from their parents </li></ul>
- 4. Lets see how to use it <ul><li>First we must get the genotype of each parent </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>T: allele for tallness </li></ul><ul><li>t: allele for shortness </li></ul><ul><li>tt – mothers genotype </li></ul><ul><li>Tt – fathers genotype </li></ul>
- 5. Now lets set up the Punnet Square T t t t T T t t t t t t
- 6. What are the number of genotypes for the traits the offspring can inherit? T t t t <ul><li>The offspring can inherit two sets of genes that will produce a tall phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>The offspring can inherit two sets of genes that will produce a short phenotype </li></ul>Tt tt Tt tt
- 7. Now lets talk about probability <ul><li>What is probability? </li></ul><ul><li>Probability is the chance that an event will occur </li></ul><ul><li>How do you find the probability of an event? </li></ul><ul><li>You must know: </li></ul><ul><li>the number of specific events </li></ul><ul><li>the number of possible events </li></ul>
- 8. Lets find the probability the child will be tall <ul><li>How many genotypes will produce a tall offspring? </li></ul>2 What are number of possible genotypes? 4 T t t t Tt tt Tt tt
- 9. Now lets find the probability! <ul><li>Probability = </li></ul><ul><li>Number of specific event 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of possible events 4 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The probability of having a tall offspring is ½, 1:2, or 50% </li></ul>
- 10. Now try this one <ul><li>Determine the types of genes an offspring can inherit from parents that have the following genotypes: </li></ul><ul><li>Zz - father’s genotype </li></ul><ul><li>Zz - mother’s genotype </li></ul><ul><li>Z: gene for gray feathers </li></ul><ul><li>z: allele for white feathers </li></ul>Z Z z z z z z Z Z Z z Z
- 11. Now lets look at the possible genotypes and the phenotypes that will be expressed Z Z z z z z z Z Z Z z Z There is a single possibility of inheriting a homozygous (pure) dominant genotype which will produce a phenotype with grey feathers There are two possibilities of inheriting heterozygous (hybrid) genotypes which will produce a phenotype with grey feathers
- 12. Now lets look at the possible genotypes and the phenotypes that will be expressed Z Z z z z z z Z Z Z z Z There is a single possibility of inheriting a homozygous (pure) recessive genotype which will produce a phenotype with white feathers So two grey birds can produce a pigeon with white feathers!
- 13. Now lets find the probability <ul><li>Lets find the probability the offspring will have grey feathers. </li></ul>= Z Z z z ZZ Zz Zz zz
- 14. Now lets find the probability <ul><li>Lets find the probability the offspring will have white feathers. </li></ul>= Z Z z z ZZ Zz Zz zz

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