Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #1 Nanotechnology:   What Is It, And Why Is It So “BIG” Now? © patton brothers illus...
<ul><ul><li>This module is one of a series designed to be used by faculty members at post-secondary institutions in worksh...
Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges <...
So What Does the Word “Nanotechnology” Mean? <ul><li>It means technology based on man-made things that are  really, really...
Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges <...
<ul><li>How small is </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>1,000,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>of a meter? </li></ul>Copyright...
Where does the Nanometer fit in the length scale? Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University 1 meter = 3.28 fe...
Another way of looking at how small a Nanometer is- ©2009 NanoHorizons Inc.  Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State U...
Still another way of looking at how small a Nanometer is- Click on the black box to view Mini Cooper movie Copyright April...
Definitions of Some Different Size Ranges <ul><li>Macro-scale  ●  The sizes of things we’re accustomed to  </li></ul><ul><...
How Do We See Things  in These Different Size Ranges? Meter Size Range These are sizes we can see with just our eyes Milli...
Let’s look at these size ranges pictorially. Let’s also get some idea of what nature makes and what man makes in these siz...
Some Small Naturally Occurring and Man-Made Structures 1 mm 100 µm 10 µm 1 µm 100 nm 10 nm 1 nm 100 pm Transistor of 2007 ...
Also note from our pictorial representation of scales that the next size range that is smaller than the nano-scale is the ...
<ul><li>The pico-scale is the size range of the </li></ul><ul><li>basic “legos” used to build  </li></ul><ul><li>everythin...
Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges <...
What’s After Nanotechnology – Is there a Picotechnology? No, nothing to build at the pico-scale. The elements of the unive...
Nano-Scale <ul><ul><ul><li>Lots to build at the nano-scale. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms and molecules are th...
“ Nanotechnology is the builder’s final frontier.”   Richard Smalley 1996 Nobel Laurate in Chemistry, Rice University  Sma...
Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges <...
Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges <...
<ul><li>If nanotechnology has been practiced by humans for almost 2000 years, why is it taking off now? </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Because we have learned what’s going on-  </li></ul><ul><li>We can now  controllably  and  repeatedly  make things...
<ul><li>For example, today’s  transistors  are nano-scale structures. In fact, the advanced transistors in production in 2...
<ul><li>The following picture is a cross-section of an actual man-made transistor (circa 2002). This is a  FET transistor ...
Adapted from Linda Geppert, The Amazing Vanishing Transistor Act, IEEE Spectrum, October  2002, Vol. 39, Number 10, pg. 28...
<ul><li>We can now see what we have made! </li></ul><ul><li>We can even routinely see atoms now! </li></ul>Copyright April...
<ul><li>The next view graph shows 48 atoms that have been dragged across a surface (itself, of course, made of atoms) and ...
Quantum Corral IBM Research Division M.F. Crommie, C.P. Lutz, D.M. Eigler.  Confinement of electrons to quantum corrals on...
<ul><li>Because of the advances that have very recently been achieved in what we can make and what we can see, nanotechnol...
Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #2 A Brief History of Nanotechnology © patton brothers illustration ( www.pattonbros...
Outline <ul><li>The history of nanotechnology. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The era when we couldn’t see things this smal...
Eons  ago. <ul><li>With the first use of fire, humans began their first encounter with man-made  nanoparticles – the carbo...
<ul><li>About 2000 years ago.   </li></ul><ul><li>In Roman times people learned that they could put gold and silver into g...
Famous example of this Roman Nanotechnology:  4 th  Century   Lycurgus Cup <ul><ul><li>In reflected light, cup appears  gr...
Around the year   1100.   Arab craftsmen made steel swords of legendary  strength. Today we know these swords had carbon  ...
Reprinted with permission from Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93,  Issue 12, P.10058, 2003, American Institute of Physic...
Outline <ul><li>The history of nanotechnology . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The era when we couldn’t see things this sma...
<ul><li>Faraday learned to reproducibly use gold to make gold nanoparticles. (The procedure he developed is today called c...
<ul><li>Einstein explained that colloid particles (today we call them nanoparticles) are so small that gravity can not mak...
Around 1910. Zsigmondy and the Nanometer <ul><li>Zsigmondy made a detailed study of gold colloid solutions   and other nan...
In 1931.   Ruska Develops the  Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)---  The beginnings of being able to really “SEE” at ...
<ul><li>1932.  </li></ul><ul><li>Irving Langmuir and Katharine   Blodgett Discover How to Make Monolayers </li></ul>In 193...
<ul><li>1932.  </li></ul><ul><li>Langmuir — Blodgett Monolayers </li></ul>Precise control at the nanoscale—one  monolayer ...
In 1959.   Richard Feynman gives his famed talk “There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom” “ What I want to talk about is the...
He uses it to signify machining with tolerances of less than a micron (1000 nanometers). Today the term nanotechnology has...
Outline <ul><li>The history of nanotechnology . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The era when we couldn’t see things this sma...
In 1981. Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invent the first of the scanning probe tools- -- the scanning tunneling microscop...
<ul><li>In 1985. </li></ul><ul><li>Smalley, Curl and Kroto discover carbon 60 (C60) </li></ul>60 Carbon atoms in a buckmin...
In 1989. Donald M. Eigler of IBM “writes” for the  first time with individual atoms Scanning probe tools   (specifically t...
In 1986.   Eric Drexler publishes: “ Engines of Creation” Science fiction interest in nano begins  Copyright April 2009 Th...
In 1991.   Sumio Iijima of NEC in Tsukubaka, Japan, discovered  carbon nanotubes . Another unique carbon bonding configura...
<ul><li>In 1993.   </li></ul><ul><li>First Quantum Dots are Produced </li></ul>Quantum dots   are semiconductor nanopartic...
In 1998.   Cees Dekker’s group at the Delft University of Technology demonstrates a  transistor   made from a carbon nanot...
In 1999. Tour (Rice University) and Reed (Yale University) demonstrate single molecules can act as switches turning electr...
<ul><li>In 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Man-made molecular motors </li></ul>The molecule  Kinesin , shown here in cartoon form,...
<ul><li>In 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype fuel cells fabricated using nanotechnology </li></ul>Nano-scale  electrode   ...
<ul><li>Around 2002.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nano gets practical: Stain resistant textiles using nano-particles appear </li></u...
<ul><li>In 2005 . </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles with embedded anti-microbial silver nanoparticles appear in production </li><...
<ul><li>In 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoparticles begun to be used clinically in cancer treatments </li></ul>By exploiting ...
Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #3 A Snapshot of Nanotechnolo...
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
<ul><li>Many countries and companies see the exciting opportunities and economic benefits that nanotechnology offers and a...
Nanotechnology Investments Government, Corporation, and Venture Capitalist Investments Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvan...
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
<ul><li>The opportunities and advances provided by nanotechnology are already turning into products for sale in the market...
Nanotechnology Products:  Facts and Forecasts <ul><li>Predicted growth of nanotechnology products on the market : </li></u...
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
More Products Mean a Growing Need for a Trained Nanotechnology Workforce <ul><li>Workforce Demand : </li></ul><ul><li>By 2...
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
<ul><li>Let’s do a brief sampling of the nanotechnology products currently for sale in the marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Product Example # 1 <ul><li>It works by—   </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that gold nanoparticles can be  </li></ul><ul>...
Product Example # 1   (continued) <ul><li>It works by—   </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact, if this hormone is present, the...
<ul><li>The product:  </li></ul><ul><li>First Response® Home Pregnancy Test   </li></ul><ul><li>“ First Response home-preg...
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
Product Example # 2 <ul><li>It works by—   </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that nanoparticles can be functionalized to at...
Product Example # 2   (continued) <ul><li>It works by—   </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that nanoparticles can also be e...
Details <ul><li>Some drugs used for cancer therapy are hard to dissolve in blood. These drugs may be effective against can...
<ul><li>Details  (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>These album in nanoparticles can be engineered to carry anti-cancer drugs t...
<ul><li>Such drug-carrying albumin nanoparticles are now being used very effectively by physicians to carry anti-cancer dr...
<ul><li>The product:   </li></ul><ul><li>Abraxane®, the first approved drug to use albumin nanoparticles to improve the   ...
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
<ul><li>It works by—   </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that the color of this emitted light will depend on the value of  ...
Details <ul><li>The emitted light from a semiconductor nanoparticle is called  fluorescence .   Nanoparticles can fluoresc...
The Product: Quantum dots   These are available commercially and used in, for example, medical research for their very str...
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
A Single-wall Carbon Nanotube The carbon atoms are the balls Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
<ul><li>Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have this unusual chemical bonding and are pound for pound much stronger than steel!  </li...
The product:  Easton, a company that makes bicycles, is using carbon nanotubes in bikes they have on the market. Easton ha...
www.pezcyclingnews.com Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
The very high surface to volume ratio of nanoparticles Lower surface    Higher surface  to volume ratio   to volume ratio ...
<ul><li>It works by—   </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that some metal nanoparticles are anti-microbial (e.g., kill bacte...
Details <ul><li>Silver ions from silver nanoparticles can be ingested into a microbe, interrupting RNA replication and pre...
Details  (continued) <ul><li>Bacteria are the reason for clothing odors.  </li></ul><ul><li>Silver nanoparticles in textil...
A silver nanoparticle attached to a textile fiber Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University © 2009 NanoHorizo...
The Product:  A number of companies are manufacturing and  selling shoes and clothing containing silver nanoparticles for ...
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
<ul><li>It works by—   </li></ul><ul><li>Using   the fact that nanostructures are very small.  This means that many can fi...
<ul><li>Everyone wants faster computers and more memory. This has forced engineers to make transistors smaller and smaller...
Adapted from Linda Geppert, The Amazing Vanishing Transistor Act, IEEE Spectrum,  October  2002, Vol. 39, Number 10, pg. 2...
Details   (continued) <ul><li>Transistors now in production are as small as 45nm in length! </li></ul>Copyright April 2009...
Details   (continued) <ul><li>Today microelectronics has moved from the microscale to the nanoscale. </li></ul><ul><li>It ...
The Product:   Companies are manufacturing microelectronics circuits with more speed and more functionality due to the nan...
Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></...
Details <ul><li>Nanoparticles are finding uses in food processing, packaging and additives. </li></ul><ul><li>One example ...
<ul><li>It works by—   </li></ul><ul><li>Using   the fact that nanoparticles are very small. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the f...
Product Example # 7   (continued) <ul><li>The Product:   </li></ul><ul><li>Frying oil from the company OilFresh. Has  tiny...
Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #4 The Uniqueness of the Nano-scale   © patton brothers illustration ( www.pattonbro...
<ul><li>As we’ll see, new doors open at the nano-scale:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New things happen and new  opportunities be...
Outline <ul><li>A listing of some of the unique attributes of the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples of the impact...
Here is a Listing of Some of the Unique Attributes of the Nano-scale <ul><li>Very small size—obvious yet the impact is tre...
Some of the Unique Attributes of the Nano-scale  (continued) <ul><li>Sizes corresponding to basic biological structures </...
Outline <ul><li>A listing of some of the unique attributes of the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples of the impact...
Very Small Size <ul><li>Can fit many “nano-sized things” together with little space in between </li></ul><ul><li>Can get l...
An example of an impact of this attribute: Huge Areal Densities The huge number of nano-scale transistors possible per are...
High surface to volume ratio Ratio = 3/R This ratio is very big when R is very small Ratio = 4 π R 2 _ 4/3 π R 3 Copyright...
Impact of the Huge Surface to Volume Ratio Percent Surface Atoms Diameter (nm) This figure shows the inverse relationship ...
Reprinted figure with permission from Buffat and Borel, “Phys Rev. A” Volume   13, p 2287 (1976). Copyright 1976 by the Am...
Surface Forces Dominate  over Bulk Forces <ul><li>Bulk force importance  decreases  with decreasing volume </li></ul><ul><...
Surface Forces Dominate  over Gravity <ul><li>Gravity’s importance  decreases  with decreasing volume </li></ul><ul><li>Su...
An example of an impact of this attribute:   Colloidal Solutions The nano-scale colloidal particles in the solutions seen ...
Emergence of Quantum Mechanical Effects <ul><li>Electrons can only have certain energies in atoms due to quantum mechanics...
An example of an impact of this attribute:   Semiconductor Quantum Dots   When excited by light, quantum dots fluoresce (r...
Importance of the Wave Properties of Light <ul><li>The wavelength    of visible light is much larger than the sizes R of ...
An example of an impact of this  attribute: Photonic Crystals Man-made nano-structures can cause light to turn sharp 90 de...
Butterfly Scales 20,000 x magnification 5000x magnification 220x magnification 1x magnification of wing Another example of...
Sizes Corresponding to Basic Biological Structures <ul><li>We can now easily make structures in the 1nm to ~100nm size ran...
The cell is a complex structure with many compartments and organelles possessing individual and interdependent functions. ...
Golovchenko, Branton, et. al. (Harvard Nanopore Group)  Sequencing DNA using nanopore ionic conductance. Another Example: ...
DNA: millions of atoms long  but 2.5 nm wide Nanostructures can have the dimensions seen in macromolecules Copyright April...
