MISSING Books OF THE BIBLE<br />LIFE<br />Shawn Miller<br />
Average Bible Knowledge<br />Jay Leno Jaywalking Bible Quiz<br />
Old Testament<br />1500-400 BC<br />Events are written down in Hebrew (with portions in Aramaic) over many centuries. In E...
450 BC<br />Ezra<br /><ul><li>According to Jewish tradition, Ezra, a priest and scribe, collects and arranges some of the ...
450 BC<br />OT Canon<br /><ul><li>Categories</li></ul>1. Homologoumena – books accepted by all<br />2. Antilegomena – book...
Old Testament 24 Books (Jews)<br />Torah -  5<br />Genesis<br />Exodus<br />Leviticus<br />Numbers<br />Deuteronomy<br />K...
Old Testament 39 Books (Christians)<br />2 Chronicles<br />Ezra<br />Nehemiah<br />Esther<br />Poetical Books  -  5<br />J...
450 BC<br />Lost OT Books<br />Lost Books - books named in the Bible, but no longer in existence.<br />Scholars feel that ...
450 BC<br />Lost OT Books<br />The Book of the Wars of the Lord<br />(Numbers 21:14)<br />The Book of Jasher<br />(Joshua ...
450 BC<br />Lost OT Books<br />The Book of Gad the Seer <br />(1Chronicles 29:29)<br />The Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonit...
250-100 BC<br />The Septuagint<br />The Old Testament was translated by Jewish scholars in Alexandria, Egypt.<br />The Sep...
250-100 BC<br />The Septuagint<br />The word “Septuagint” means seventy.<br /><ul><li>  Refers to the tradition that </li>...
250-100 BC<br />The Septuagint<br />The Septuagint includes 53 books in       the translation.<br /><ul><li>Old Testament
 39 books
 The Apocrypha
14 books </li></ul>1500 BC       500 BC       AD 1      AD 500      AD 1000       AD 1500        AD 1900        AD 2000<br />
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Apocrypha booksrefer to several books and additions that written between about 200 ...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Apocrypha books are called the Deuterocanonical by those who do include these books...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br /><ul><li>Jews exclude the Apocrypha.
  Most Protestant Bibles exclude the        Apocrypha.
  Roman Catholics include seven of these        books (Trent 1546)
  Eastern Orthodox Churches use all the books
  Anglican lectionaries also use all of the books       except Psalm151</li></ul>1500 BC       500 BC       AD 1      AD 5...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The 14 Apocryphal Books and/or Additions <br />1 Esdras	 		Baruch, with Letter to Jerem...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Judith: Jewish widow disguises herself as a traitor to her people, gets an Assyrian gen...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />II Esdras: A book of seven prophetic visions supposedly written by Ezra. <br />Tobit: A...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Additions to Esther: Visions, letters and prayers meant to bring the mention of God to ...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Song of the Three Holy Children: An addition to Daniel 3.<br />History of Susanna: Adde...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Prayer of Manasseh: Supposed prayer of 2Chronicles 33:18-19.<br />I Maccabees: Cred...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Reasons most do not include the Apocrypha:<br />The Jews do not include in their Bible<...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />There are about 260 Old Testament quotes and about 370 allusions in the New Testament, ...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Apocrypha teaches as God’s Word things found no where else.  For example: <br />Alm...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Divorce if your wife does not obey you-Sirach 25:26 <br />The Bible does not include th...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Jeremiah took the tabernacle of the ark to a cave in the mountain Moses from which saw ...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />&quot;Pamper a child, and he will frighten you; play with him, and he will give you gri...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Taking up a collection of money and sending it to Jerusalem as a sin offering for the s...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br /> The Apocrypha has the following provable errors:<br />Nebuchadnezzar was the King of B...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Moabites and Ammonites were descendents of Lot; they were not Canaanites. (Judith)<...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />In 2 Maccabees 8:10, Nicanor wanted to pay 2,000 talents to the Romans; the Seleucids w...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />   “Some of the books contained in the apocrypha contain information about the Inter-Te...
250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />   Some were the works of pious Jews reflecting upon the Scriptures (similar to some of...
100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br /><ul><li>These writings purport to be the work of ancient patriarchs and prophets, but a...
100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br />Legendary<br />The Book of Jubilee<br />The Letter of Aristeas<br />The Book of Adam an...
