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  • Bring – BibleIntroductions
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-canonical_books_referenced_in_the_Bible

LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible Presentation Transcript

  • MISSING Books OF THE BIBLE
    LIFE
    Shawn Miller
  • Average Bible Knowledge
    Jay Leno Jaywalking Bible Quiz
  • Old Testament
    1500-400 BC
    Events are written down in Hebrew (with portions in Aramaic) over many centuries. In Exodus, the LORD tells Moses to write in a book. Other writers, inspired by God, include leaders, kings and prophets. Together, these writings on leather scrolls and other materials are called the Hebrew Scriptures or Old Testament.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 450 BC
    Ezra
    • According to Jewish tradition, Ezra, a priest and scribe, collects and arranges some of the books of the Hebrew Bible, around 450 BC.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 450 BC
    OT Canon
    • Categories
    1. Homologoumena – books accepted by all
    2. Antilegomena – books which were occasionally questioned
    Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Ezekiel, Proverbs
    3. Pseudepigrapha – books rejected by all
    4. Apocrypha – books accepted by some
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • Old Testament 24 Books (Jews)
    Torah - 5
    Genesis
    Exodus
    Leviticus
    Numbers
    Deuteronomy
    Ketuvim - 11
    Psalms
    Proverbs
    Job
    Song of Solomon
    Ruth
    Lamentations
    Ecclesiastes
    Esther Daniel
    Ezra-Nehemiah
    Chronicles
    Nevi’im - 8
    Joshua
    Judges
    Samuel
    Kings
    Isaiah
    Jeremiah
    Ezekiel
    12 Prophets
  • Old Testament 39 Books (Christians)
    2 Chronicles
    Ezra
    Nehemiah
    Esther
    Poetical Books - 5
    Job
    Psalms
    Proverbs
    Ecclesiastes
    Song of Solomon
    Major Prophets - 5
    Isaiah
    Jeremiah
    Lamentations
    Ezekiel
    Daniel
    Torah - 5
    Genesis
    Exodus
    Leviticus
    Numbers
    Deuteronomy
    Historical Books - 12
    Joshua
    Judges
    Ruth
    1 Samuel
    2 Samuel
    1 Kings
    2 Kings
    1 Chronicles
    Minor Prophets - 12
    Hosea
    Joel
    Amos
    Obadiah
    Jonah
    Micah
    Nahum
    Habakkuk
    Zephaniah
    Haggai
    Zechariah
    Malachi
  • 450 BC
    Lost OT Books
    Lost Books - books named in the Bible, but no longer in existence.
    Scholars feel that if they were meant to be scripture, God would have preserved them.
    These books are not really missing. They are referred to in the OT, but that does not mean they must be part of the Bible.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 450 BC
    Lost OT Books
    The Book of the Wars of the Lord
    (Numbers 21:14)
    The Book of Jasher
    (Joshua 10:13; 2Samuel 1:18)
    The Book of the Acts of Solomon
    (2Kings 11:41)
    The Book of Nathan the Prophet
    (1Chronicles 29:29)
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 450 BC
    Lost OT Books
    The Book of Gad the Seer
    (1Chronicles 29:29)
    The Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite
    (2Chronicles 9:29)
    The Visions of Iddo the Seer
    (2Chronicles 9:29) 
    Others
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Septuagint
    The Old Testament was translated by Jewish scholars in Alexandria, Egypt.
    The Septuagint is the first Greek translation of the Old Testament.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Septuagint
    The word “Septuagint” means seventy.
    • Refers to the tradition that
    70 or 72 men translated it.
    “Septuagint” is often abbreviated LXX,
    the Roman numeral for seventy.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Septuagint
    The Septuagint includes 53 books in the translation.