We can now make man-made versions of Nature`s motors like this one. Here Myosin V (blue), a cellular motor protein, carrie...
Unique chemical bonding configurations possible Carbon nanotubes   Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University ...
An example of an impact of this attribute  Superior strength concrete for construction made with CNTs Carbon nanotubes dis...
Molecular Self-Assembly An example: a mixture of two polymeric molecules can be made to self-assemble, under the influence...
New Ways of Seeing things The nano-scale tips on scanning probe  microscopes (SPMs) allow us to even “see” atoms Actual At...
<ul><li>Electron beam-based techniques </li></ul><ul><li>TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) </li></ul><ul><li>SEM (Sca...
Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #5 How Do We “See” Things at the Nano-scale:  An Introduction to Characterization Te...
Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing im...
“ Seeing” at the Nano-scale <ul><li>By “seeing” at the nano-scale, we mean (1) being able to literally see  size ,   shape...
Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing im...
Seeing at the Nano-scale <ul><li>One way to see things at the nano-scale is to use  beams of electrons .  </li></ul><ul><l...
A Beam of Electrons Interacts in Many Ways when it Impinges on a Material <ul><li>When a beam of electrons hits a  materia...
Using the Transmitted Electrons to “See” <ul><li>Seeing by using the transmitted electrons is called  transmission electro...
Schematic of a TEM or FE-TEM JEOL 2010F Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, 3 rd  ed. Dieter K. Schroder, ...
Size, Shape, and Structure Observations using a TEM Here a silver nanowire is seen at various levels of magnification and ...
Using the Backscattered and Secondary Electrons to “See” <ul><li>Seeing by using the backscattered and secondary electrons...
SEM Operation Click on the image to view the movie Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University SEM Images and T...
A Size and Shape Observation using an SEM A carbon nanotube Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Copyrig...
Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing im...
Using the X-rays to “See” <ul><li>Seeing the elemental composition of a specimen by using the X-rays produced by electron ...
An X-ray Detector Instrument <ul><li>This is the X-ray detector needed. It is installed in electron microscope (TEM or SEM...
A Size, Shape, and Composition Observations using X-rays Imaging Technology Group, Beckman Institute of Advanced Science a...
Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing im...
Scanning Probe Tools for Seeing at the Nano-scale <ul><li>Another way to see things at the nano-scale is to use nano-scale...
SPM Tools All Use a Probe with a Nano-scale Sized Tip Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Image courtes...
Some of the Types of Scanning Probe Tools <ul><li>Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)—uses forces between atoms of the probe and...
<ul><li>As noted, this type of SPM uses the force between a nano-scale probe tip and the atoms of the specimen surface to ...
Deflection of the cantilever due to varying forces between the nano-scale tip and the atoms of the surface is picked up by...
AFM Operation Movie courtesy of Veeco Instruments Inc. Tapping mode Click on the black box to view the movie  Copyright Ap...
Size and Shape Observations using an AFM Seeing DNA using an AFM Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Co...
AFM Probes can be used to move  Nano-particles   Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
<ul><li>As noted earlier, this type of SPM uses the tunneling current between the tip and the atoms of a surface to create...
Picture of the Atoms on a Silicon Surface Imaged using STM Atoms on a silicon surface. Note that  you can see that  Nature...
STM Probes can also be used to move  Individual Atoms or Molecules Using Voltages applied between the Tip and the selected...
Here atoms on a surface are being arranged by an STM to form a corral Don Eigler and co-workers at IBM published these gre...
A Quantum Corral As Seen By STM The STM tunneling current has been turned by a computer into this false color STM image  o...
<ul><li>Another example of a probe-based technique is  Nano-indentation . This technique presses a nano-scale tip into a s...
Nano-Indentation Operation <ul><li>Scan surface of a specimen </li></ul><ul><li>performing  indentations using selected in...
Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing im...
So how small can we go and still “see”? <ul><li>The range of some often-used characterization techniques-- </li></ul><ul><...
Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #6 How Do You Make Things So Small?  An Introduction to Nanofabrication © patton bro...
Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is...
Making nano-scale “things” is called  Nanofabrication Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
<ul><li>There are three different approaches to Nanofabrication – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication   </l...
Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nano-particles   </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g., macro-molecules,  </...
<ul><li>How are these things made – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication  makes  nano-structures  by repeate...
Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication. </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How i...
<ul><li>Sometimes no direction is  </li></ul><ul><li>needed; i.e., no patterns for  </li></ul><ul><li>establishing positio...
<ul><li>Externally Imposed Pattern  (This  </li></ul><ul><li>approach is generally called  </li></ul><ul><li>lithography )...
<ul><li>Using lithography for placing, growing, or modifying materials into patterns, where you want, on a structure on a ...
An Example of An   Externally Imposed Pattern (Lithography)   <ul><li>Pattern is transferred from a “mask” using light (ph...
<ul><li>Using size, shape, specific chemical bonding or all of these to establish a pattern in the nanofabrication  </li><...
An Example of An  Inherent Pattern   <ul><li>Pattern is dictated by shape and chemical bonding in this example  </li></ul>...
Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is...
Top-down Nanofabrication is like Sculpting Start with a material supported on  a substrate Add some new material  accordin...
Top-down Nanofabrication is like Sculpting Subtract some of the material according to a pattern (Process order is not impo...
Bottom-up Nanofabrication is like putting blocks together The building blocks can go together in some inherent  pattern di...
Top-Down Vs.  Bottom-Up Nanofabrication <ul><li>Top-Down Nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>In “top-down” nanofabrication, ...
<ul><li>The  basic materials  of top-down nanofabrication are  layers  (e.g., films) of materials. </li></ul><ul><li>The  ...
Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is...
<ul><ul><li>Lithography   (Pattern transfer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth/Deposition   (Addition process) </li></ul><...
Here’s the way Top-down Nanofabricaton is done – <ul><li>The four steps (lithography, addition, subtraction and modificati...
Etching Lithography Depositing or Growing  Material Modification The Top-down Fabrication Methodology Copyright April 2009...
<ul><li>Let’s see an example of how top-down nanofabrication is used to make nano-scale structures. </li></ul>Copyright Ap...
An Example of a Top-Down Nanofabrication Processing Sequence Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Film G...
The preceding cartoon demonstrates  the four basic steps of top-down nanofabrication: <ul><li>Growth or deposition  (addit...
Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is...
Bottom-up Nanofabrication always uses some combination of – <ul><li>Building block  ( molecules ,  particles ,  and   laye...
Here’s the way Bottom-up Nanofabricaton is done – <ul><li>The two steps (building block fabrication and self-assembly) are...
Building Block Fabrication Self Assembly The Bottom-up Fabrication Methodology Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State...
<ul><li>Let’s see an example of how  </li></ul><ul><li>bottom-up nanofabrication is used  </li></ul><ul><li>to make nano-s...
An Example of a Bottom-Up Nanofabrication Processing Sequence Functionalize the Nanoparticle Link with Antibodies Antigen ...
The preceding cartoon demonstrates the two basic steps of bottom-up nanofabrication: <ul><li>Building Block Fabrication   ...
Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #7 How Do You Build Things So Small:  Top-Down Nanofabrication Copyright April 2009 ...
Outline <ul><li>The basic approach of top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>The basic steps </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit...
Top-down Nanofabrication is like Sculpting Start with a material supported  on a substrate (or just start with the substra...
Top-down Nanofabrication is like Sculpting Subtract some of the material according to a pattern (Process order is not impo...
Outline <ul><li>The basic approach of top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>The basic steps </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit...
<ul><li>The  building blocks  of top-down nanofabrication are  layers   (e.g., films) of materials. These are turned into ...
Etching Lithography Depositing or Growing  Material Modification The Basic Steps of Top-down nanofabrication. These are us...
An Example of a Top-Down Nanofabrication Processing Sequence Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Film G...
In the preceding cartoon sequence, all 4 steps were used. Sometimes, one or more of these steps is not needed and is omitt...
To summarize  — <ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication has four steps  which are use in some sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>The seq...
Outline <ul><li>The basic approach of top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>The basic steps </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit...
Film Deposition or Growth  — <ul><li>Let’s look at each of these steps in more detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s start with ...
Material  modification Deposition or  growth of films/layers Lithography (pattern transfer) Etching (material removal) The...
<ul><li>Material Growth or Deposition is needed in fabrication processing to create the basic building blocks (layers) of ...
Growth by Chemical Reaction Thin Film Substrate HEAT Substrate (This Example Shows Oxidation) Film Grown by Chemical React...
Growth by chemical reaction differs from physical application, physical vapor  deposition, and chemical vapor deposition i...
Physical Application There are many types of physical application processes; e.g., dipping, spraying, and spin-on. Here we...
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) In this example of PVD called  sputtering , a film (purple) is being deposited on  the sub...
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) In this example of CVD, gas molecules (the precursor) are broken  apart by a plasma. The r...
Outline <ul><li>The basic approach of top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>The basic steps </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit...
Material  modification Deposition or  growth of films/layers Lithography (pattern transfer) Etching (material removal) The...
<ul><li>In top-down nanofabrication, a pattern is needed to direct where material remains and where it is removed. This pa...
The name “Lithography” for the Pattern Transfer step comes from two Greek words: <ul><li>Litho – “ stone”  </li></ul><ul><...
The controlling pattern that is “written” to guide the fabrication processes permanently resides in a   “ mask ”, in a   m...
Basic Terms used in Lithography Lithography  – The transferring (writing) of a pattern-usually to a “resist” Resist  – Med...
There are many types of lithography Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Type of  Lithography Initial Lo...
Most Prevalent Lithography Techniques are  - <ul><li>Photolithography </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>E-beam litho...
Photo   (or   Optical ) Lithography Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
Photo (or Optical) Lithography   Mask (pattern is on the mask) Resist  Substrate Visible or  UV light Resist, which has be...
Photo Lithography  (continued)   Exposed photo-resist has been designed to have its chemical bonding  changed in the regio...
Photo Lithography  (continued)   These changed regions are then chemically attacked  by a developer and removed. Copyright...
Photo Lithography   (continued) The result of the chemical attack by the developer is that  the pattern is now “written” i...
<ul><li>The patterned resist can now be used as a chemical  attack barrier (a mask * ) which only allows regions with no r...
Photo Lithography   (continued)   The pattern is put into the substrate by using the resist  as a chemical-attack barrier ...
Dip Pen   Lithography Another Example of a Type  of Lithography Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
Dip Pen Nanolithography - An AFM probe tip is used to write alkanethiols (a type of molecule) onto a surface -Writes sub –...
Embossing   (or   Nano-imprinting )   Lithography Another Example of a Type  of Lithography Copyright April 2009 The Penns...
Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
Structures Produced using Patterns Created by Embossing Lithography Followed by Etching Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylva...
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  • There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • The boundaries between these various size ranges are not rigid but are blurry. For example, some engineers and scientists might say 1/5 of a micrometer is still in the nano-scale. Engineering and Science are very precise except to something like this where the boundaries between these size scales can vary somewhat.
  • The glossary goes into the terms in blue italics. We don`t directly “see” with tools like electron microscopes and tunneling microscopes. These tools take a response and use computer processing to create an image which the human eye can decipher. This table just shows some of the imaging tools available
  • The pico-scale is the size range of an individual atom. The individual atom types found in nature are seen in the periodic table on this viewgraph. These are the basic legos everything else is made of. There`s nothing to make at this size range unless you consider the man-made atoms (also listed in the periodic table of this viewgraph) that are made in accelerators and that live for fractions of a second. There in one technology based in the pico scale---nuclear technology (reactors, bombs, etc)—but that`s the only one. Nanotechnology, on the other hand, impacts and covers many technologies.
  • At the nanoscale, mild thermal vibrations are equivalent to massive earthquakes, and an atom is not able to stand still to have its picture taken. In the cases of the 35 xenon atoms spelling “IBM” in 1990 and the 48 iron atoms defining the quantum corral in 1993, it was necessary for Donald Eigler and his co-workers at the IBM Almaden Research Center in California to reduce the temperature within their scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) chamber to just 4 Kelvin. In both cases, Eigler and co-workers included a sequence of images to show the process of creating the final picture. In the case of the quantum corral, there is a panel of four images showing the construction of the quantum corral, which was reported in Science in 1993.
  • The corral is made by dragging atoms around using an Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) tip.  The system was under ultra high vacuum and cooled to 4K.  The original image used for this viewgraph was taken with an STM in 1993.  The image shown in this viewgraph is a later modification where color is added and the image is rotated.    In forming the corral, the atoms remain in contact with the surface but are pulled by the STM tip to the desired location by increasing the tunneling current.  They move at a rate of about 4 Angstroms per second and never leave the surface.  The tip can be withdrawn by decreasing the tunneling current and the attractive force is eliminated.  The 3rd paragraph on page 525 of the second article noted below goes into good detail about this process.  Background reading on the moving and imaging of atoms can be found at the following: (1) Confinement of Electrons to Quantum Corrals on a Metal Surface M. F. Crommie; C. P. Lutz; D. M. Eigler Science , New Series, Vol. 262, No. 5131. (Oct. 8, 1993), pp. 218-220. (2) Positioning Single Atoms with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope , D. Eigler and E. Schweizer, Nature 344 , 524, 1990.