100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br />Apocalyptic<br />1 Enoch<br />The Testament of the 12 Patriarchs<br />The Sibyline Orac...
100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br />Didactical<br />3 Maccabees<br />4 Maccabees<br />PirkeAboth<br />The Story of Ahikar<b...
100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br /><ul><li>1 Enoch 1:9 is quoted in the New Testament by Jude is verses 14-15.
The Assumption of Moses is supposedly referenced in the New Testament by Jude in verse 9.
Quoting or referencing a book does not make the whole book God inspired.
Paul referencing Philosophers does mean he endorses them. </li></ul>1500 BC       500 BC       AD 1      AD 500      AD 10...
100 BC<br />Missing OT Books?<br />Josephus (famous Jewish historian) – only books from Moses to Malachi are canonical sin...
100 BC<br />Missing OT Books?<br />18 of the 22 books of the Hebrew Old Testament are cited authoritatively in the New Tes...
AD 45-100<br />New Testament<br />Followers of Jesus wrote eye-witness reports (Gospels), history, letters to other believ...
  James
  Peter
  Jude
Matthew
  Mark
  Luke
  John</li></ul>1500 BC       500 BC       AD 1      AD 500      AD 1000       AD 1500        AD 1900        AD 2000<br />
AD 100<br />New Testament<br />The original writings are copied and circulated so that by approximately AD150 there is wid...
New Testament<br />Gospels -  4<br />Matthew<br />Mark<br />Luke<br />John<br />History of Church -  1<br />Acts<br />Hebr...
AD 200-300<br />The Canon<br /><ul><li>Canon:  from a Greek word</li></ul> referring to the rule of faith and truth<br /><...
AD 200-300<br />The Canon<br />What was the criteria for including a book?<br />Is it authoritative? Does it claim to be o...
AD 200-300<br />The Canon<br />What was NOT the criteria for including a book?<br />Age determines canonicity: books were ...
AD 200-300<br />The Canon<br />Muratorian Canon, (A.D. 170) <br />Oldest known list of books.  Included all of the New Tes...
AD 397 <br />The Canon<br />Council of Carthage 397: Restricted canon to OT and NT and Tobias, Judith, Esther, 2 books of ...
AD 400 <br />The Canon<br />By AD 400, the standard of 27 New Testament books is accepted in the East and West as confirme...
  Jerome
  Augustine
Church councils  </li></ul>Augustine<br />1500 BC       500 BC       AD 1      AD 500      AD 1000       AD 1500        AD...
AD 400 <br />Jerome<br />Jerome starts translating the Scriptures into Latin in <br />AD 410 and finishes 25 years later. ...
AD 400 <br />NT Pseudepigrapha<br />There are over 280 of these books.<br />Virtually no church leader, canon, or council ...
AD 400 <br />NT Pseudepigrapha<br />The Gospel of the Egyptians – an ascetic teaching against marriage, meat, and wine.<br...
AD 400 <br />NT Pseudepigrapha<br />The Acts of John<br />The Lost Epistle to the Corinthians – forgery based on 1 Cor 5:9...
AD 400 <br />Gnostic Gospels<br />A large number of spurious documents emerged during the centuries following the ministri...
AD 400 <br />Gnostic Gospels<br />Examples<br />The Gospel of Thomas – a Gnostic view of the alleged miracles of the child...
AD 400 <br />Gnostic Gospels<br />They are not &quot;gospels&quot; at all, but rather speculative opinions, totally devoid...
