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LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible
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LIFE - 6/17/09 - Books Of Bible

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  • Bring – BibleIntroductions
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-canonical_books_referenced_in_the_Bible
  • Transcript

    • 1. MISSING Books OF THE BIBLE
      LIFE
      Shawn Miller
    • 2. Average Bible Knowledge
      Jay Leno Jaywalking Bible Quiz
    • 3. Old Testament
      1500-400 BC
      Events are written down in Hebrew (with portions in Aramaic) over many centuries. In Exodus, the LORD tells Moses to write in a book. Other writers, inspired by God, include leaders, kings and prophets. Together, these writings on leather scrolls and other materials are called the Hebrew Scriptures or Old Testament.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 4. 450 BC
      Ezra
      • According to Jewish tradition, Ezra, a priest and scribe, collects and arranges some of the books of the Hebrew Bible, around 450 BC.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 5. 450 BC
      OT Canon
      • Categories
      1. Homologoumena – books accepted by all
      2. Antilegomena – books which were occasionally questioned
      Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Ezekiel, Proverbs
      3. Pseudepigrapha – books rejected by all
      4. Apocrypha – books accepted by some
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 6. Old Testament 24 Books (Jews)
      Torah - 5
      Genesis
      Exodus
      Leviticus
      Numbers
      Deuteronomy
      Ketuvim - 11
      Psalms
      Proverbs
      Job
      Song of Solomon
      Ruth
      Lamentations
      Ecclesiastes
      Esther Daniel
      Ezra-Nehemiah
      Chronicles
      Nevi’im - 8
      Joshua
      Judges
      Samuel
      Kings
      Isaiah
      Jeremiah
      Ezekiel
      12 Prophets
    • 7. Old Testament 39 Books (Christians)
      2 Chronicles
      Ezra
      Nehemiah
      Esther
      Poetical Books - 5
      Job
      Psalms
      Proverbs
      Ecclesiastes
      Song of Solomon
      Major Prophets - 5
      Isaiah
      Jeremiah
      Lamentations
      Ezekiel
      Daniel
      Torah - 5
      Genesis
      Exodus
      Leviticus
      Numbers
      Deuteronomy
      Historical Books - 12
      Joshua
      Judges
      Ruth
      1 Samuel
      2 Samuel
      1 Kings
      2 Kings
      1 Chronicles
      Minor Prophets - 12
      Hosea
      Joel
      Amos
      Obadiah
      Jonah
      Micah
      Nahum
      Habakkuk
      Zephaniah
      Haggai
      Zechariah
      Malachi
    • 8. 450 BC
      Lost OT Books
      Lost Books - books named in the Bible, but no longer in existence.
      Scholars feel that if they were meant to be scripture, God would have preserved them.
      These books are not really missing. They are referred to in the OT, but that does not mean they must be part of the Bible.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 9. 450 BC
      Lost OT Books
      The Book of the Wars of the Lord
      (Numbers 21:14)
      The Book of Jasher
      (Joshua 10:13; 2Samuel 1:18)
      The Book of the Acts of Solomon
      (2Kings 11:41)
      The Book of Nathan the Prophet
      (1Chronicles 29:29)
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 10. 450 BC
      Lost OT Books
      The Book of Gad the Seer
      (1Chronicles 29:29)
      The Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite
      (2Chronicles 9:29)
      The Visions of Iddo the Seer
      (2Chronicles 9:29) 
      Others
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 11. 250-100 BC
      The Septuagint
      The Old Testament was translated by Jewish scholars in Alexandria, Egypt.
      The Septuagint is the first Greek translation of the Old Testament.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 12. 250-100 BC
      The Septuagint
      The word “Septuagint” means seventy.
      • Refers to the tradition that
      70 or 72 men translated it.
      “Septuagint” is often abbreviated LXX,
      the Roman numeral for seventy.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 13. 250-100 BC
      The Septuagint
      The Septuagint includes 53 books in the translation.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 17. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      The Apocrypha booksrefer to several books and additions that written between about 200 BC and AD 100 and were included in the early Greek and Latin translations of the Old Testament. The Septuagint contained the Apocrypha in 100 BC.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 18. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      The Apocrypha books are called the Deuterocanonical by those who do include these books in the Bible.
      The word deuterocanonical is Greek meaning 'belonging to the second canon'.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 19. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      • Jews exclude the Apocrypha.
      • 20. Most Protestant Bibles exclude the Apocrypha.