  • There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • For more information, see http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/science/lycurguscup/sr-lycugus-p1.html
  • For more information, see http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/science/lycurguscup/sr-lycugus-p1.html And read: (1) Paul Mulvaney, Not all That’s Gold Does Glitter, MRS Bulletin, December 2001, pg.’s 1009-1013 and (2) Barber, D J and Freestone, I C, An investigation of the origin of the colour of the Lycurgus Cup by analytical transmission electron microscopy, Archaeometry , 32 (1), 33-45, 1990.
  • Please note the references for further reading: References: (1) Paul Mulvaney, Not all That’s Gold Does Glitter, MRS Bulletin, December 2001, pg.’s 1009-1013 and (2) Barber, D J and Freestone, I C, An investigation of the origin of the colour of the Lycurgus Cup by analytical transmission electron microscopy, Archaeometry , 32 (1), 33-45, 1990.
  • See the article Reibold, M., et al. &amp;quot;Carbon Nanotubes in an Ancient Damascus Sabre.&amp;quot; Nature 444 (2006).
  • This work was done in one of Einstein`s famous 1905 papers. He produced three amazingly insightful papers that year: two on relativity and one on what we`ve come to call nanotechnology.
  • His book is Zsigmondy, R. &amp;quot;Colloids and the Ultramicroscope&amp;quot;, J.Wiley and Sons, NY, (1914). It is available today in paperback.
  • Students can get a “feel” for what it is like to operate a TEM by going to http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/microscopes/tem/tem.html
  • Scanning tunnelinng miicroscopes are now one of many scanning probe tools. One such tool is the atomic force microscope (AFM). Your students can operate an AFM over the web by going to
  • Your students can operate an AFM over the web by contact us and setting up a time slot.
  • There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • For an up-date on nanotechnology products on the market for sale, see the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars web site at www.nanotechproject.org. Specifically go to http://www.nanotechproject.org/index.php?id=44 Another excellent web site is http://www.nano.gov/ A general podcast series called SmallTalk is run by Dr. Stephanie Chasteen, of the Exploratorium’s Teacher Institute. One of the podcasts in this series covers nanotechnology products. See http://www.nisenet.org/publicbeta/podcasts/index.php .
  • Nanoparticles are so small that they can stay in solution forever (so long as there`s no interaction)—so small that gravity can`t make them settle out. These particles are made of gold but not gold in color. We saw already in our module on the history of nanotechnology that the Romans used the fact that nano-scale gold is not “gold” in color to get colored glass.
  • Clicking on words in blue takes you to the glossary for the module set
  • The individual atoms of the nanoparticle are see as the red, green, and blue balls. The drug molecules are attached onto the nanoparticle that has been “functionalized” to accept them. Such functionlization may be achieved, for example, by using a linker molecule which links to the drug molecule and to the nanoparticle. The actual linking can be accomplished with chemical bonding.
  • Human albumin is actually used so that the human antibody system is not set off by the presence of the nanoparticles.
  • As a type of semiconductor nanparticle is made smaller, the Δ E gets bigger and the light given off shifts more to blue.
  • Specific uses of quantum dots are given in the module on medical applications of nanotechnology
  • They can kill bacteria, fungi, and algae depending on the metal
  • Have the students decide which products use which nanoscale attributes.
  • There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • Bigger energy differences between allowed energies as R gets smaller means larger energy photons are emitted when electrons relax from the higher (excited) energy band to the lower (ground state) energy band. Higher energy photons means shorter wavelength light.
  • We have already seen that Nature has a number of ways to create colors. In these modules we have so far seen (1) metal nanoparticle plasmom behavior which gives rise to color, (2) single electron transitions in semiconductor nanoparticles which gives rise to color, and now (3) geometric interference effects which also can give rise to color.
  • CNTs = carbon nanotubes
  • Tools and the size range they can “see” at
  • There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • The incident beam originates at a source. The electron source is heated to boil-off the electrons (thermionic emission) or it is designed so that the electrons can quantum mechanically tunnel out. The latter is called a field emission (an old name for tunneling) source and it is better because the electrons are more mono-energetic and therefore easier to manipulate to get better images. The electrons that come from a thermal emission source have a variety of energies because they have picked up some thermal energy and are therefore harder to manipulate..
  • The electron source is heated to boil-off the electrons (thermionic emission) or it is designed so that the electrons can tunnel out. The latter is called a field emission (an old name for tunneling) source and it is better because the electrons are more mono-energetic.The electrons that come from a thermal emission source have a variety of energies because they have picked up some thermal energy. When an electron beam from the source impinges on a specimen, electrons can make it through the specimen if it is thinner than ~100nm. Using different apertures, bright field, dark field, and diffraction images can be obtained from these transmitted electrons. In all these variations, one thing is common: the number and distribution of emerging electrons is turned by a computer program into an image. See, for example, Dieter K. Schroder, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, 2nd ed., John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.
  • The white line on the lower left of the right-hand side picture shows how wide 2 nm is. This beautiful, repetitive pattern of atoms is the signature of a crystalline solid. Pictures like these are called micrographs.
  • The white line at the bottom of this SEM picture (micrograph) shows how wide 100nm is in this picture. A demonstration of using an SEM for seeing can be set-up using our web based capabilities. Contact us.
  • Composition here refers to the elemental composition
  • A demonstration using the x-rays produced by an SEM to map elemental composition can be set-up using our web access capability. Contact us.
  • Thermal energy gives atoms energy and the move and vibrate. At the nanoscale, all this motion is equivalent to massive earthquakes and an atom is not able to stand still at (or anywhere near) room temperature to have its picture taken. In the case the 48 iron atoms defining the quantum corral, it was necessary for Donald Eigler and his co-workers at the IBM Almaden Research Center in California to reduce the temperature within their scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) chamber to just 4 Kelvin to get the atomic motion to an acceptable level.
  • An STM was used to both move the atoms (using the forces created by the application of voltages) and image the surface.
  • This is a false color version of the image seen in the lower right of the previous viewgraph. The computer also titled the image for us to give some perspective. The blue things that look like “Hershey`s Kisses” are the atoms. Of course, atoms are blue and aren`t shaped like “Hershey`s Kisses”. That shape is an artifact of tunneling. The color blue was the computer programer`s choice. The red wave (color choice due to programmer) seen is the distribution of the corral atoms` electrons that have been penned-up in the “Corral”. This structure is called a quantum corral because the “red” wave seen is the quantum mechanical probability density for these electrons as predicted by Shcroedinger`s Wave Equation of quantum mechanics. As is clear, this probability density can actually be seen!
  • There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • Following this sculpting analogy, the modification step could be coloring the eyes blue.
  • Following this sculpting analogy, the modification step could be coloring the eyes blue.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There’s a lot of material here. There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • Following this sculpting analogy, the modification step could be coloring the eyes blue.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • There are hundreds of such steps used in the manufacture of a state-of-the-art chip.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • There are hundreds of such steps used in the manufacture of a state-of-the-art chip.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • Materials for which the bonding is weakened where light impinges are called a positive resist. There is also negative resists for which the bonding gets stronger where light hits. The developer for these resists removes regions where light did not impinge.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • Following this sculpting analogy, the modification step could be coloring the eyes blue.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • This article “The ‘right”size in nanobiotechnology”, G. M. Whitesides NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY, Volume 21, Number 10, October 2003 is good reading.
  • There are lots of structures and organells in a cell. Many are at the nano-scale. An exampleis the microtubule structure seen in the lower left part of the cell.
  • Fluorescing molecules (fluorophores) have been used for a while in biology to visualize structures. Here they have been attached to the microtubules and actin in a cell so we can see those structures.
  • Quantum dots are semiconductor nano-particles whose fluorescing color is controlled by the diameter of the nano-particle. The smaller the particle, the more blue shifted (i.e., the shorter the wavelength of the emitted light) is the fluorescence.
  • Everyone has heard about MRI scans so it’s a good example of the impact of nanotechnology—even in the local hospital.
  • MRI versus CAT scans: A computed tomography (CT) scanner uses the scattering and attenuation of high energy X-ray photons, a type of ionizing radiation, to acquire its images, making it a good tool for examining tissue composed of elements of a relatively higher atomic number than the tissue surrounding them, such as bone and calcifications (calcium based). It caan be used for parts of the the body (carbon based flesh), or for structures (vessels, bowel) which have been artificially enhanced with contrast agents (iodine, barium) containing elements of a higher atomic number than the surrounding flesh. MRI, on the other hand, uses non-ionizing radio frequency signals to acquire its images using the quantum mechanical concept of nuclear spin. MRI is best suited for non-calcified tissue.
  • Interesting for the students to learn that a quantum mechanical concept is being used to get those MRI pictures so basic today to medicine. Protons, along with neutrons, are found in the nucleus of an atom, and so, in its early years. MRI imaging was referred to as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), but the word nuclear has been associated by the public with ionizing radiation exposure, which is not used in an MRI. So, to prevent patients from making a flase and negative association between MRI and ionizing radiation, the word nuclear has been almost universally removed. Scientists still us the term NMRI when discussing non-medical imaging operating on the same principles. Common magnetic field strengths range from 0.3 to 3 T, although field strengths as high as 9.4 T or higher are used in research scanners [2] and research instruments for animals or only small test tubes range as high as 20 T. Commercial suppliers are investing in 7 T platforms. For comparison, the Earth&apos;s magnetic field averages around 50 μT, less than 1/100,000 times the field strength of a typical MRI. Go to the web site http://www.simplyphysics.com for a nice discussion of the physics of MRI.
  • Water and fat account for approximately 63 per cent of the body&apos;s hydrogen atoms. Water is composed of two hydrogens and one oxygen. The hydrogen nuclei each have one proton---no neutrons. Medical MRI most frequently relies on the relaxation properties of excited hydrogen nuclear spins in water and lipids (fat).
  • The contrast in MRI images is altered by contrast agents due to their influence on the relaxation times of hydrogen nuclei in tissue. Nanoparticles are promising candidates for molecular imaging enhancement because they convey the possibility to high relaxivity per molecular binding site. Using nanoparticles with a ligand specific for a certain tissue, will enhance the local contrast owing to the high relaxivity of each particle. For many applications a positive contrast agent that increases the signal intensity would be advantageous. Gadolinium-containing nanoparticles, for example, give excellent contrast enhancement properties.
  • These nanoparticles have molecules attached to them (they are functionalized) allowing them to bond only to specific places; for example to just to cancer cells
  • These dots were irradiated with the exciting light and the near-infra-red fluorescence was captured by a sensor to give the picture. A computer convered the image to a color the human eye can see
  • Attaching ligands onto nanoparticles can be done to make them target only certain cells, to regulate their solubility, or both.
  • One approach: use of liposome nanoparticles for carrying drugs. Extensive development of liposome delivery systems is already underway. The advantage of this approach is the diversity of cargoes (genes, drugs, proteins) that can be delivered to the cytosol of cells by liposome delivery vehicles.
  • Until recently, cancer researchers have taken a shotgun approach to killing cancer – administering drug that goes everywhere in the body with the hope that enough reaches malignant cells to kill them. The results of this approach are often serious side effects and suboptimal therapeutic response. But in order to develop more effective chemotherapeutics and imaging agents, scientists need to improve their aim—switching to a sniper’s rifle to deliver agents more accurately to tumors. Nanoparticles, with the ability to store large payloads within their cores and with “targeting” molecules on their surfaces, would seem ideally suited to the “sniper” role.
  • Docetaxel is the anti-cancer drug. PEG adjusts hydrophilicity for solubility control while RNA attaches to targeted tumor.
  • To test the effectiveness of these new drug-delivery devices, the investigators conducted experiments on mice bearing human prostate tumors. After waiting until the tumors had become large (to simulate the stage at which most prostate cancers are detected in humans), the researchers injected the nanoparticles directly into the tumors of the cancer-laden animals. The shrinkage in tumors after approximately three months was dramatic. Moreover, all of the treated mice survived the study. In contrast, only 57 percent of the animals treated with untargeted nanoparticles survived for the duration of the study, and only 14 percent of the animals treated with docetaxel alone survived. These results indicated that the encapsulated drug did not move throughout the body, but rather stayed anchored to the tumor and delivered docetaxel to only cancer cells. Weight loss and white cell counts also confirmed lower toxicity of the treatment in mice that received the targeting nanoparticles versus those treated with untargeted ones. &amp;quot;A single injection of our nanoparticles completely eradicated the tumors in five of the seven treated animals, and the remaining animals also had significant tumor reduction, compared to the controls
  • Stamping is covered in detail in the nanofabrication discussions.
  • There is a glossary that comes along with this set of modules. Each term in blue print in every module is defined in this glossary.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • Vertical axis is number of transistors on a chip.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • These a cross-sections of MOSFET transistors. They are made by cutting a chip and looking in edge-wise at the cross-sections of the transistors using FESEM. These are lab transistors. The smallest in production today is 45nm.
  • Schematic cross-section. Note that the transistor look as they really do in the earlier FESEM micrograph.