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LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible

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  • Transcript of "LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible"

    1. 1. MISSING Books OF THE BIBLE<br />LIFE<br />Shawn Miller<br />
    2. 2. Average Bible Knowledge<br />Jay Leno Jaywalking Bible Quiz<br />
    3. 3. Old Testament<br />1500-400 BC<br />Events are written down in Hebrew (with portions in Aramaic) over many centuries. In Exodus, the LORD tells Moses to write in a book. Other writers, inspired by God, include leaders, kings and prophets. Together, these writings on leather scrolls and other materials are called the Hebrew Scriptures or Old Testament.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    4. 4. 450 BC<br />Ezra<br /><ul><li>According to Jewish tradition, Ezra, a priest and scribe, collects and arranges some of the books of the Hebrew Bible, around 450 BC. </li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    5. 5. 450 BC<br />OT Canon<br /><ul><li>Categories</li></ul>1. Homologoumena – books accepted by all<br />2. Antilegomena – books which were occasionally questioned<br />Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Ezekiel, Proverbs<br />3. Pseudepigrapha – books rejected by all<br />4. Apocrypha – books accepted by some<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    6. 6. Old Testament 24 Books (Jews)<br />Torah - 5<br />Genesis<br />Exodus<br />Leviticus<br />Numbers<br />Deuteronomy<br />Ketuvim - 11<br /> Psalms<br /> Proverbs<br /> Job<br /> Song of Solomon<br /> Ruth<br /> Lamentations<br /> Ecclesiastes<br /> Esther Daniel<br /> Ezra-Nehemiah<br /> Chronicles<br />Nevi’im - 8<br />Joshua<br />Judges<br />Samuel<br />Kings<br />Isaiah<br />Jeremiah<br />Ezekiel<br />12 Prophets<br />
    7. 7. Old Testament 39 Books (Christians)<br />2 Chronicles<br />Ezra<br />Nehemiah<br />Esther<br />Poetical Books - 5<br />Job<br /> Psalms<br /> Proverbs<br /> Ecclesiastes<br /> Song of Solomon<br />Major Prophets - 5<br />Isaiah<br />Jeremiah<br />Lamentations<br />Ezekiel<br />Daniel<br />Torah - 5<br />Genesis<br />Exodus<br />Leviticus<br />Numbers<br />Deuteronomy<br />Historical Books - 12<br />Joshua<br />Judges<br />Ruth<br />1 Samuel<br />2 Samuel<br />1 Kings<br />2 Kings<br />1 Chronicles<br />Minor Prophets - 12<br />Hosea<br />Joel<br />Amos<br />Obadiah<br />Jonah<br />Micah<br />Nahum<br />Habakkuk<br />Zephaniah<br />Haggai<br />Zechariah<br />Malachi<br />
    8. 8. 450 BC<br />Lost OT Books<br />Lost Books - books named in the Bible, but no longer in existence.<br />Scholars feel that if they were meant to be scripture, God would have preserved them.<br />These books are not really missing. They are referred to in the OT, but that does not mean they must be part of the Bible.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    9. 9. 450 BC<br />Lost OT Books<br />The Book of the Wars of the Lord<br />(Numbers 21:14)<br />The Book of Jasher<br />(Joshua 10:13; 2Samuel 1:18)<br />The Book of the Acts of Solomon <br />(2Kings 11:41)<br />The Book of Nathan the Prophet<br />(1Chronicles 29:29)<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    10. 10. 450 BC<br />Lost OT Books<br />The Book of Gad the Seer <br />(1Chronicles 29:29)<br />The Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite<br />(2Chronicles 9:29)<br />The Visions of Iddo the Seer <br />(2Chronicles 9:29) <br />Others<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    11. 11. 250-100 BC<br />The Septuagint<br />The Old Testament was translated by Jewish scholars in Alexandria, Egypt.<br />The Septuagint is the first Greek translation of the Old Testament.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    12. 12. 250-100 BC<br />The Septuagint<br />The word “Septuagint” means seventy.<br /><ul><li> Refers to the tradition that </li></ul> 70 or 72 men translated it.<br /> “Septuagint” is often abbreviated LXX, <br /> the Roman numeral for seventy.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    13. 13. 250-100 BC<br />The Septuagint<br />The Septuagint includes 53 books in the translation.<br /><ul><li>Old Testament
    14. 14. 39 books
    15. 15. The Apocrypha
    16. 16. 14 books </li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    17. 17. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Apocrypha booksrefer to several books and additions that written between about 200 BC and AD 100 and were included in the early Greek and Latin translations of the Old Testament. The Septuagint contained the Apocrypha in 100 BC.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    18. 18. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Apocrypha books are called the Deuterocanonical by those who do include these books in the Bible.<br />The word deuterocanonical is Greek meaning &apos;belonging to the second canon&apos;. <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    19. 19. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br /><ul><li>Jews exclude the Apocrypha.
    20. 20. Most Protestant Bibles exclude the Apocrypha.