    • Old Testament
    • 39 books
    • The Apocrypha
    • 14 books
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    The Apocrypha booksrefer to several books and additions that written between about 200 BC and AD 100 and were included in the early Greek and Latin translations of the Old Testament. The Septuagint contained the Apocrypha in 100 BC.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    The Apocrypha books are called the Deuterocanonical by those who do include these books in the Bible.
    The word deuterocanonical is Greek meaning 'belonging to the second canon'.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    • Jews exclude the Apocrypha.
    • Most Protestant Bibles exclude the Apocrypha.
    • Roman Catholics include seven of these books (Trent 1546)
    • Eastern Orthodox Churches use all the books
    • Anglican lectionaries also use all of the books except Psalm151
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    The 14 Apocryphal Books and/or Additions
    1 Esdras Baruch, with Letter to Jeremiah
    2 Esdras Song of Three Young Men
    Tobit Susanna
    Judith Bel and the Dragon
    Additions to Esther Prayer of Manasseh
    Wisdom of Solomon 1 Maccabees
    Ecclesiasticus 2 Maccabees
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    Judith: Jewish widow disguises herself as a traitor to her people, gets an Assyrian general drunk and saves her people by chopping off his head and hanging it on the city wall.
    I Esdras: History of Israel from Josiah to the return from captivity.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    II Esdras: A book of seven prophetic visions supposedly written by Ezra.
    Tobit: A religious fantasy where Tobit’s son Tobias marries a widow who was married seven times yet was still a virgin having all her husbands killed by the demon Asmodeas.  Tobias dispels the demon through an exorcism .
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    Additions to Esther: Visions, letters and prayers meant to bring the mention of God to the book of Esther.
    Wisdom of Solomon: A book of ethics commending wisdom.
    Ecclesiasticus: A work of general morality and practical godliness modeled after Proverbs.
    Baruch: Prayers and confessions of the Jews in exile.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    Song of the Three Holy Children: An addition to Daniel 3.
    History of Susanna: Added as the 13th chapter of Daniel.  In it, Daniel uses his wisdom to free a woman falsely accused of adultery.
    Bel and the Dragon: Another addition to Daniel telling how Daniel destroys two Babylonian idols.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    The Prayer of Manasseh: Supposed prayer of 2Chronicles 33:18-19.
    I Maccabees: Credible history covering 40 years (175-135 BC) from the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Simon Maccabees.
    II Maccabees: Fanciful history covering same period as I Maccabees. 
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    Reasons most do not include the Apocrypha:
    The Jews do not include in their Bible
    By the first century, writers Philo and Josephus indicate that the Hebrew canon did not include the Apocrypha. This leads to its removal from the Geneva Bible in 1640. By 1827, the Apocrypha is omitted from most English versions of the Bible.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    There are about 260 Old Testament quotes and about 370 allusions in the New Testament, but there is not even one quote from the Apocrypha.
    The Apocrypha does not claim to be prophetic, and does not contain prophecy.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    The Apocrypha teaches as God’s Word things found no where else. For example:
    Almsgiving delivers from death and purges away every sin. Tobit 12:9 and Tobit 14:12.
    If this were true, there would be no need for Jesus to die on the cross.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    Divorce if your wife does not obey you-Sirach 25:26
    The Bible does not include this as a means for divorce.
    Whoever honors his father atones for sins. Sirach 3:3
    The Bible says only Jesus’ blood atones for sins.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    Jeremiah took the tabernacle of the ark to a cave in the mountain Moses from which saw Canaan. 2 Maccabees 2:1-16
    Jeremiah could not take the tabernacle (only Levites could transport the tabernacle)
    We should pray for the dead 2 Maccabees 12:44
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    "Pamper a child, and he will frighten you; play with him, and he will give you grief." Sirach 30:9
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    Taking up a collection of money and sending it to Jerusalem as a sin offering for the sins of those whom had died. 2 Maccabees 12:39-46
     Dead people who are saved but need to be delivered from their sin (purgatory?) 2 Maccabees 12:42,46
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    The Apocrypha has the following provable errors:
    Nebuchadnezzar was the King of Babylon, not Nineveh. (Judith)
    Haman was an Agagite, not a Macedonian. (additions to Esther).