  • Moore’s Second Law is that the cost of the factories (or fabs) for fabricating electronic devices has also been increasing exponentially with time. This is because the requirements on the size and positioning of features of features on a chip have been getting much more stringent, as has the complexity of the chips and the necessity to maintain a clean environment. In the past, the cost of the fabrication facility was small compared to all other costs, which have been increasing essentially linearly. However, now the cost of the fab is becoming a dominant cost, and the rate of its increase is significantly larger than the rate at with the market is growing. Thus, many experts believe that the economic issues illustrated by Moore’s Second Law will bring an end to the First.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • The term “TFT” used here means thin film transistor.
  • Diode behavior is seen from these nanowires in the picture. Vertically oriented nanowires are p-type; horizontally oriented nanowires are n-type. Where they cross forms a p/n junction.
  • The term SiNW means silicon nanowire.
  • Many SiNW MOSFET transistors on a chip.
  • The instructor may want to break this module into two lectures. There`s a lot of material here.
  • Transcript of "Nanotech"

    1. 1. Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #1 Nanotechnology: What Is It, And Why Is It So “BIG” Now? © patton brothers illustration ( www.pattonbros.com ) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Last Updated: 1/6/2011 Copyright 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Nanotechnology is Impacting Everything
    2. 2. <ul><ul><li>This module is one of a series designed to be used by faculty members at post-secondary institutions in workshops, courses, and overview lectures to introduce nanotechnology and its applications. There is no particular significance to the module number system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The series was funded in part by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The National Science Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant # DUE 0532646 and DUE 0802498 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grant # C000029471 and C000036659 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or the Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development </li></ul></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The macroscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The microscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The nanoscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology – “the builder’s final frontier” </li></ul><ul><li>How old is nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is nanotechnology taking off now? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now make small things controllably and repeatedly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now see what we made </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    4. 4. So What Does the Word “Nanotechnology” Mean? <ul><li>It means technology based on man-made things that are really, really, really small </li></ul><ul><li>or more precisely it means </li></ul><ul><li>technology based on man-made things </li></ul><ul><li>whose sizes are such that at least one dimension is in the range of </li></ul><ul><li>one billionth of a meter . </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    5. 5. Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The macroscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The microscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The nanoscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology – “the builder’s final frontier” </li></ul><ul><li>How old is nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is nanotechnology taking off now? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now make small things controllably and repeatedly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now see what we made </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    6. 6. <ul><li>How small is </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>1,000,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>of a meter? </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    7. 7. Where does the Nanometer fit in the length scale? Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University 1 meter = 3.28 feet 1 / 100 meter = 1 centimeter (cm) 1 / 1000 meter = 1 millimeter (mm) 1 / 1,000,000 meter = 1 micrometer* ( µm) *also called a micron 1 / 1,000,000,000 meter = 1 nanometer (nm) 1 / 1,000,000,000,000 meter = 1 picometer (pm)
    8. 8. Another way of looking at how small a Nanometer is- ©2009 NanoHorizons Inc. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    9. 9. Still another way of looking at how small a Nanometer is- Click on the black box to view Mini Cooper movie Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Produced by the Museum of Science, Boston with support from the Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network and the Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing. © 2007.
    10. 10. Definitions of Some Different Size Ranges <ul><li>Macro-scale ● The sizes of things we’re accustomed to </li></ul><ul><li>using and seeing; i.e., a nything bigger than </li></ul><ul><li>about a millimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-scale ● Smaller than the macro-scale </li></ul><ul><li> ● Sizes from about one millionth of a </li></ul><ul><li>meter to one ten thousandth of a meter; </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., sizes from about a micrometer to </li></ul><ul><li>about 1/10 of a millimeter. </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-scale: ● Smaller than the micro-scale. Really small! </li></ul><ul><li>● Sizes from one billionth of a meter </li></ul><ul><li> to one ten millionth of a meter; i.e., sizes from </li></ul><ul><li>about a nanometer to about 1/10 of a </li></ul><ul><li>micrometer. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    11. 11. How Do We See Things in These Different Size Ranges? Meter Size Range These are sizes we can see with just our eyes Millimeter Size Range These are sizes we can see with an optical microscope Micrometer Size Range Bigger objects in this range can be seen with an optical microscope . Smaller objects may need an electron microscope Nanometer Size Range Bigger objects can be seen with electron microscopes. Smaller objects require field emission electron or atomic force microscopes MACRO-SCALE NANO-SCALE MICRO-SCALE Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    12. 12. Let’s look at these size ranges pictorially. Let’s also get some idea of what nature makes and what man makes in these size ranges. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    13. 13. Some Small Naturally Occurring and Man-Made Structures 1 mm 100 µm 10 µm 1 µm 100 nm 10 nm 1 nm 100 pm Transistor of 2007 Human hair tissue Bacterium cell Human cell Virus Transistors of 20-30 Years ago Protein Individual atom Drug molecule Quantum dot DNA Nano-scale Micro-scale Macro-scale Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Stanford University © 2009  Created by Sean Nash
    14. 14. Also note from our pictorial representation of scales that the next size range that is smaller than the nano-scale is the pico-scale. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    15. 15. <ul><li>The pico-scale is the size range of the </li></ul><ul><li>basic “legos” used to build </li></ul><ul><li>everything else – individual atoms </li></ul>The Periodic Table of the Elements Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    16. 16. Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The macroscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The microscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The nanoscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology – “the builder’s final frontier” </li></ul><ul><li>How old is nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is nanotechnology taking off now? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now make small things controllably and repeatedly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now see what we made </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    17. 17. What’s After Nanotechnology – Is there a Picotechnology? No, nothing to build at the pico-scale. The elements of the universe are fixed in number (and nicely listed in the periodic table) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    18. 18. Nano-Scale <ul><ul><ul><li>Lots to build at the nano-scale. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms and molecules are the “legos” in the building. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The creating and using of ‘things’ at the nano-scale, for the benefit of mankind, is nanotechnology. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    19. 19. “ Nanotechnology is the builder’s final frontier.” Richard Smalley 1996 Nobel Laurate in Chemistry, Rice University Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science & Technology Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    20. 20. Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The macroscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The microscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The nanoscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology – “the builder’s final frontier” </li></ul><ul><li>How old is nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is nanotechnology taking off now? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now make small things controllably and repeatedly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now see what we made </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    21. 21. Outline <ul><li>Where does the word “nanotechnology” come from and what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Some size ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The macroscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The microscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The nanoscale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology – “the builder’s final frontier” </li></ul><ul><li>How old is nanotechnology? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is nanotechnology taking off now? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now make small things controllably and repeatedly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We can now see what we made </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    22. 22. <ul><li>If nanotechnology has been practiced by humans for almost 2000 years, why is it taking off now? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it so “big” now? </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    23. 23. <ul><li>Because we have learned what’s going on- </li></ul><ul><li>We can now controllably and repeatedly make things in the nano-size range. </li></ul><ul><li>And finally we can now see what we have made. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    24. 24. <ul><li>For example, today’s transistors are nano-scale structures. In fact, the advanced transistors in production in 2008 are 45 nm in length! </li></ul><ul><li>Today more nano-scale transistors are made in a year than there are grains of rice grown in a year—now that’s control and repeatability! </li></ul><ul><li>We have really learned how to build at the nano-scale! </li></ul>We can controllably and repeatedly make things in the nano-scale range Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    25. 25. <ul><li>The following picture is a cross-section of an actual man-made transistor (circa 2002). This is a FET transistor in which, in the on-state , electrons travel from the source to the drain by going down the 50 nm long “ channel ” under the gate of this transistor. </li></ul><ul><li>This sample has been made by cutting a chip containing millions of transistors and looking at the cross-section to focus on one transistor. The imaging is done with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    26. 26. Adapted from Linda Geppert, The Amazing Vanishing Transistor Act, IEEE Spectrum, October 2002, Vol. 39, Number 10, pg. 28-33 Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    27. 27. <ul><li>We can now see what we have made! </li></ul><ul><li>We can even routinely see atoms now! </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    28. 28. <ul><li>The next view graph shows 48 atoms that have been dragged across a surface (itself, of course, made of atoms) and arranged into a circle (a corral). This arrangement has been given the name “Quantum Corral”. </li></ul><ul><li>If you look closely, you can see the individual atoms of the corral, all of which are sitting on the underlying surface. If you look very closely, you also can see the atoms that make up that underlying surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The dragging of the atoms and the imaging is done using a scanning tunneling microscope . </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    29. 29. Quantum Corral IBM Research Division M.F. Crommie, C.P. Lutz, D.M. Eigler. Confinement of electrons to quantum corrals on a metal surface. Science 262, 218-220 (1993). Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    30. 30. <ul><li>Because of the advances that have very recently been achieved in what we can make and what we can see, nanotechnology is now manufacturable . That is, nanotechnology can now produce things in huge numbers and economically--not just a few cups, windows, and plates for the very rich, as before. </li></ul><ul><li>Because nanotechnology is now manufacturable, it can make products that will affect every man, woman, and child on the planet. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    31. 31. Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #2 A Brief History of Nanotechnology © patton brothers illustration ( www.pattonbros.com ) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Last Updated: 1/6/2011 Nanotechnology is Impacting Everything
    32. 32. Outline <ul><li>The history of nanotechnology. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The era when we couldn’t see things this small --- and didn’t know what we were doing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dawn of understanding: the era when we began figuring out what is at the nano-scale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The era of rapidly expanding understanding and use of nanotechnology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Key ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    33. 33. Eons ago. <ul><li>With the first use of fire, humans began their first encounter with man-made nanoparticles – the carbon nanoparticles present in the soot from a flame. </li></ul><ul><li>Of course they didn’t know it. In fact, we’ve just learned soot has nanoparticles in it! </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    34. 34. <ul><li>About 2000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>In Roman times people learned that they could put gold and silver into glass and get beautiful colors such as red, yellow, and blue. </li></ul><ul><li>Today we know that the form of gold and silver they were using was made of nanoparticles . Gold and silver nanoparticles are not gold and silver colored. Their color depends on particle size and concentration and ranges from red to blue. </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t know how the Romans did it. Perhaps they mechanically pulverized metal foils into nanoparticles. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    35. 35. Famous example of this Roman Nanotechnology: 4 th Century Lycurgus Cup <ul><ul><li>In reflected light, cup appears green ; in transmitted light, it appears red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause: 40 ppm Au nanoparticles & 300 ppm Ag nanoparticles embedded in silica glass </li></ul></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University ( 2) Barber, D J and Freestone, I C, An investigation of the origin of the colour of the Lycurgus Cup by analytical transmission electron microscopy, Archaeometry , 32 (1), 33-45, 1990. References: (1) Paul Mulvaney, Not all That’s Gold Does Glitter, MRS Bulletin, December 2001, pg.’s 1009-1013
    36. 36. Around the year 1100. Arab craftsmen made steel swords of legendary strength. Today we know these swords had carbon nanotubes and nanowires in the material. This is the oldest known use of carbon nanotubes and nanowires. These nanostructures may account for the swords’ strength. Carbon nanotubes and carbon nanowires in Damascus steel sword. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Reibold, M., et al. &quot;Carbon Nanotubes in an Ancient Damascus Sabre.&quot; Nature 444 (2006).
    37. 37. Reprinted with permission from Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 93, Issue 12, P.10058, 2003, American Institute of Physics. 16 th century Renaissance pottery Around the year 1500. The Renaissance Italians used what we now know to be copper and silver nanoparticles to achieve this vibrantly colored pottery. Again, we don’t know the details of how they did it. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    38. 38. Outline <ul><li>The history of nanotechnology . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The era when we couldn’t see things this small --- and didn’t know what we were doing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dawn of understanding: the era when we began figuring out what is at the nano-scale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The era of rapidly expanding understanding and use of nanotechnology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Key ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    39. 39. <ul><li>Faraday learned to reproducibly use gold to make gold nanoparticles. (The procedure he developed is today called collodial chemistry. The solutions he used are today called colloidal solutions ). </li></ul><ul><li>He saw that these gold nanoparticle solutions could have a variety of colors from violet and blue to red. </li></ul><ul><li>He did not have the tools to see them---but he deduced the colors must be due to incredibly small gold colloidal particles---what we call today gold nanoparticles . </li></ul>In 1857. Faraday Discovers Gold Colloids Macro-size gold Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Gold nanoparticles in solution (Au colloids) “ Electronic Imaging & Signal Processing: Improving biomedical imaging with gold nanocages” by Younan Xia and Sara E. Skrabalak. 12 May 2008, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1200705.1135
    40. 40. <ul><li>Einstein explained that colloid particles (today we call them nanoparticles) are so small that gravity can not make them settle out---ever! </li></ul><ul><li>They will “dance around” forever in solution buffeted by impacts from the molecules of the solvent they are in. This dancing around is called “ Brownian motion ”. </li></ul>In 1905. Einstein Explains Colloids Gold nanoparticles in solution (Au colloids) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University “ Electronic Imaging & Signal Processing: Improving biomedical imaging with gold nanocages” by Younan Xia and Sara E. Skrabalak. 12 May 2008, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1200705.1135
    41. 41. Around 1910. Zsigmondy and the Nanometer <ul><li>Zsigmondy made a detailed study of gold colloid solutions and other nanomaterials with sizes down to 10 nm and less and published a book on his work in in 1914. He used a microscope that employs the dark field method for “seeing” particles with sizes much less than the wavelength of the light used. Zsigmondy is the first to use the term nanometer for 1/1,000,000 of a meter and used it for characterizing particle size. He developed a classification system for particle sizes in nanometer range. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    42. 42. In 1931. Ruska Develops the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)--- The beginnings of being able to really “SEE” at the nanoscale The transmission electron microscope has become a very powerful tool for “seeing” at the nano-scale. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    43. 43. <ul><li>1932. </li></ul><ul><li>Irving Langmuir and Katharine Blodgett Discover How to Make Monolayers </li></ul>In 1932 Langmuir and Blodgett discovered a method to controllably deposit just one layer of molecules (which is termed a monolayer ) . The beginnings of precise control at the nanoscale! Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of KSV Instruments Inc. Langmuir Blodgett (center)
    44. 44. <ul><li>1932. </li></ul><ul><li>Langmuir — Blodgett Monolayers </li></ul>Precise control at the nanoscale—one monolayer of molecules Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of KSV Instruments Inc.