    21. 21. Roman Catholics include seven of these books (Trent 1546)
    22. 22. Eastern Orthodox Churches use all the books
    23. 23. Anglican lectionaries also use all of the books except Psalm151</li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    24. 24. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The 14 Apocryphal Books and/or Additions <br />1 Esdras Baruch, with Letter to Jeremiah<br />2 Esdras Song of Three Young Men<br />Tobit Susanna<br />Judith Bel and the Dragon<br />Additions to Esther Prayer of Manasseh<br />Wisdom of Solomon 1 Maccabees<br />Ecclesiasticus 2 Maccabees<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    25. 25. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Judith: Jewish widow disguises herself as a traitor to her people, gets an Assyrian general drunk and saves her people by chopping off his head and hanging it on the city wall.<br />I Esdras: History of Israel from Josiah to the return from captivity.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    26. 26. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />II Esdras: A book of seven prophetic visions supposedly written by Ezra. <br />Tobit: A religious fantasy where Tobit’s son Tobias marries a widow who was married seven times yet was still a virgin having all her husbands killed by the demon Asmodeas.  Tobias dispels the demon through an exorcism .<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    27. 27. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Additions to Esther: Visions, letters and prayers meant to bring the mention of God to the book of Esther.<br />Wisdom of Solomon: A book of ethics commending wisdom.<br />Ecclesiasticus: A work of general morality and practical godliness modeled after Proverbs.<br />Baruch: Prayers and confessions of the Jews in exile.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    28. 28. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Song of the Three Holy Children: An addition to Daniel 3.<br />History of Susanna: Added as the 13th chapter of Daniel.  In it, Daniel uses his wisdom to free a woman falsely accused of adultery.<br />Bel and the Dragon: Another addition to Daniel telling how Daniel destroys two Babylonian idols.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    29. 29. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Prayer of Manasseh: Supposed prayer of 2Chronicles 33:18-19.<br />I Maccabees: Credible history covering 40 years (175-135 BC) from the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Simon Maccabees.<br />II Maccabees: Fanciful history covering same period as I Maccabees. <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    30. 30. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Reasons most do not include the Apocrypha:<br />The Jews do not include in their Bible<br />By the first century, writers Philo and Josephus indicate that the Hebrew canon did not include the Apocrypha. This leads to its removal from the Geneva Bible in 1640. By 1827, the Apocrypha is omitted from most English versions of the Bible.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    31. 31. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />There are about 260 Old Testament quotes and about 370 allusions in the New Testament, but there is not even one quote from the Apocrypha.<br />The Apocrypha does not claim to be prophetic, and does not contain prophecy.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    32. 32. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Apocrypha teaches as God’s Word things found no where else. For example: <br />Almsgiving delivers from death and purges away every sin. Tobit 12:9 and Tobit 14:12. <br />If this were true, there would be no need for Jesus to die on the cross.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    33. 33. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Divorce if your wife does not obey you-Sirach 25:26 <br />The Bible does not include this as a means for divorce.<br />Whoever honors his father atones for sins. Sirach 3:3<br />The Bible says only Jesus’ blood atones for sins.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    34. 34. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Jeremiah took the tabernacle of the ark to a cave in the mountain Moses from which saw Canaan. 2 Maccabees 2:1-16 <br />Jeremiah could not take the tabernacle (only Levites could transport the tabernacle)<br />We should pray for the dead 2 Maccabees 12:44<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    35. 35. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />&quot;Pamper a child, and he will frighten you; play with him, and he will give you grief.&quot; Sirach 30:9 <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    36. 36. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />Taking up a collection of money and sending it to Jerusalem as a sin offering for the sins of those whom had died. 2 Maccabees 12:39-46 <br /> Dead people who are saved but need to be delivered from their sin (purgatory?) 2 Maccabees 12:42,46 <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    37. 37. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br /> The Apocrypha has the following provable errors:<br />Nebuchadnezzar was the King of Babylon, not Nineveh. (Judith)<br />Haman was an Agagite, not a Macedonian. (additions to Esther). <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    38. 38. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />The Moabites and Ammonites were descendents of Lot; they were not Canaanites. (Judith)<br />Nobody has ever found a city with towers called Bethulia, on the plain of Esdraelon near Dothan. Balbaim has never been found. Cyamon has never been found either. (Judith)<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    39. 39. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br />In 2 Maccabees 8:10, Nicanor wanted to pay 2,000 talents to the Romans; the Seleucids were not under the Romans. <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    40. 40. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br /> “Some of the books contained in the apocrypha contain information about the Inter-Testamental period that is only sketchily available elsewhere. The Jews of Jesus&apos; day do not appear to have regarded the Apocryphal books as Scripture - but they didn&apos;t on that basis reject them as a source of information about their history (I&apos;m thinking in particular of Macabees). They simply placed them in a different category. <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    41. 41. 250-100 BC<br />The Apocrypha<br /> Some were the works of pious Jews reflecting upon the Scriptures (similar to some of the devotional materials people write today). Some were history, some were clearly works of fiction. I think the point is not to reject them as hopelessly flawed garbage (any more than I would reject a modern work of fiction or collection of poetry as garbage, because they lack historical or Scriptural merit), but to recognize them for what they are.” Gordon<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    42. 42. 100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br /><ul><li>These writings purport to be the work of ancient patriarchs and prophets, but are, in their present form, mostly productions from about 200 B.C. to A.D. 200. </li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    43. 43. 100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br />Legendary<br />The Book of Jubilee<br />The Letter of Aristeas<br />The Book of Adam and Eve<br />The Martyrdom of Isaiah<br />Historical<br />The Fragment of a Zadokite Work<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    44. 44. 100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br />Apocalyptic<br />1 Enoch<br />The Testament of the 12 Patriarchs<br />The Sibyline Oracle<br />The Assumption of Moses<br />2 Enoch<br />2 Baruch<br />3 Baruch<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    45. 45. 100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br />Didactical<br />3 Maccabees<br />4 Maccabees<br />PirkeAboth<br />The Story of Ahikar<br />Poetical<br />The Psalms of Solomon<br />Psalm 151 & several other books<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    46. 46. 100 BC<br />OT Pseudepigrapha<br /><ul><li>1 Enoch 1:9 is quoted in the New Testament by Jude is verses 14-15.
    47. 47. The Assumption of Moses is supposedly referenced in the New Testament by Jude in verse 9.
    48. 48. Quoting or referencing a book does not make the whole book God inspired.
    49. 49. Paul referencing Philosophers does mean he endorses them. </li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    50. 50. 100 BC<br />Missing OT Books?<br />Josephus (famous Jewish historian) – only books from Moses to Malachi are canonical since only these were written by people in the prophetic succession (Contra Apion 1:8)<br />Talmud (Jewish commentary) – up to this point [4th century BC] the prophets prophesied through the Holy Spirit, now people just listen to wise men. (Seder OlamRabba 30)<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    51. 51. 100 BC<br />Missing OT Books?<br />18 of the 22 books of the Hebrew Old Testament are cited authoritatively in the New Testament (all except Judges, Chronicles, Esther, and Song of Solomon).<br />The other 4 books do have allusions to them in the New Testament.<br />If anyone wants to include other books into the OT, those books should be quoted in the NT<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    52. 52. AD 45-100<br />New Testament<br />Followers of Jesus wrote eye-witness reports (Gospels), history, letters to other believers, and the Revelation. <br /><ul><li>Paul
    53. 53. James
    54. 54. Peter
    55. 55. Jude
    56. 56. Matthew
    57. 57. Mark
    58. 58. Luke
    59. 59. John</li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    60. 60. AD 100<br />New Testament<br />The original writings are copied and circulated so that by approximately AD150 there is wide enough use of them to speak of the “New Testament” (“New Covenant”).<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    61. 61. New Testament<br />Gospels - 4<br />Matthew<br />Mark<br />Luke<br />John<br />History of Church - 1<br />Acts<br />Hebrew Epistles - 8<br />Hebrews<br />James<br />1, 2 Peter<br />1, 2, 3, John<br />Jude<br />Prophetic - 1<br />Revelation<br />Paul’s Epistles - 13<br />Romans<br /> 1, 2 Corinthians<br /> Galatians<br /> Ephesians<br /> Philippians<br /> Colossians<br /> 1, 2 Thessalonians<br /> 1, 2 Timothy<br /> Titus<br /> Philemon<br />