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    The Moabites and Ammonites were descendents of Lot; they were not Canaanites. (Judith)
    Nobody has ever found a city with towers called Bethulia, on the plain of Esdraelon near Dothan. Balbaim has never been found. Cyamon has never been found either. (Judith)
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    In 2 Maccabees 8:10, Nicanor wanted to pay 2,000 talents to the Romans; the Seleucids were not under the Romans.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    “Some of the books contained in the apocrypha contain information about the Inter-Testamental period that is only sketchily available elsewhere. The Jews of Jesus' day do not appear to have regarded the Apocryphal books as Scripture - but they didn't on that basis reject them as a source of information about their history (I'm thinking in particular of Macabees). They simply placed them in a different category.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 250-100 BC
    The Apocrypha
    Some were the works of pious Jews reflecting upon the Scriptures (similar to some of the devotional materials people write today). Some were history, some were clearly works of fiction. I think the point is not to reject them as hopelessly flawed garbage (any more than I would reject a modern work of fiction or collection of poetry as garbage, because they lack historical or Scriptural merit), but to recognize them for what they are.” Gordon
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 100 BC
    OT Pseudepigrapha
    • These writings purport to be the work of ancient patriarchs and prophets, but are, in their present form, mostly productions from about 200 B.C. to A.D. 200.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 100 BC
    OT Pseudepigrapha
    Legendary
    The Book of Jubilee
    The Letter of Aristeas
    The Book of Adam and Eve
    The Martyrdom of Isaiah
    Historical
    The Fragment of a Zadokite Work
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 100 BC
    OT Pseudepigrapha
    Apocalyptic
    1 Enoch
    The Testament of the 12 Patriarchs
    The Sibyline Oracle
    The Assumption of Moses
    2 Enoch
    2 Baruch
    3 Baruch
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 100 BC
    OT Pseudepigrapha
    Didactical
    3 Maccabees
    4 Maccabees
    PirkeAboth
    The Story of Ahikar
    Poetical
    The Psalms of Solomon
    Psalm 151 & several other books
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 100 BC
    OT Pseudepigrapha
    • 1 Enoch 1:9 is quoted in the New Testament by Jude is verses 14-15.
    • The Assumption of Moses is supposedly referenced in the New Testament by Jude in verse 9.
    • Quoting or referencing a book does not make the whole book God inspired.
    • Paul referencing Philosophers does mean he endorses them.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 100 BC
    Missing OT Books?
    Josephus (famous Jewish historian) – only books from Moses to Malachi are canonical since only these were written by people in the prophetic succession (Contra Apion 1:8)
    Talmud (Jewish commentary) – up to this point [4th century BC] the prophets prophesied through the Holy Spirit, now people just listen to wise men. (Seder OlamRabba 30)
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • 100 BC
    Missing OT Books?
    18 of the 22 books of the Hebrew Old Testament are cited authoritatively in the New Testament (all except Judges, Chronicles, Esther, and Song of Solomon).
    The other 4 books do have allusions to them in the New Testament.
    If anyone wants to include other books into the OT, those books should be quoted in the NT
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 45-100
    New Testament
    Followers of Jesus wrote eye-witness reports (Gospels), history, letters to other believers, and the Revelation.
    • Paul
    • James
    • Peter
    • Jude
    • Matthew
    • Mark
    • Luke
    • John
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 100
    New Testament
    The original writings are copied and circulated so that by approximately AD150 there is wide enough use of them to speak of the “New Testament” (“New Covenant”).