      • 21. Roman Catholics include seven of these books (Trent 1546)
      • 22. Eastern Orthodox Churches use all the books
      • 23. Anglican lectionaries also use all of the books except Psalm151
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 24. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      The 14 Apocryphal Books and/or Additions
      1 Esdras Baruch, with Letter to Jeremiah
      2 Esdras Song of Three Young Men
      Tobit Susanna
      Judith Bel and the Dragon
      Additions to Esther Prayer of Manasseh
      Wisdom of Solomon 1 Maccabees
      Ecclesiasticus 2 Maccabees
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 25. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      Judith: Jewish widow disguises herself as a traitor to her people, gets an Assyrian general drunk and saves her people by chopping off his head and hanging it on the city wall.
      I Esdras: History of Israel from Josiah to the return from captivity.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 26. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      II Esdras: A book of seven prophetic visions supposedly written by Ezra.
      Tobit: A religious fantasy where Tobit’s son Tobias marries a widow who was married seven times yet was still a virgin having all her husbands killed by the demon Asmodeas.  Tobias dispels the demon through an exorcism .
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 27. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      Additions to Esther: Visions, letters and prayers meant to bring the mention of God to the book of Esther.
      Wisdom of Solomon: A book of ethics commending wisdom.
      Ecclesiasticus: A work of general morality and practical godliness modeled after Proverbs.
      Baruch: Prayers and confessions of the Jews in exile.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 28. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      Song of the Three Holy Children: An addition to Daniel 3.
      History of Susanna: Added as the 13th chapter of Daniel.  In it, Daniel uses his wisdom to free a woman falsely accused of adultery.
      Bel and the Dragon: Another addition to Daniel telling how Daniel destroys two Babylonian idols.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 29. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      The Prayer of Manasseh: Supposed prayer of 2Chronicles 33:18-19.
      I Maccabees: Credible history covering 40 years (175-135 BC) from the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Simon Maccabees.
      II Maccabees: Fanciful history covering same period as I Maccabees. 
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 30. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      Reasons most do not include the Apocrypha:
      The Jews do not include in their Bible
      By the first century, writers Philo and Josephus indicate that the Hebrew canon did not include the Apocrypha. This leads to its removal from the Geneva Bible in 1640. By 1827, the Apocrypha is omitted from most English versions of the Bible.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 31. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      There are about 260 Old Testament quotes and about 370 allusions in the New Testament, but there is not even one quote from the Apocrypha.
      The Apocrypha does not claim to be prophetic, and does not contain prophecy.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 32. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      The Apocrypha teaches as God’s Word things found no where else. For example:
      Almsgiving delivers from death and purges away every sin. Tobit 12:9 and Tobit 14:12.
      If this were true, there would be no need for Jesus to die on the cross.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 33. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      Divorce if your wife does not obey you-Sirach 25:26
      The Bible does not include this as a means for divorce.
      Whoever honors his father atones for sins. Sirach 3:3
      The Bible says only Jesus’ blood atones for sins.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 34. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      Jeremiah took the tabernacle of the ark to a cave in the mountain Moses from which saw Canaan. 2 Maccabees 2:1-16
      Jeremiah could not take the tabernacle (only Levites could transport the tabernacle)
      We should pray for the dead 2 Maccabees 12:44
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 35. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      "Pamper a child, and he will frighten you; play with him, and he will give you grief." Sirach 30:9
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 36. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      Taking up a collection of money and sending it to Jerusalem as a sin offering for the sins of those whom had died. 2 Maccabees 12:39-46
       Dead people who are saved but need to be delivered from their sin (purgatory?) 2 Maccabees 12:42,46
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 37. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      The Apocrypha has the following provable errors:
      Nebuchadnezzar was the King of Babylon, not Nineveh. (Judith)
      Haman was an Agagite, not a Macedonian. (additions to Esther).