    45. 45. In 1959. Richard Feynman gives his famed talk “There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom” “ What I want to talk about is the problem of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale.” In this talk, Feynman said that we have progressed to the point where we can and should manipulate matter at what today we call the nano-scale. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Richard Feynman © 1965
    46. 46. He uses it to signify machining with tolerances of less than a micron (1000 nanometers). Today the term nanotechnology has evolved to mean making and manipulating “ things” that are much smaller! Today the “things” of nanotechnology have at least one dimension in the range of 1nm to about 100nm. In 1974. Norio Taniguchi coins the word “nanotechnology”. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    47. 47. Outline <ul><li>The history of nanotechnology . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The era when we couldn’t see things this small --- and didn’t know what we were doing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dawn of understanding: the era when we began figuring out what is at the nano-scale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The era of rapidly expanding understanding and use of nanotechnology </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Key ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    48. 48. In 1981. Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer invent the first of the scanning probe tools- -- the scanning tunneling microscope. With this tool, we now could see individual atoms! With the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope , we can now “see” atoms Reprint Courtesy of International Business Machines Corporation copyright © International Business Machines Corporation. Figure: Michael Schmid, TU Wien Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    49. 49. <ul><li>In 1985. </li></ul><ul><li>Smalley, Curl and Kroto discover carbon 60 (C60) </li></ul>60 Carbon atoms in a buckminster fuller “ball” ( buckeyball ). The first of many unique nano-scale structures that have been discovered. These are only tolerated by nature at the nano-scale! Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Copyright © 1995-1996 Boris Pevzner
    50. 50. In 1989. Donald M. Eigler of IBM “writes” for the first time with individual atoms Scanning probe tools (specifically the atomic force microscope (AFM)) can be used to drag atoms into preselected positions. Atoms aren’t blue nor are they cones. The color is computer rendering and shape is artifact of AFM. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Reprint courtesy of International Business Machines Corporation, copyright © 1990 International Business machines Corporation
    51. 51. In 1986. Eric Drexler publishes: “ Engines of Creation” Science fiction interest in nano begins Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    52. 52. In 1991. Sumio Iijima of NEC in Tsukubaka, Japan, discovered carbon nanotubes . Another unique carbon bonding configuration tolerated by nature only at the nano-scale . Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Image Courtesy of NEC © Queen's University 2007
    53. 53. <ul><li>In 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>First Quantum Dots are Produced </li></ul>Quantum dots are semiconductor nanoparticles that act like “man-made atoms” due to quantum mechanics . They have energy levels like atoms and give off colors dictated by those energy levels ( fluoresce ) when illuminated with white light. The color emitted is controlled by the particle size and composition. Evidenttech.com Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    54. 54. In 1998. Cees Dekker’s group at the Delft University of Technology demonstrates a transistor made from a carbon nanotube Courtesy C. Dekker, Delft University Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University J. Appenzeller, J. Knoch, R. Martel, V. Derycke, S. Wind, Ph. Avouris, Short-channel like effects in Schottky barrier carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, IEEE Technical Digest 2002. p.285. (© 2002 IEEE)
    55. 55. In 1999. Tour (Rice University) and Reed (Yale University) demonstrate single molecules can act as switches turning electric current on and off, giving experimental support for the idea of “Molecular Electronics” Original arrangement Molecule rearranged The molecule’s physical arrangement depends on the voltage on the contacts. Voltages above a threshold value cause rearrangement of the molecule and thus change the current it can carry. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy Mark Reed. Yale University. 1997 molecule Contacts
    56. 56. <ul><li>In 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Man-made molecular motors </li></ul>The molecule Kinesin , shown here in cartoon form, is the miniscule longshoreman of our cells, toting parcels of cargo on its shoulders as it steps along a scaffolding in cells called a microtubules . Each molecule of ATP fuel that Kinesin encounters triggers precise nanometer stepping of the longshoreman. Man-made versions of such motors are first constructed in this time period. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Copyright 2004. The Regents of the University of Michigan
    57. 57. <ul><li>In 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype fuel cells fabricated using nanotechnology </li></ul>Nano-scale electrode structures and/or nano-scale catalysts are explored for use in fuel cells Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Vertically oriented carbon nanotubes (CNTs) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) loaded with 30 wt% platimun
    58. 58. <ul><li>Around 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Nano gets practical: Stain resistant textiles using nano-particles appear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherently hydrophobic nano-particle material (a polymer ) is deposited on textiles. The hydrophobicity repels water-containing substances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Array of deposited nano-particles can also result in a nanostructure that traps air giving the “Lotus Effect” used by nature to keep lotus leaves floating. This trapped air provides super hydrophobicity . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water droplet is seen to “bead-up” on these treated textiles. </li></ul></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Angewandte, D . Chemie International Edition Volume 43. Issue 33. p4338-4341 (2004) copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Reproduced with permission.
    59. 59. <ul><li>In 2005 . </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles with embedded anti-microbial silver nanoparticles appear in production </li></ul><ul><li>Ions from some types of nanoparticles can kill bacteria, funguses, and </li></ul><ul><li>algae </li></ul><ul><li>Silver is especially effective against bacteria </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University ©2009 NanoHorizons Inc.
    60. 60. <ul><li>In 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoparticles begun to be used clinically in cancer treatments </li></ul>By exploiting biochemical processes common among tumors, nanoparticles made of the human protein albumin were shown to be capable of boosting the amount of anticancer drugs delivered to malignant cells. On February 7, 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a formulation of a widely-used anticancer drug which employs these nanoparticles as a delivery system for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have failed drug combination therapy. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    61. 61. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #3 A Snapshot of Nanotechnology Today Nanotechnology is Impacting Everything © patton brothers illustration ( www.pattonbros.com ) Last Updated: 1/6/2011
    62. 62. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    63. 63. <ul><li>Many countries and companies see the exciting opportunities and economic benefits that nanotechnology offers and are responding by pumping-in large investments. </li></ul>Creating New and Better Products Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    64. 64. Nanotechnology Investments Government, Corporation, and Venture Capitalist Investments Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    65. 65. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    66. 66. <ul><li>The opportunities and advances provided by nanotechnology are already turning into products for sale in the marketplace, new medical procedures, and an improved environment. </li></ul>This huge investment is already paying off Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    67. 67. Nanotechnology Products: Facts and Forecasts <ul><li>Predicted growth of nanotechnology products on the market : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecast – By 2015: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15% of global manufactured goods will incorporate nanotechnology (~ $3 Trillion Market). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and 50% of New Advanced Technology Products will incorporate nanotechnology. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lux Capital - 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    68. 68. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    69. 69. More Products Mean a Growing Need for a Trained Nanotechnology Workforce <ul><li>Workforce Demand : </li></ul><ul><li>By 2015 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million nanotechnology workers needed worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mihail C Roco, Nature Biotechnology Vol. 21, No. 10, Oct. 2003 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially 5 million additional “infrastructure” support jobs needed in the global market by 2015. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mihail C Roco, Nature Biotechnology Vol. 21, No. 10, Oct. 2003 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>However, few states in the US have seriously addressed the issue of workforce development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jack Uldrich, Smalltimes Magazine, April 22, 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    70. 70. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    71. 71. <ul><li>Let’s do a brief sampling of the nanotechnology products currently for sale in the marketplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s look at what these products do and how the nanoscale enables them to do it. </li></ul>A Sampling of Some Current Nanotechnology Products Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    72. 72. Product Example # 1 <ul><li>It works by— </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that gold nanoparticles can be </li></ul><ul><li>made extremely small—so small that they </li></ul><ul><li>always stay in solution and so small they are </li></ul><ul><li>no longer “gold” in color! In fact, the color of </li></ul><ul><li>these nanoscale pieces of gold depends on their </li></ul><ul><li>size and their immediate environment . </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact gold nanoparticles can have their surface functionalized ; i.e., coated . This can be exploited to coat gold nanoparticles with molecules that interact with the hormones present with pregnancy. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    73. 73. Product Example # 1 (continued) <ul><li>It works by— </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact, if this hormone is present, the immediate environment of the gold particles changes due to the hormone/nanoparticle interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Using this change in the environment to cause a change in color of the gold nanoparticle solution (Remember gold is the element ; gold is not the color). This color change can then be seen—even by the eye. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    74. 74. <ul><li>The product: </li></ul><ul><li>First Response® Home Pregnancy Test </li></ul><ul><li>“ First Response home-pregnancy test manufactured by Carter-Wallace, a New York based biotechnology company. The test uses gold particles (less than 50 nanometers in diameter) to help consumers read test results more easily”. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Product Example # 1 (continued) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Copyright © 2009 The Christian Science Monitor
    75. 75. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    76. 76. Product Example # 2 <ul><li>It works by— </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that nanoparticles can be functionalized to attach onto the walls of a cell . This functionalization can be tailored so that they only attach to cancer cells. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    77. 77. Product Example # 2 (continued) <ul><li>It works by— </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that nanoparticles can also be engineered to carry drug molecules . </li></ul>Adapted from Scientific American, Whiteside and Love, Page 46, Sept. 2001 Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Drug Molecules Nanoparticle
    78. 78. Details <ul><li>Some drugs used for cancer therapy are hard to dissolve in blood. These drugs may be effective against cancer but you can’t get them to the tumor! </li></ul><ul><li>In one application nanoparticles made from the protein albumin have been made and they are found to be easily dispersed in blood---and they can be engineered to carry effective anti-cancer drugs to cancerous cells. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    79. 79. <ul><li>Details (continued) </li></ul><ul><li>These album in nanoparticles can be engineered to carry anti-cancer drugs that normally will not dissolve in blood. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    80. 80. <ul><li>Such drug-carrying albumin nanoparticles are now being used very effectively by physicians to carry anti-cancer drugs to breast cancer tumors. </li></ul>Product Example # 2 (continued) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    81. 81. <ul><li>The product: </li></ul><ul><li>Abraxane®, the first approved drug to use albumin nanoparticles to improve the therapeutic and safety properties of an anticancer agent. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a product of American BioScience, Inc., Santa Monica, CA. It was approved on February 7, 2005, by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in patients with metastatic breast cancer who have failed combination drug therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>National Institutes of Health </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Product Example # 2 (continued) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    82. 82. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    83. 83. <ul><li>It works by— </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that the color of this emitted light will depend on the value of Δ E . </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that the same light into a semiconductor nanoparticle will produce different colors radiating out depending on particle size because size controls Δ E . </li></ul>Product Example # 3 (continued) Δ E E 2 E 1 allowed energies for electrons allowed energies for electrons Same light in Light out depends on nanoparticle size Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University “ Relative Size of a Qdot® Nanocrystal.” Invitrogen Corporation . 2009.
    84. 84. Details <ul><li>The emitted light from a semiconductor nanoparticle is called fluorescence . Nanoparticles can fluoresce very strongly and, as we see, the color of the fluorescence can be adjusted by adjusting the size of the nanoparticles. </li></ul><ul><li>Semiconductor nanoparticles with this strong fluorescence property are called “quantum dots”, because of the connection of the light color to Δ E and the connection of Δ E to the allowed energies predicted by quantum mechanics. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    85. 85. The Product: Quantum dots These are available commercially and used in, for example, medical research for their very strong fluorescence color. The color they give off when excited can be changed simply by buying different sized dots which changes Δ E and thereby the fluorescing color. This picture of vials containing actual quantum dots was captured after the samples were placed in front of a UV hand lamp which excited the electrons from below E 1 to above E 2 . Product Example # 3 (continued) “ Relative Size of a Qdot® Nanocrystal.” Invitrogen Corporation . 2009. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    86. 86. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    87. 87. A Single-wall Carbon Nanotube The carbon atoms are the balls Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    88. 88. <ul><li>Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have this unusual chemical bonding and are pound for pound much stronger than steel! </li></ul><ul><li>CNTs are the strongest of all known materials. </li></ul>Details (continued) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    89. 89. The product: Easton, a company that makes bicycles, is using carbon nanotubes in bikes they have on the market. Easton has a full carbon-fiber frame bicycle. This frame gives excellent weight savings, ride quality, and strength levels. The frame is a full CNT based material. In fact, the only metal part is the BB thread alloy insert . www.pezcyclingnews.com Product Example # 4 (continued) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    90. 90. www.pezcyclingnews.com Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    91. 91. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    92. 92. The very high surface to volume ratio of nanoparticles Lower surface Higher surface to volume ratio to volume ratio Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    93. 93. <ul><li>It works by— </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that some metal nanoparticles are anti-microbial (e.g., kill bacteria). Actually, it is the ions of these metals which do the killing. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that atoms on the surface of a nanoparticle can easily get ionized --and high surface to volume ratio nanoparticles have most of their atoms on the surface—a big potential supply of ions for little metal (i.e., little cost). </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that metal nanoparticles can be included into textiles. </li></ul>Product Example # 5 (continued) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    94. 94. Details <ul><li>Silver ions from silver nanoparticles can be ingested into a microbe, interrupting RNA replication and preventing the microbe from reproducing. </li></ul><ul><li>Such silver ions are also attracted to microbial cell walls and thereby affect transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Such silver ions suppress respiration and metabolism of microbes. </li></ul><ul><li>And silver nanoparticles can be put into clothing! </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    95. 95. Details (continued) <ul><li>Bacteria are the reason for clothing odors. </li></ul><ul><li>Silver nanoparticles in textiles kill the bacteria making clothing odor resistant. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    96. 96. A silver nanoparticle attached to a textile fiber Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University © 2009 NanoHorizons Inc.
