SERIOUS GAMING 4SERIOUS LEARNINGBridging the gap?
What bridge? Digital immigrants & Digital Natives(Prensky, 2001) Teaching styles & learning styles (Becker 2006) Formal learning and informal learning Surface Learning & deep learning Students’ Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation Direct instruction & Inductive teaching style Linear modes & inclusive, collaborative modesNo single theory, different ways of learning &teaching
Behaviourist Model of gaming Behaviouristic = repetitive associations to contiguous stimuli (pattern) for reinforcement Logical presentation of content Requirement of overt responses Feedback right/wrong and optional score Consolidates grammar, vocabulary, spelling Often disconnected from learning experience See MingoVille (5-13 y-o) – Sequitur, Hotpotatoes Precursor of digital games (reinforcement – PC=tutor) Little interaction & reflection on learning
Cognitivist/ConstructivistModels Cognitivist tenets are Symbol manipulation and transformation Direct instruction and practice (behaviorism) Constructivist tenets are: Puzzlement is stimulus for learning Interaction with the environment/task problem Social negotiation with others Personal evaluation and scaffolded reflection to solve problems and advance knowledge (hunts, murder mysteries, simulations)Some MMORPG used in (socio) constructivistapproaches: , The Sims 3 , (9-16)
In a nut shell (Jonnassen, Wilson & grabinger, 1993) Behaviourist game design Constructivist game design No extraneous information Natural complexity and content of language Simplifies comprehensibility Avoids oversimplification Reconstructs/replicates knowledge Present multiple representation / Abstracts instruction perspectives experience Real world contexts Focuses on acquiring skills Engages reflective Prescriptive sequences of practice instruction Offer open learning Supports individual learning environments
The situated perspective Knowledge not an object, memory not a location Social interaction and negotiation in new situations Learning happens in authentic contexts Bridges the artificiality of classroom learning to real-life situations Knowledge construction through participation In given communities with specific Culture, Language & Tools
Games characteristics(Prensky, 2001) Goals and objectives Rules Conflict, competition, challenge and opposition Interaction Outcome and feedback The representation of a story Some games and virtual environments used in education MinecraftEdu, (widely used in primary, secondary education) SecondLife, (soft and hard sciences) WoW (wow in Schools wiki) Atlantis Remixed (9-16 y-o) Civilization V
Gee’s Affordances (foreword in Reinders2012)A good game design include: Well-ordered problems Tools (and other players) to solve problems Learning by negotiating, building, sharing, Copious feedback to prepare for next stages, higher level Next stages have new challenges (ZPD – cycle of expertise) Playing & Learning through social interaction and mentoring Two way narratives Reach standards in different ways Easy design so gamers can become designers(See Jonassen 1994)
Challenges for educators Opportunity or disruption? – mechanics of gameplay Learning to play versus learning language Requirements (hardware and human resources, time) Institutional buy-in Curriculum Integration (alignment goals- assessment) feedback, on-going assessment, formative vs summative Needs more research & practice, check livebinders See Stephen Thorne’s IATEFL 2012 Keynote Read this post of teacher of German using WoW
Further Readings: Becker, K., (2006) Games and Learning Styles, Academia.Edu [online] Brown, J.S., Collins, A. & Duguid, S. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. Jonassen, D.H., Wilson, B.G., Wang, S., & Grabinger, R.S. (1993). Constructivist uses of expert systems to support learning. Journal of Computer- Based Instruction, 20(3), 86-94. Kkorthagen F.A.J., (2010) Situate Learning Theory and the Pedagogy of Teacher Education: Towards an integrative View of Teacher Behaviour and Teacher Learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26 (pp98-106) [online] Lave, J., & Wenger, E., (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Prensky M.,(2001) Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. On the Horizon, MCB University Press, Vol. 9 No. 5, October 2001 Reeve J. K. (2010) . Constructivism and Its Application to Game-Based Learning [online] Reinders, H. (2012) Digital Games in Language Learning and Teaching, New Language Learning & Teaching Environments. Basingtoke, England: Palgrave MacMillan Young, F. Y. (1993). Instructional Design for Situated Learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 41 (1), 43-57.