    62. 62. AD 200-300<br />The Canon<br /><ul><li>Canon: from a Greek word</li></ul> referring to the rule of faith and truth<br /><ul><li> The Canon refers to the authoritative books that are officially accepted and approved as Holy Scripture. </li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    63. 63. AD 200-300<br />The Canon<br />What was the criteria for including a book?<br />Is it authoritative? Does it claim to be of God?<br />Is it prophetic? Was the author an apostle or have a close connection with an apostle?<br />Is it authentic? Did the book contain consistency of doctrine and orthodox teaching?<br />Is it dynamic? Does it possess the life transforming power of God?<br />Is it received? Is the book being accepted by the Body of Christ at large? <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    64. 64. AD 200-300<br />The Canon<br />What was NOT the criteria for including a book?<br />Age determines canonicity: books were accepted immediately by the early church, not after they aged.<br />Agreement with Bible determines canonicity: this does not make a book automatically acceptable (eg. The Midrash)<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    65. 65. AD 200-300<br />The Canon<br />Muratorian Canon, (A.D. 170) <br />Oldest known list of books. Included all of the New Testament books except Hebrews, James, and Peter. <br />Council of Laodicea (A.D. 363) <br />Included the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New Testament omitting the book of Revelation, and including the book Baruch with Letter of Jeremiah were to be read in the churches. <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    66. 66. AD 397 <br />The Canon<br />Council of Carthage 397: Restricted canon to OT and NT and Tobias, Judith, Esther, 2 books of Esdras, 2 books of Maccabees<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    67. 67. AD 400 <br />The Canon<br />By AD 400, the standard of 27 New Testament books is accepted in the East and West as confirmed by:<br /><ul><li>Athanasius
    68. 68. Jerome
    69. 69. Augustine
    70. 70. Church councils </li></ul>Augustine<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    71. 71. AD 400 <br />Jerome<br />Jerome starts translating the Scriptures into Latin in <br />AD 410 and finishes 25 years later. This translation, called the Latin Vulgate, remains the basic Bible for many centuries.<br />Jerome<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    72. 72. AD 400 <br />NT Pseudepigrapha<br />There are over 280 of these books.<br />Virtually no church leader, canon, or council pronounced any of these books canonical.<br />They show an incurable curiosity to discover things not revealed in the canonical books (eg. The childhood of Jesus)<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    73. 73. AD 400 <br />NT Pseudepigrapha<br />The Gospel of the Egyptians – an ascetic teaching against marriage, meat, and wine.<br />The passing of Mary – the bodily assumption of Mary and shows Mary worship.<br />The Acts of Peter – contains the legend that Peter was crucified upside down.<br />The Acts of Thomas – presents the mission and martyrdom of Thomas in India.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    74. 74. AD 400 <br />NT Pseudepigrapha<br />The Acts of John<br />The Lost Epistle to the Corinthians – forgery based on 1 Cor 5:9<br />The Apocalypse of Paul<br />Secret Book of John<br />And many others…<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    75. 75. AD 400 <br />Gnostic Gospels<br />A large number of spurious documents emerged during the centuries following the ministries of the Apostles and were universally rejected by the early church. Copies of a group of these were found at Nag Hammadi in Egypt dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries. <br />Part of NT Pseudepigrapha<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    76. 76. AD 400 <br />Gnostic Gospels<br />Examples<br />The Gospel of Thomas – a Gnostic view of the alleged miracles of the childhood of Jesus.<br />The Acts of Andrew – a Gnostic story of the imprisonment and death of Andrew.<br />The Gospel of the Ebionites – a Gnostic Christian perpetuation of Old Testament practices.<br />and several other documents. <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    77. 77. AD 400 <br />Gnostic Gospels<br />They are not &quot;gospels&quot; at all, but rather speculative opinions, totally devoid of any verifiable facts. <br />Furthermore, they were written under false pseudonyms in an attempt to gain legitimacy. The early church rejected any documents under pseudonyms as being inconsistent with the concept of God-breathed inspiration. <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    78. 78. AD 400 <br />Gnostic Gospels<br />Lastly, they were all written centuries after the Gospel period - in contrast to the contemporaneous eyewitness accounts in the New Testament<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    79. 79. AD 400 <br />NT Apocrypha<br />These are books not included in the Bible, but held in high esteem by at least one church father.<br />Examples<br />The Epistle of Pseudo-Barnabas<br />The Epistle to the Corinthians<br />The Second Epistle of Clement<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    80. 