    97. 97. The Product: A number of companies are manufacturing and selling shoes and clothing containing silver nanoparticles for odor control. Product Example # 5 (continued) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    98. 98. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    99. 99. <ul><li>It works by— </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that nanostructures are very small. This means that many can fit into a square centimeter or inch. </li></ul>Product Example # 6 Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    100. 100. <ul><li>Everyone wants faster computers and more memory. This has forced engineers to make transistors smaller and smaller—today transistors are at the nanoscale. </li></ul><ul><li>This results in millions of transistors per square inch, giving more processing per square inch and more memory per square inch. Also, since these transistors are so close, they can communicate rapidly. This means your computer also gets faster. </li></ul>Details Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    101. 101. Adapted from Linda Geppert, The Amazing Vanishing Transistor Act, IEEE Spectrum, October 2002, Vol. 39, Number 10, pg. 28-33 Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    102. 102. Details (continued) <ul><li>Transistors now in production are as small as 45nm in length! </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    103. 103. Details (continued) <ul><li>Today microelectronics has moved from the microscale to the nanoscale. </li></ul><ul><li>It now really should be called nanoelectronics. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s transistors are so small that we now make more transistors in a year than we grow grains of rice! </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    104. 104. The Product: Companies are manufacturing microelectronics circuits with more speed and more functionality due to the nanoscale transistors used in these circuits. Product Example # 6 (continued) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Copyright Matco Services Inc. www.materialsforum.com Mick Feuerbacher, December 2005.
    105. 105. Outline <ul><li>The world-wide investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>The investment is already paying off </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce needs </li></ul><ul><li>Some Product examples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cancer treatment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quantum dots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Odor-free clothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microelectronics-advanced circuits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    106. 106. Details <ul><li>Nanoparticles are finding uses in food processing, packaging and additives. </li></ul><ul><li>One example is given here. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    107. 107. <ul><li>It works by— </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that nanoparticles are very small. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the fact that nanoparticles have huge surface to volume ratios which means atoms and molecules are mostly at the surface interacting with their environment. This means surface chemistry can be exploited. </li></ul>Product Example # 7 Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    108. 108. Product Example # 7 (continued) <ul><li>The Product: </li></ul><ul><li>Frying oil from the company OilFresh. Has tiny ceramic-zeolite nanoscale beads whose surface area is used to support chemical reactions which inhibit the breakdown of cooking oil. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    109. 109. Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #4 The Uniqueness of the Nano-scale © patton brothers illustration ( www.pattonbros.com ) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Last Updated: 1/6/2011 Nanotechnology is Impacting Everything
    110. 110. <ul><li>As we’ll see, new doors open at the nano-scale: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New things happen and new opportunities become accessible </li></ul></ul>“ It is Sometimes Better to be Little” Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    111. 111. Outline <ul><li>A listing of some of the unique attributes of the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples of the impact of these unique attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    112. 112. Here is a Listing of Some of the Unique Attributes of the Nano-scale <ul><li>Very small size—obvious yet the impact is tremendous! </li></ul><ul><li>High surface to volume ratio ─ resulting in many, if not most, of the atoms being on the surface </li></ul><ul><li>High surface to volume ratio ─ resulting in a unique surface environment for most of the atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Surface forces dominate over bulk forces ─ for example, gravity (a bulk force) is not important </li></ul><ul><li>Quantum mechanical effects are important </li></ul><ul><li>Wave properties of light are important </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    113. 113. Some of the Unique Attributes of the Nano-scale (continued) <ul><li>Sizes corresponding to basic biological structures </li></ul><ul><li>Sizes corresponding to macro-molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Unique chemical bonding configurations possible </li></ul><ul><li>Size range in which molecules can self-assemble </li></ul><ul><li>New epistemologies (Working at the nano-scale has caused us to learn new ways of “seeing” our world) </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    114. 114. Outline <ul><li>A listing of some of the unique attributes of the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples of the impact of these unique attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    115. 115. Very Small Size <ul><li>Can fit many “nano-sized things” together with little space in between </li></ul><ul><li>Can get large number of “nano-sized things” per volume </li></ul><ul><li>Or, can get large number per area </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University R (radius)
    116. 116. An example of an impact of this attribute: Huge Areal Densities The huge number of nano-scale transistors possible per area means today’s state-of-the-art microelectronics circuits with their nano-scale transistors can give more speed and more functionality. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Mick Feuerbacher, December 2005. Copyright Matco Services Inc. www.materialsforum.com
    117. 117. High surface to volume ratio Ratio = 3/R This ratio is very big when R is very small Ratio = 4 π R 2 _ 4/3 π R 3 Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University R
    118. 118. Impact of the Huge Surface to Volume Ratio Percent Surface Atoms Diameter (nm) This figure shows the inverse relationship between particle size and number of surface atoms. As a particle gets smaller, a larger and larger percentage of the atoms that make up the particle are surface atoms. Because the number of atoms or molecules on the surface of a particle influences the particle’s chemical and physical interactions with its environment, this percentage in the figure is key to defining the chemical and biological properties of nanoparticles. Figure 1 from Andre Nel, Tian Xia, Lutz Mädler and Ning Li ., SCIENCE Vol.311. p. 622 (2006). Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    119. 119. Reprinted figure with permission from Buffat and Borel, “Phys Rev. A” Volume 13, p 2287 (1976). Copyright 1976 by the American Physical Society. An example of an impact of this attribute: Melting Temperature This data is for Gold The melting temperature gets lower as a nanoparticle gets smaller because higher percentage of atoms are on the surface. This makes sense since surface atoms are not bound to each other the same way bulk atoms are. Particle diameter in Angstroms Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    120. 120. Surface Forces Dominate over Bulk Forces <ul><li>Bulk force importance decreases with decreasing volume </li></ul><ul><li>Surface force importance increases with decreasing volume </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    121. 121. Surface Forces Dominate over Gravity <ul><li>Gravity’s importance decreases with decreasing volume </li></ul><ul><li>Surface force importance increases with decreasing volume </li></ul>gravity gravity Surface forces Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    122. 122. An example of an impact of this attribute: Colloidal Solutions The nano-scale colloidal particles in the solutions seen above will never settle out. (so long as surface forces are not present to cause them to agglomerate. If they agglomerated, this would increase particle volume and give gravity a chance to become important) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University “ Electronic Imaging & Signal Processing: Improving biomedical imaging with gold nanocages” by Younan Xia and Sara E. Skrabalak. 12 May 2008, SPIE Newsroom. DOI: 10.1117/2.1200705.1135
    123. 123. Emergence of Quantum Mechanical Effects <ul><li>Electrons can only have certain energies in atoms due to quantum mechanics. </li></ul><ul><li>Semiconductor nanoparticles can behave like man-made atoms and have only certain energies allowed for electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy difference between these allowed energies in nanoparticles gets bigger as R gets smaller </li></ul>R Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    124. 124. An example of an impact of this attribute: Semiconductor Quantum Dots When excited by light, quantum dots fluoresce (re-emit light). The size and material composition of nano-scale quantum dots dictates the color they re-emit. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Evidenttech.com
    125. 125. Importance of the Wave Properties of Light <ul><li>The wavelength  of visible light is much larger than the sizes R of nano-scale structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this, light scatters and diffracts when it interacts with nanostructures </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    126. 126. An example of an impact of this attribute: Photonic Crystals Man-made nano-structures can cause light to turn sharp 90 degree corners, as seen below Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Reproduced with permission of the MRS Bulletin. www.mrs.org/bulletin
    127. 127. Butterfly Scales 20,000 x magnification 5000x magnification 220x magnification 1x magnification of wing Another example of an impact of this attribute Nanostructures can cause light of different colors to scatter and diffract differently. This effect is used by nature to give the colors seen in butterfly wings. Militaries Study Animals for Cutting-Edge Camouflage. James Owen in England for National Geographic News March 12, 2003, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (1999) 266, 1403-1411 Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    128. 128. Sizes Corresponding to Basic Biological Structures <ul><li>We can now easily make structures in the 1nm to ~100nm size range. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the size range of many of the key structures in biological systems </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    129. 129. The cell is a complex structure with many compartments and organelles possessing individual and interdependent functions. Many of a cell`s features (e.g., pores) and, of course, DNA and RNA are all in the nano-scale. We can now make structures like these smallest of features in a cell. An example of an impact of this attribute: Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Public Library of Science, “The Intersection of Biology and Materials Science” by George M. Whitesides and Amy P. Wong Vol. 31, p. 23.
    130. 130. Golovchenko, Branton, et. al. (Harvard Nanopore Group) Sequencing DNA using nanopore ionic conductance. Another Example: Structures that can “read” DNA Can now make structures so small that they, for example, can force DNA to line-up single file in order to pass through We can now use electrical signal changes to “read” the DNA as it passes through DNA Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    131. 131. DNA: millions of atoms long but 2.5 nm wide Nanostructures can have the dimensions seen in macromolecules Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University The Chaim Weizmann Institute of Chemistry, and the Fritz Haber Research Center for Molecular Dynamics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.                       
    132. 132. We can now make man-made versions of Nature`s motors like this one. Here Myosin V (blue), a cellular motor protein, carries cargo within cells by moving along actin filaments (red). It takes 37 nanometer steps by placing one “foot” over the other, as revealed by a fluorophore tag (rainbow-colored oval). [Illustration: PrecisionGraphics.com] Ahmet Yildiz, Joseph N. Forkey, Sean A. McKinney, Taekjip Ha, Yale E. Goldman, Paul R. Selvin: Myosin V Walks Hand-Over-Hand: Single Fluorophore Imaging with 1.5-nm Localization . Science. 2003. Vol. 300. p.2061 An example of an impact of this attribute: Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    133. 133. Unique chemical bonding configurations possible Carbon nanotubes Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Odom et al, J. Phys. Chem. B104, 2794 (2000). Copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Reproduced with permission.
    134. 134. An example of an impact of this attribute Superior strength concrete for construction made with CNTs Carbon nanotubes distributed on small cement grains Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University S Bulletin, Vol. 31. P. 23, January 2006 Makar, J. M Beaudoin, J.J/NRCC-46618 http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/ircpubs . Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2009.