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • New Testament
    Gospels - 4
    Matthew
    Mark
    Luke
    John
    History of Church - 1
    Acts
    Hebrew Epistles - 8
    Hebrews
    James
    1, 2 Peter
    1, 2, 3, John
    Jude
    Prophetic - 1
    Revelation
    Paul’s Epistles - 13
    Romans
    1, 2 Corinthians
    Galatians
    Ephesians
    Philippians
    Colossians
    1, 2 Thessalonians
    1, 2 Timothy
    Titus
    Philemon
  • AD 200-300
    The Canon
    • Canon: from a Greek word
    referring to the rule of faith and truth
    • The Canon refers to the authoritative books that are officially accepted and approved as Holy Scripture.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 200-300
    The Canon
    What was the criteria for including a book?
    Is it authoritative? Does it claim to be of God?
    Is it prophetic? Was the author an apostle or have a close connection with an apostle?
    Is it authentic? Did the book contain consistency of doctrine and orthodox teaching?
    Is it dynamic? Does it possess the life transforming power of God?
    Is it received? Is the book being accepted by the Body of Christ at large?
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 200-300
    The Canon
    What was NOT the criteria for including a book?
    Age determines canonicity: books were accepted immediately by the early church, not after they aged.
    Agreement with Bible determines canonicity: this does not make a book automatically acceptable (eg. The Midrash)
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 200-300
    The Canon
    Muratorian Canon, (A.D. 170)
    Oldest known list of books. Included all of the New Testament books except Hebrews, James, and Peter.
    Council of Laodicea (A.D. 363)
    Included the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New Testament omitting the book of Revelation, and including the book Baruch with Letter of Jeremiah were to be read in the churches.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 397
    The Canon
    Council of Carthage 397: Restricted canon to OT and NT and Tobias, Judith, Esther, 2 books of Esdras, 2 books of Maccabees
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    The Canon
    By AD 400, the standard of 27 New Testament books is accepted in the East and West as confirmed by:
    • Athanasius
    • Jerome
    • Augustine
    • Church councils
    Augustine
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    Jerome
    Jerome starts translating the Scriptures into Latin in
    AD 410 and finishes 25 years later. This translation, called the Latin Vulgate, remains the basic Bible for many centuries.
    Jerome
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    NT Pseudepigrapha
    There are over 280 of these books.
    Virtually no church leader, canon, or council pronounced any of these books canonical.
    They show an incurable curiosity to discover things not revealed in the canonical books (eg. The childhood of Jesus)
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    NT Pseudepigrapha
    The Gospel of the Egyptians – an ascetic teaching against marriage, meat, and wine.
    The passing of Mary – the bodily assumption of Mary and shows Mary worship.
    The Acts of Peter – contains the legend that Peter was crucified upside down.
    The Acts of Thomas – presents the mission and martyrdom of Thomas in India.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    NT Pseudepigrapha
    The Acts of John
    The Lost Epistle to the Corinthians – forgery based on 1 Cor 5:9
    The Apocalypse of Paul
    Secret Book of John
    And many others…
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    Gnostic Gospels
    A large number of spurious documents emerged during the centuries following the ministries of the Apostles and were universally rejected by the early church. Copies of a group of these were found at Nag Hammadi in Egypt dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries.
    Part of NT Pseudepigrapha
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    Gnostic Gospels
    Examples
    The Gospel of Thomas – a Gnostic view of the alleged miracles of the childhood of Jesus.
    The Acts of Andrew – a Gnostic story of the imprisonment and death of Andrew.
    The Gospel of the Ebionites – a Gnostic Christian perpetuation of Old Testament practices.
    and several other documents.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    Gnostic Gospels
    They are not "gospels" at all, but rather speculative opinions, totally devoid of any verifiable facts.
    Furthermore, they were written under false pseudonyms in an attempt to gain legitimacy. The early church rejected any documents under pseudonyms as being inconsistent with the concept of God-breathed inspiration.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    Gnostic Gospels
    Lastly, they were all written centuries after the Gospel period - in contrast to the contemporaneous eyewitness accounts in the New Testament
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    NT Apocrypha
    These are books not included in the Bible, but held in high esteem by at least one church father.