80. AD 400 <br />NT Apocrypha<br />Other Examples<br />Shephard of Hermas<br />The Didache Teaching of the 12<br />The Apocalyse of Peter<br />The Acts of Paul and Thecla<br />The Epistle to the Laodiceans<br />The Gospel According to the Hebrews<br />The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians<br />The Seven Epistles of Ignatius<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    81. 81. AD 500 <br />The Masoretes<br />Special Jewish scribes (Masoretes) are entrusted with the sacred task of making copies of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament).<br />Approximately AD 500-900<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    82. 82. AD 500 <br />The Masoretes<br /><ul><li> The Masoretes develop a meticulous </li></ul> system of counting the number of <br /> words in each book of the Bible to <br /> make sure it was copied accurately.<br /><ul><li> Any scroll found to have an error is</li></ul> buried according to Jewish law.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    83. 83. AD 1228<br />Chapters and Verses<br /><ul><li>Stephen Langton (1228) divided Bible into chapters, RoberStephanus divided Bible in verses (1551).</li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    84. 84. AD 1300<br />The Wycliffe Bible<br />The first English Bibleis translated from Latin in AD 1382. It is called the Wycliffe Bible in honor of priest and Oxford scholar <br />John Wycliffe.<br />Page from Wycliffe Bible<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    85. 85. AD 1408<br />The Wycliffe Bible<br />In AD 1408, in England, it becomes illegal to translate or read the Bible in common English without permission from a bishop.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    86. 86. AD 1455<br />The Printing Press<br />The world’s first printing press,with moveable metal type, is invented in AD 1455, in Mainz, Germany, by Johann Gutenberg. <br />• Mainz<br />Mainz, Germany<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    87. 87. AD 1455<br />The Printing Press<br />The Gutenberg Bible is one of the first books ever printed with the printing press. This Latin Vulgate version is often illuminated by artists who hand paint letters and ornaments on each page.<br />Gutenberg <br />Bible Page<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    88. 88. AD 1522<br />Martin Luther<br />Martin Luther translates the New Testament into German in AD 1522.<br />Martin Luther<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    89. 89. AD 1535<br />The Coverdale Bible<br />The Coverdale Bible is translated by Miles Coverdale (AD 1535) and dedicated to <br />Anne Boleyn, one of <br />King Henry VIII’s wives. <br />This is the first complete Bible to be printed in English.<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    90. 90. AD 1545<br />Council of Trent<br /><ul><li>Catholics confirmed OT, NT books, and Apocrypha.
    91. 91. Catholics did not accept all 15 books of Apocrypha.</li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    92. 92. AD 1560<br />The Geneva Bible<br />This is the Bible of Shakespeare and the one carried to America by the Pilgrims in AD 1620. <br />The AD 1640 edition is the <br />first English Bible to omit <br />the Apocrypha.<br />William Shakespeare<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    93. 93. AD 1611<br />King James Version<br />King James I commissions 54 scholars to undertake a new Bible translation. <br />For six years, six teams of scholars using the Textus Receptus, Bishops Bible, and Tyndale’s Bible, complete the new version in AD 1611.<br />King James I of England<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    94. 94. AD 1889<br />Codex Vaticanus<br />Codex Vaticanus is released to scholars in <br />AD 1889 by the Vatican Library. It is the earliest <br />(AD 325), and probably best, copy known of the New Testament at this time. <br />Vatican City Flag <br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    95. 95. AD 1947<br />The Dead Sea Scrolls<br />The Dead Sea Scrolls,<br />found in a cave in AD 1947 by a shepherd in pottery jars, contain the oldest known copies of portions of the Old Testament.<br />These copies were made between 100 BC and AD 100.<br />A Qumran Cave near the Dead Sea<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    96. 96. AD 1947<br />Dead Sea Scrolls<br />These copies of Old Testament books are over 1000 years older than most of the manuscripts scholars previously had available for study and translation<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    97. 97. AD 2009<br />Conclusion<br /><ul><li>The Bible correctly includes 66 books.
    98. 98. The other writings may have historical value but they should not be included in the Bible.
    99. 99. A thorough reading and study of the entire Bible will reveal the errors of the excluded writings.</li></ul>1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />
    100. 100. AD 2009<br />Conclusion<br />Recommended Book:<br />From God to Us:<br />How We Got Our Bible<br /> By Norman Geisler &William Nix<br />1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000<br />

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