    135. 135. Molecular Self-Assembly An example: a mixture of two polymeric molecules can be made to self-assemble, under the influence of heat, into a structure with one phase made up only of molecules of type 1 and another phase made up only of molecules of type 2 White phase (regions) is made up only of molecules of type 1 Black phase (regions) is made up only of molecules of type 2 Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    136. 136. New Ways of Seeing things The nano-scale tips on scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) allow us to even “see” atoms Actual Atoms! IBM Research Division M.F. Crommie, C.P. Lutz, D.M. Eigler. Confinement of electrons to quantum corrals on a metal surface. Science 262, 218-220 (1993). Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    137. 137. <ul><li>Electron beam-based techniques </li></ul><ul><li>TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) </li></ul><ul><li>SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-scale-sized probe-based scanning techniques </li></ul><ul><li>AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) </li></ul><ul><li>STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy) </li></ul><ul><li>NSOM (Near Field Optical Microscopy) </li></ul>Examples of the impact of this attribute: New tools for “seeing” Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of Evans Analytical Group®
    138. 138. Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #5 How Do We “See” Things at the Nano-scale: An Introduction to Characterization Techniques Nanotechnology is Impacting Everything © patton brothers illustration ( www.pattonbros.com ) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Last Updated: 1/6/2011
    139. 139. Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing images using electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing composition information using x-ray photons </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning probe tools </li></ul><ul><li>How small can we go? </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    140. 140. “ Seeing” at the Nano-scale <ul><li>By “seeing” at the nano-scale, we mean (1) being able to literally see size , shape , and structure , (2) being able to determine the composition ( i.e., the elements present), and (3) being able to determine physical and chemical properties of the tiny, tiny structures used in nanotechnology. Engineers and scientists give this “seeing”, which may be done with the help of electrons, ions, photons, or scanning probes, the name “characterization”. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    141. 141. Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing images using electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing composition information using x-ray photons </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning probe tools </li></ul><ul><li>How small can we go? </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    142. 142. Seeing at the Nano-scale <ul><li>One way to see things at the nano-scale is to use beams of electrons . </li></ul><ul><li>These beams can be used to let us see size, shape, structure and even composition. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    143. 143. A Beam of Electrons Interacts in Many Ways when it Impinges on a Material <ul><li>When a beam of electrons hits a material (specimen), a number of responses occur. Some of the electrons may go through the specimen ( transmitted electrons ). Some may bounce back ( backscattered electrons ) and new electrons may be knocked off the atoms of the specimen and come back out ( secondary electrons and Auger electrons ). In addition, photons , including high energy photons ( x-rays ), generated by the relaxing of excited atoms may come back out. </li></ul><ul><li>Each one of these responses can be exploited to “see” the specimen </li></ul>14 Jan. 2009 by F. Krumeich. © ETH Zürich and the authors Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    144. 144. Using the Transmitted Electrons to “See” <ul><li>Seeing by using the transmitted electrons is called transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is called field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM) when the impinging beam of electrons is produced by quantum mechanical tunneling . </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    145. 145. Schematic of a TEM or FE-TEM JEOL 2010F Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization, 3 rd ed. Dieter K. Schroder, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p 647. 1999 Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    146. 146. Size, Shape, and Structure Observations using a TEM Here a silver nanowire is seen at various levels of magnification and finally, on the right, at a magnification that resolves the individual atoms (The Ag atoms appear as the white “dots”) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University © 2005 College of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin. Nanoscale Materials: Metal Nanowires
    147. 147. Using the Backscattered and Secondary Electrons to “See” <ul><li>Seeing by using the backscattered and secondary electrons is called scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is called field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) when the impinging beam of electrons is produced by quantum mechanical tunneling . </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    148. 148. SEM Operation Click on the image to view the movie Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University SEM Images and Text Courtesy of the Museum of Science, Boston
    149. 149. A Size and Shape Observation using an SEM A carbon nanotube Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Copyright 2006-2009 JEOL Ltd.
    150. 150. Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing images using electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing composition information using x-ray photons </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning probe tools </li></ul><ul><li>How small can we go? </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    151. 151. Using the X-rays to “See” <ul><li>Seeing the elemental composition of a specimen by using the X-rays produced by electron impingement is called X-ray spectroscopy . </li></ul><ul><li>Using this technique is an example of determining chemical composition. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    152. 152. An X-ray Detector Instrument <ul><li>This is the X-ray detector needed. It is installed in electron microscope (TEM or SEM) </li></ul><ul><li>Using the detection of X-ray photons produced from the specimen as a result of electron impingement, this instrument provides spatial maps of the elements present in the regions impacted by the electron beam. </li></ul><ul><li>Elemental mapping can be superimposed onto the electron microscopic images and quantitative elemental information (how much of a specific element is present) can be obtained from selected spots in the images. </li></ul>Courtesy of Oxford Instruments Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    153. 153. A Size, Shape, and Composition Observations using X-rays Imaging Technology Group, Beckman Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Ni Colors assigned to different elements C Ca Na SEM Image of a grain of sand showing well defined regions Composition mapping (of the regions seen in the SEM micrograph) using X-rays
    154. 154. Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing images using electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing composition information using x-ray photons </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning probe tools </li></ul><ul><li>How small can we go? </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    155. 155. Scanning Probe Tools for Seeing at the Nano-scale <ul><li>Another way to see things at the nano-scale is to use nano-scale probes . These probe-based tools can be used to let us see size, shape, structure, composition, physical properties, and chemical properties. They are generally called scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tools--- scanning is in their name because they go back and forth ( raster ) across a surface to collect the image place by place and microscopy is in their name because they allow “seeing”. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    156. 156. SPM Tools All Use a Probe with a Nano-scale Sized Tip Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Image courtesy: Greg McCarty tip sample
    157. 157. Some of the Types of Scanning Probe Tools <ul><li>Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)—uses forces between atoms of the probe and those of the surface being scanned to create an image. Can be used on any surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)—uses quantum mechanical tunneling current between atoms of the probe and those of the surface being scanned to create an image. Can only be used on surfaces able to conduct an electric current. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    158. 158. <ul><li>As noted, this type of SPM uses the force between a nano-scale probe tip and the atoms of the specimen surface to create an image of the surface showing size and shape. </li></ul><ul><li>It is like reading Braille at the nanoscale—in this case, tactile information is converted into an image by a computer. </li></ul>Atomic Force Microscopes Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    159. 159. Deflection of the cantilever due to varying forces between the nano-scale tip and the atoms of the surface is picked up by changes in the laser beam reflection and converted by a computer into a picture. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    160. 160. AFM Operation Movie courtesy of Veeco Instruments Inc. Tapping mode Click on the black box to view the movie Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    161. 161. Size and Shape Observations using an AFM Seeing DNA using an AFM Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of SPMage. http://www.icmm.csic.es/spmage/ &quot;Toroidally supercoiled DNA” Dr. Jozef Adamcik. Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL). S witzerland
    162. 162. AFM Probes can be used to move Nano-particles Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    163. 163. <ul><li>As noted earlier, this type of SPM uses the tunneling current between the tip and the atoms of a surface to create an image and even composition information. The tunneling current is feed to a computer which turns its strength into an image position by position. </li></ul><ul><li>Tunneling current is a quantum mechanical phenomenon which depends extremely strongly on the distance between the tip and the type of atoms on the surface so STMs give excellent spatial resolution . </li></ul>Scanning Tunneling Microscopes Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    164. 164. Picture of the Atoms on a Silicon Surface Imaged using STM Atoms on a silicon surface. Note that you can see that Nature has made some mistakes and there are defect sites where atoms are missing. Scanning tunneling microscopes allow surfaces to be imaged at the atomic-scale Schematic of the scanning tunneling microscope Image courtesy: Greg McCarty Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    165. 165. STM Probes can also be used to move Individual Atoms or Molecules Using Voltages applied between the Tip and the selected Atom or Molecule Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    166. 166. Here atoms on a surface are being arranged by an STM to form a corral Don Eigler and co-workers at IBM published these greyscale STM images showing the moving of atoms across a surface to form a corral as the corral was being constructed. The atoms were moved by the STM also by applying voltages to the probe that attracted the atom during the moving process. The atoms that form the surface itself can be seen in these STM images lying below those atoms in the process of being moved. Some Corral Atoms are in Position Atoms in various Stages of Being Moved Atoms of the Underlying Surface Finished Corral Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Science 1993
    167. 167. A Quantum Corral As Seen By STM The STM tunneling current has been turned by a computer into this false color STM image of the Quantum Corral. The computer also tilted the image for us. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Science 1993
    168. 168. <ul><li>Another example of a probe-based technique is Nano-indentation . This technique presses a nano-scale tip into a specimen surface at a specified rate and with a specified force thereby determining hardness. </li></ul><ul><li>This is an example of determining a physical property with nano-scale resolution . </li></ul>Nano-Indentation Tools Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    169. 169. Nano-Indentation Operation <ul><li>Scan surface of a specimen </li></ul><ul><li>performing indentations using selected indentation parameters (rate and force). </li></ul><ul><li>At each indentation, a diamond cantilever tip is lowered and forced into the target surface causing the cantilever to deflect. </li></ul><ul><li>By then knowing how far the tip is able to press into the surface for the specified rate and force, the material hardness can be determined. </li></ul><ul><li>Imaging can then be done to determine location of test. </li></ul>Image courtesy of Veeco Instruments Inc. typical indentation tip Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Image courtesy of Veeco Instruments Inc. Indentations of two different diamond-like carbon films using three different forces (23,34, and 45uN)
    170. 170. Outline <ul><li>What do we mean by “seeing” at the nano-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing images using electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Electron beam-based tools for producing composition information using x-ray photons </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning probe tools </li></ul><ul><li>How small can we go? </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    171. 171. So how small can we go and still “see”? <ul><li>The range of some often-used characterization techniques-- </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) </li></ul><ul><li>Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) </li></ul><ul><li>Probe Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)) </li></ul>Courtesy of Evans Analytical Group® Note: 10 Angstoms equals 1 nanometer. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    172. 172. Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #6 How Do You Make Things So Small? An Introduction to Nanofabrication © patton brothers illustration ( www.pattonbros.com ) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Last Updated: 1/6/2011 Nanotechnology is Impacting Everything
    173. 173. Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is nanofabrication directed </li></ul><ul><li>An overview of top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Key points </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    174. 174. Making nano-scale “things” is called Nanofabrication Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    175. 175. <ul><li>There are three different approaches to Nanofabrication – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid nanofabrication </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    176. 176. Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is nanofabrication directed </li></ul><ul><li>An overview of top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Key points </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    177. 177. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nano-particles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g., macro-molecules, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>beads, tubes, wires) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planar structures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g., structures built </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>using layers) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid structures (mixtures of particles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and planar structures) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Nanotechnology uses Nanofabrication to make a wide variety of Nano-structures – Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Evidenttech.com Adapted from Linda Geppert, The Amazing Vanishing Transistor Act, IEEE Spectrum, October 2002, Vol. 39, Number 10, pg. 28-33
    178. 178. <ul><li>How are these things made – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication makes nano-structures by repeated use of steps that put down films and take parts of them away </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up nanofabrication builds up nano-structures from atoms , molecules , particles , or some combination of these </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid nanofabrication combines elements of top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    179. 179. Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication. </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is nanofabrication directed </li></ul><ul><li>An overview of top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Key points </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    180. 180. <ul><li>Sometimes no direction is </li></ul><ul><li>needed; i.e., no patterns for </li></ul><ul><li>establishing positioning are </li></ul><ul><li>required (e.g., nanoparticles in solution) </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes direction is required; i.e., </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes patterns for positioning are </li></ul><ul><li>necessary (e.g., transistors on a </li></ul><ul><li>substrate) </li></ul><ul><li>No external pattern control </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul>How do you direct Nanofabrication? Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Evidenttech.com Adapted from Linda Geppert, The Amazing Vanishing Transistor Act, IEEE Spectrum, October 2002, Vol. 39, Number 10, pg. 28-33
    181. 181. <ul><li>Externally Imposed Pattern (This </li></ul><ul><li>approach is generally called </li></ul><ul><li>lithography ) </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent Pattern (Uses size, </li></ul><ul><li>shape, or chemical bonding to </li></ul><ul><li>impose patterning) </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid (mixture of both) </li></ul><ul><li>No external pattern control </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul>When Pattern Controlled Fabrication is required, it can utilize an- Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    182. 182. <ul><li>Using lithography for placing, growing, or modifying materials into patterns, where you want, on a structure on a substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Using lithography for removing materials, where you don’t want them, on a structure on a substrate </li></ul>External Patterning means- Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    183. 183. An Example of An Externally Imposed Pattern (Lithography) <ul><li>Pattern is transferred from a “mask” using light (photolithography) in this example </li></ul>Pattern is external to structure. It is originally here (on what is called a “mask”) Pattern is transferred to here (in this case by using a material that is sensitive to light) Fabrication is done here following the transferred pattern Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    184. 184. <ul><li>Using size, shape, specific chemical bonding or all of these to establish a pattern in the nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>No external pattern control </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul>Inherent Patterning means- Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    185. 185. An Example of An Inherent Pattern <ul><li>Pattern is dictated by shape and chemical bonding in this example </li></ul>Antigen “fits” into antibody due to shape, size, and specific chemical bonding and self-assembles Antigen Antibody Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    186. 186. Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is nanofabrication directed </li></ul><ul><li>An overview of top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Key points </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    187. 187. Top-down Nanofabrication is like Sculpting Start with a material supported on a substrate Add some new material according to a pattern (lithography) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Image courtesy of Bruce Hirst Image courtesy of Bruce Hirst