    Examples
    The Epistle of Pseudo-Barnabas
    The Epistle to the Corinthians
    The Second Epistle of Clement
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 400
    NT Apocrypha
    Other Examples
    Shephard of Hermas
    The Didache Teaching of the 12
    The Apocalyse of Peter
    The Acts of Paul and Thecla
    The Epistle to the Laodiceans
    The Gospel According to the Hebrews
    The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians
    The Seven Epistles of Ignatius
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 500
    The Masoretes
    Special Jewish scribes (Masoretes) are entrusted with the sacred task of making copies of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament).
    Approximately AD 500-900
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 500
    The Masoretes
    • The Masoretes develop a meticulous
    system of counting the number of
    words in each book of the Bible to
    make sure it was copied accurately.
    • Any scroll found to have an error is
    buried according to Jewish law.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1228
    Chapters and Verses
    • Stephen Langton (1228) divided Bible into chapters, RoberStephanus divided Bible in verses (1551).
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1300
    The Wycliffe Bible
    The first English Bibleis translated from Latin in AD 1382. It is called the Wycliffe Bible in honor of priest and Oxford scholar
    John Wycliffe.
    Page from Wycliffe Bible
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1408
    The Wycliffe Bible
    In AD 1408, in England, it becomes illegal to translate or read the Bible in common English without permission from a bishop.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1455
    The Printing Press
    The world’s first printing press,with moveable metal type, is invented in AD 1455, in Mainz, Germany, by Johann Gutenberg.
    • Mainz
    Mainz, Germany
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1455
    The Printing Press
    The Gutenberg Bible is one of the first books ever printed with the printing press. This Latin Vulgate version is often illuminated by artists who hand paint letters and ornaments on each page.
    Gutenberg
    Bible Page
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1522
    Martin Luther
    Martin Luther translates the New Testament into German in AD 1522.
    Martin Luther
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1535
    The Coverdale Bible
    The Coverdale Bible is translated by Miles Coverdale (AD 1535) and dedicated to
    Anne Boleyn, one of
    King Henry VIII’s wives.
    This is the first complete Bible to be printed in English.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1545
    Council of Trent
    • Catholics confirmed OT, NT books, and Apocrypha.
    • Catholics did not accept all 15 books of Apocrypha.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1560
    The Geneva Bible
    This is the Bible of Shakespeare and the one carried to America by the Pilgrims in AD 1620.
    The AD 1640 edition is the
    first English Bible to omit
    the Apocrypha.
    William Shakespeare
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1611
    King James Version
    King James I commissions 54 scholars to undertake a new Bible translation.
    For six years, six teams of scholars using the Textus Receptus, Bishops Bible, and Tyndale’s Bible, complete the new version in AD 1611.
    King James I of England
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1889
    Codex Vaticanus
    Codex Vaticanus is released to scholars in
    AD 1889 by the Vatican Library. It is the earliest
    (AD 325), and probably best, copy known of the New Testament at this time.
    Vatican City Flag
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1947
    The Dead Sea Scrolls
    The Dead Sea Scrolls,
    found in a cave in AD 1947 by a shepherd in pottery jars, contain the oldest known copies of portions of the Old Testament.
    These copies were made between 100 BC and AD 100.
    A Qumran Cave near the Dead Sea
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 1947
    Dead Sea Scrolls
    These copies of Old Testament books are over 1000 years older than most of the manuscripts scholars previously had available for study and translation
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 2009
    Conclusion
    • The Bible correctly includes 66 books.
    • The other writings may have historical value but they should not be included in the Bible.
    • A thorough reading and study of the entire Bible will reveal the errors of the excluded writings.
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
  • AD 2009
    Conclusion
    Recommended Book:
    From God to Us:
    How We Got Our Bible
    By Norman Geisler &William Nix
    1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000