    188. 188. Top-down Nanofabrication is like Sculpting Subtract some of the material according to a pattern (Process order is not important; can subtract before or after adding) Repeat the adding/subtracting as needed following the pattern Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Image courtesy of Bruce Hirst Image courtesy of Bruce Hirst
    189. 189. Bottom-up Nanofabrication is like putting blocks together The building blocks can go together in some inherent pattern dictated by shape or they can go together randomly. The building blocks can be atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    190. 190. Top-Down Vs. Bottom-Up Nanofabrication <ul><li>Top-Down Nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>In “top-down” nanofabrication, one grows or deposits layers of materials and, by some combination of physical and chemical methods, creates the desired nanostructure, as you would make a statue from a block of marble. Top-down nanotechnology is based on the methods that are used to make microelectronics chips; i.e., structures of carefully controlled, limited dimensions are created by laying down layers of material, modifying properties as needed, and etching away those parts of each layer that are unwanted.  These steps are guided by lithography. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-Up Nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>In “bottom-up” nanofabrication approaches, one starts with small components – for example, individual molecules and nano-particles – and then assembles these components to make the desired structure.  Often the assembly is self-guiding; i.e., self-assembly. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    191. 191. <ul><li>The basic materials of top-down nanofabrication are layers (e.g., films) of materials. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic materials of bottom-up nanofabrication are atoms , molecules , particles , and layers . </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    192. 192. Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is nanofabrication directed </li></ul><ul><li>An overview of top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Key points </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    193. 193. <ul><ul><li>Lithography (Pattern transfer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth/Deposition (Addition process) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etching (Subtraction process) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No external pattern control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul></ul>Top-down Nanofabrication always uses some combination of- Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    194. 194. Here’s the way Top-down Nanofabricaton is done – <ul><li>The four steps (lithography, addition, subtraction and modification) are use in some sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps may be skipped. You can start with any step. </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence usually starts with growth or deposition of material. </li></ul><ul><li>Lithography is the step which orchestrates all the others. It controls where materials stay and where they are “sculpted” (i.e., etched) away. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    195. 195. Etching Lithography Depositing or Growing Material Modification The Top-down Fabrication Methodology Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    196. 196. <ul><li>Let’s see an example of how top-down nanofabrication is used to make nano-scale structures. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    197. 197. An Example of a Top-Down Nanofabrication Processing Sequence Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Film Grown by Chemical Reaction of Ambient species with the Substrate Thin Film Substrate Photoresist PLASMA ETCH + IONS + IONS + IONS LITHOGRAPHY ETCHING Chemistry Chemistry Chemistry Spin on Photoresist Align Photomask Expose with Light Chemical Bonds are Altered in Exposed Areas Dissolve Exposed Photoresist in Liquid Developer Remove the Photoresist (Etch/Ion Implantation) Barrier (Negative Bias) Pattern Transfer and Substrate Modification Complete HEAT Substrate THIN FILM GROWTH OR DEPOSITION Oxygen SURFACE MODIFICATION + + + + + + + Ion Implantation Thermal Anneal HEAT Mask
    198. 198. The preceding cartoon demonstrates the four basic steps of top-down nanofabrication: <ul><li>Growth or deposition (addition) </li></ul><ul><li>Lithography (pattern transfer) </li></ul><ul><li>Etching (subtraction) </li></ul><ul><li>Material modification (to change electrical, optical, mechanical, or chemical properties in some region of a layer) </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    199. 199. Outline <ul><li>What is nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>What is made by nanofabrication and how </li></ul><ul><li>How is nanofabrication directed </li></ul><ul><li>An overview of top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Key points </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    200. 200. Bottom-up Nanofabrication always uses some combination of – <ul><li>Building block ( molecules , particles , and layers ) fabrication </li></ul><ul><li>Self-assembly </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    201. 201. Here’s the way Bottom-up Nanofabricaton is done – <ul><li>The two steps (building block fabrication and self-assembly) are used in some sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps may be skipped. </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence starts with building block fabrication . </li></ul><ul><li>An inherent patterning process (due to size, shape, chemical bonding) may be present. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    202. 202. Building Block Fabrication Self Assembly The Bottom-up Fabrication Methodology Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    203. 203. <ul><li>Let’s see an example of how </li></ul><ul><li>bottom-up nanofabrication is used </li></ul><ul><li>to make nano-scale structures </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    204. 204. An Example of a Bottom-Up Nanofabrication Processing Sequence Functionalize the Nanoparticle Link with Antibodies Antigen Attachment Synthesize Nanoparticle Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    205. 205. The preceding cartoon demonstrates the two basic steps of bottom-up nanofabrication: <ul><li>Building Block Fabrication (molecules, particles, or layers--the basic building blocks of bottom-up nanofabrication) </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly of the building blocks into functioning nanostructures. This step is usually termed self-assembly </li></ul><ul><li>In this example, an inherent pattern was present dictated by allowed chemical bonds </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    206. 206. Introduction to Nanotechnology Module #7 How Do You Build Things So Small: Top-Down Nanofabrication Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University © patton brothers illustration ( www.pattonbros.com Last Updated: 1/6/2011 Nanotechnology is Impacting Everything
    207. 207. Outline <ul><li>The basic approach of top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>The basic steps </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition (or film growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern transfer (lithography) </li></ul><ul><li>Etching </li></ul><ul><li>Materials modification </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    208. 208. Top-down Nanofabrication is like Sculpting Start with a material supported on a substrate (or just start with the substrate) Add some new material according to a pattern (lithography; i.e., pattern transfer) Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Image courtesy of Bruce Hirst Image courtesy of Bruce Hirst
    209. 209. Top-down Nanofabrication is like Sculpting Subtract some of the material according to a pattern (Process order is not important; can subtract before or after adding) Repeat the adding/subtracting as needed following the pattern Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Image courtesy of Bruce Hirst Image courtesy of Bruce Hirst
    210. 210. Outline <ul><li>The basic approach of top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>The basic steps </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition (or film growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern transfer (lithography) </li></ul><ul><li>Etching </li></ul><ul><li>Materials modification </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    211. 211. <ul><li>The building blocks of top-down nanofabrication are layers (e.g., films) of materials. These are turned into nano-structures using the basic steps of— </li></ul><ul><li>(1) deposition (the additive process) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) etching (the subtractive process) </li></ul><ul><li>(3) materials modification (to tailor electrical </li></ul><ul><li>chemical, or physical properties) </li></ul><ul><li>(4) lithography (providing the pattern) </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    212. 212. Etching Lithography Depositing or Growing Material Modification The Basic Steps of Top-down nanofabrication. These are used in any sequence. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    213. 213. An Example of a Top-Down Nanofabrication Processing Sequence Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Film Grown by Chemical Reaction of Ambient species with the Substrate Thin Film Substrate Photoresist PLASMA ETCH + IONS + IONS + IONS LITHOGRAPHY ETCHING Chemistry Chemistry Chemistry Spin on Photoresist Align Photomask Expose with Light Chemical Bonds are Altered in Exposed Areas Dissolve Exposed Photoresist in Liquid Developer Remove the Photoresist (Etch/Ion Implantation) Barrier (Negative Bias) Pattern Transfer and Substrate Modification Complete HEAT Substrate THIN FILM GROWTH OR DEPOSITION Oxygen SURFACE MODIFICATION + + + + + + + Ion Implantation Thermal Anneal HEAT Mask
    214. 214. In the preceding cartoon sequence, all 4 steps were used. Sometimes, one or more of these steps is not needed and is omitted in nanofabrication. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    215. 215. To summarize — <ul><li>Top-down nanofabrication has four steps which are use in some sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence may be repeated multiple times </li></ul><ul><li>Steps may be skipped. </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence usually starts with growth or deposition of material. </li></ul><ul><li>Lithography is the step which orchestrates all the others. It controls where materials stay and where they are “sculpted” (i.e., etched) away. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    216. 216. Outline <ul><li>The basic approach of top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>The basic steps </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition (or film growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern transfer (lithography) </li></ul><ul><li>Etching </li></ul><ul><li>Materials modification </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    217. 217. Film Deposition or Growth — <ul><li>Let’s look at each of these steps in more detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s start with deposition or growth </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    218. 218. Material modification Deposition or growth of films/layers Lithography (pattern transfer) Etching (material removal) The Top-down nanofabrication methodology Deposition or Growth Step Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    219. 219. <ul><li>Material Growth or Deposition is needed in fabrication processing to create the basic building blocks (layers) of top-down nanofabrication. </li></ul><ul><li>Common processes for producing these layers include— </li></ul><ul><li>Growth by chemical reaction (e.g., oxidation ) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical application (e.g., spinning layers onto a substrate ) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical vapor deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical vapor deposition </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    220. 220. Growth by Chemical Reaction Thin Film Substrate HEAT Substrate (This Example Shows Oxidation) Film Grown by Chemical Reaction of Ambient species with the Substrate Oxygen Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    221. 221. Growth by chemical reaction differs from physical application, physical vapor deposition, and chemical vapor deposition in that part of the layer is used up (chemically reacted) in any growth process. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    222. 222. Physical Application There are many types of physical application processes; e.g., dipping, spraying, and spin-on. Here we see layer spin-on in cartoon form. Thin Film Substrate Layer Substrate Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    223. 223. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) In this example of PVD called sputtering , a film (purple) is being deposited on the substrate by argon ions (green). These ions act as hammers knocking film atoms (yellow) off the target (yellow too). A negative voltage attracts the Ar ions to the target . Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    224. 224. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) In this example of CVD, gas molecules (the precursor) are broken apart by a plasma. The radicals, ions, and electrons produced result in a chemical reaction on the substrate producing the creation of a film as shown . Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU Ω ~ Impedance Match AC Power Source Throttle Valve Silane Plasma Si Amorphous silicon film growing H Gas Inlet #1 Gas Inlet #2
    225. 225. Outline <ul><li>The basic approach of top-down nanofabrication </li></ul><ul><li>The basic steps </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition (or film growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern transfer (lithography) </li></ul><ul><li>Etching </li></ul><ul><li>Materials modification </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Key Ideas </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    226. 226. Material modification Deposition or growth of films/layers Lithography (pattern transfer) Etching (material removal) The top-down nanofabrication methodology Lithography (pattern transfer) Lithography Step Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    227. 227. <ul><li>In top-down nanofabrication, a pattern is needed to direct where material remains and where it is removed. This pattern must be transferred (written) to where the fabrication will be done (transferred </li></ul><ul><li>to a substrate) </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring this pattern to where </li></ul><ul><li>it is needed (the substrate) is called “ lithography ” </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    228. 228. The name “Lithography” for the Pattern Transfer step comes from two Greek words: <ul><li>Litho – “ stone” </li></ul><ul><li>Graphy– “write” </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    229. 229. The controlling pattern that is “written” to guide the fabrication processes permanently resides in a “ mask ”, in a mold , or in an computer data file , depending on the type of lithography. A mask is a plate of transparent material (e.g., glass) on which a pattern resides. A mold is a plate in which a pattern resides Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    230. 230. Basic Terms used in Lithography Lithography – The transferring (writing) of a pattern-usually to a “resist” Resist – Medium into which pattern on a mask, on a mold, or in computer file is transferred. Used in most types of lithography Developer – Needed in some types of lithography to bring out the pattern written in the resist Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    231. 231. There are many types of lithography Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Type of Lithography Initial Location of Pattern “ Pencil” Doing the Writing Resist Used? Developer Used? Photo-lithography Mask Flood of light (photons) Yes Yes Electron Beam Lithography Data File Beam of Electrons Yes Yes Ion Beam Lithography Data File Beam of Ions Yes Yes Dip Pen Lithography Data File Physical Contact No No Embossing Lithography Mold Physical Contact Yes, usually If resist used Flash Mold Physical Contact Yes etching Stamp Lithography Mold Physical Contact Can be If resist used Molding Lithography Mold Deposited Material Can be If resist used Self-Assembly Lithography Mask, Mold, or Data File Deposited Material Can be If resist used
    232. 232. Most Prevalent Lithography Techniques are - <ul><li>Photolithography </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>E-beam lithography </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    233. 233. Photo (or Optical ) Lithography Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    234. 234. Photo (or Optical) Lithography Mask (pattern is on the mask) Resist Substrate Visible or UV light Resist, which has been coated onto the substrate, is exposed to light—but only in regions allowed by the mask Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    235. 235. Photo Lithography (continued) Exposed photo-resist has been designed to have its chemical bonding changed in the regions exposed to light Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    236. 236. Photo Lithography (continued) These changed regions are then chemically attacked by a developer and removed. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    237. 237. Photo Lithography (continued) The result of the chemical attack by the developer is that the pattern is now “written” in the resist Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    238. 238. <ul><li>The patterned resist can now be used as a chemical attack barrier (a mask * ) which only allows regions with no resist covering to be chemically attacked in an etching step. </li></ul><ul><li>Etching then transfers the pattern to the material below and then, when this is completed, the resist is removed. </li></ul><ul><li>* We have to be aware of the jargon used in nanofabrication. Here the word “mask” is being used to mean a protection layer (barrier) against etching. It protects (masks) what’s below it from being subjected to chemical attack. </li></ul>Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    239. 239. Photo Lithography (continued) The pattern is put into the substrate by using the resist as a chemical-attack barrier and etching the substrate. After etching, the resist is removed and the pattern is now in the substrate. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    240. 240. Dip Pen Lithography Another Example of a Type of Lithography Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    241. 241. Dip Pen Nanolithography - An AFM probe tip is used to write alkanethiols (a type of molecule) onto a surface -Writes sub – 100 nm features - Moving the probe tip can be slow. Manufacturing through-put problem? S. Hong and C.A. Mirkin, Northwestern University Center for Nanofabrication and Molecular Assembly Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    242. 242. Embossing (or Nano-imprinting ) Lithography Another Example of a Type of Lithography Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University
    243. 243. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    244. 244. Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University Courtesy of CNEU
    245. 245. Structures Produced using Patterns Created by Embossing Lithography Followed by Etching Copyright April 2009 The Pennsylvania State University &quot;Current Status of Nanonex Nanoimprint Solutions,&quot; Hua Tan, Linshu Kong, Mingtao Li, Colby Steer and Larry Koecher, SPIE, (2004) &quot;Four-inch Photo-Curable Nanoimprint Lithography Using NX-2000 Nanoimprint,&quot; Mingtao Li, Hua Tan, Linshu Kong, and Larry Koecher, SPIE, (2004)
    246. 246. Another example of

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