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 38. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      The Moabites and Ammonites were descendents of Lot; they were not Canaanites. (Judith)
      Nobody has ever found a city with towers called Bethulia, on the plain of Esdraelon near Dothan. Balbaim has never been found. Cyamon has never been found either. (Judith)
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 39. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      In 2 Maccabees 8:10, Nicanor wanted to pay 2,000 talents to the Romans; the Seleucids were not under the Romans.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 40. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      “Some of the books contained in the apocrypha contain information about the Inter-Testamental period that is only sketchily available elsewhere. The Jews of Jesus' day do not appear to have regarded the Apocryphal books as Scripture - but they didn't on that basis reject them as a source of information about their history (I'm thinking in particular of Macabees). They simply placed them in a different category.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 41. 250-100 BC
      The Apocrypha
      Some were the works of pious Jews reflecting upon the Scriptures (similar to some of the devotional materials people write today). Some were history, some were clearly works of fiction. I think the point is not to reject them as hopelessly flawed garbage (any more than I would reject a modern work of fiction or collection of poetry as garbage, because they lack historical or Scriptural merit), but to recognize them for what they are.” Gordon
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 42. 100 BC
      OT Pseudepigrapha
      • These writings purport to be the work of ancient patriarchs and prophets, but are, in their present form, mostly productions from about 200 B.C. to A.D. 200.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 43. 100 BC
      OT Pseudepigrapha
      Legendary
      The Book of Jubilee
      The Letter of Aristeas
      The Book of Adam and Eve
      The Martyrdom of Isaiah
      Historical
      The Fragment of a Zadokite Work
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 44. 100 BC
      OT Pseudepigrapha
      Apocalyptic
      1 Enoch
      The Testament of the 12 Patriarchs
      The Sibyline Oracle
      The Assumption of Moses
      2 Enoch
      2 Baruch
      3 Baruch
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 45. 100 BC
      OT Pseudepigrapha
      Didactical
      3 Maccabees
      4 Maccabees
      PirkeAboth
      The Story of Ahikar
      Poetical
      The Psalms of Solomon
      Psalm 151 & several other books
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 46. 100 BC
      OT Pseudepigrapha
      • 1 Enoch 1:9 is quoted in the New Testament by Jude is verses 14-15.
      • 47. The Assumption of Moses is supposedly referenced in the New Testament by Jude in verse 9.
      • 48. Quoting or referencing a book does not make the whole book God inspired.
      • 49. Paul referencing Philosophers does mean he endorses them.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 50. 100 BC
      Missing OT Books?
      Josephus (famous Jewish historian) – only books from Moses to Malachi are canonical since only these were written by people in the prophetic succession (Contra Apion 1:8)
      Talmud (Jewish commentary) – up to this point [4th century BC] the prophets prophesied through the Holy Spirit, now people just listen to wise men. (Seder OlamRabba 30)
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 51. 100 BC
      Missing OT Books?
      18 of the 22 books of the Hebrew Old Testament are cited authoritatively in the New Testament (all except Judges, Chronicles, Esther, and Song of Solomon).
      The other 4 books do have allusions to them in the New Testament.
      If anyone wants to include other books into the OT, those books should be quoted in the NT
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 52. AD 45-100
      New Testament
      Followers of Jesus wrote eye-witness reports (Gospels), history, letters to other believers, and the Revelation.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 60. AD 100
      New Testament
      The original writings are copied and circulated so that by approximately AD150 there is wide enough use of them to speak of the “New Testament” (“New Covenant”).
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 61. New Testament
      Gospels - 4
      Matthew
      Mark
      Luke
      John
      History of Church - 1
      Acts
      Hebrew Epistles - 8
      Hebrews
      James
      1, 2 Peter
      1, 2, 3, John
      Jude
      Prophetic - 1
      Revelation
      Paul’s Epistles - 13
      Romans
      1, 2 Corinthians
      Galatians
      Ephesians
      Philippians
      Colossians
      1, 2 Thessalonians
      1, 2 Timothy
      Titus
      Philemon
    • 62. AD 200-300
      The Canon
      • Canon: from a Greek word
      referring to the rule of faith and truth
      • The Canon refers to the authoritative books that are officially accepted and approved as Holy Scripture.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 63. AD 200-300
      The Canon
      What was the criteria for including a book?
      Is it authoritative? Does it claim to be of God?
      Is it prophetic? Was the author an apostle or have a close connection with an apostle?
      Is it authentic? Did the book contain consistency of doctrine and orthodox teaching?
      Is it dynamic? Does it possess the life transforming power of God?
      Is it received? Is the book being accepted by the Body of Christ at large?
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 64. AD 200-300
      The Canon
      What was NOT the criteria for including a book?
      Age determines canonicity: books were accepted immediately by the early church, not after they aged.
      Agreement with Bible determines canonicity: this does not make a book automatically acceptable (eg. The Midrash)
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 65. AD 200-300
      The Canon
      Muratorian Canon, (A.D. 170)
      Oldest known list of books. Included all of the New Testament books except Hebrews, James, and Peter.
      Council of Laodicea (A.D. 363)
      Included the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New Testament omitting the book of Revelation, and including the book Baruch with Letter of Jeremiah were to be read in the churches.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 66. AD 397
      The Canon
      Council of Carthage 397: Restricted canon to OT and NT and Tobias, Judith, Esther, 2 books of Esdras, 2 books of Maccabees
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 67. AD 400
      The Canon
      By AD 400, the standard of 27 New Testament books is accepted in the East and West as confirmed by:
      Augustine
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 71. AD 400
      Jerome
      Jerome starts translating the Scriptures into Latin in
      AD 410 and finishes 25 years later. This translation, called the Latin Vulgate, remains the basic Bible for many centuries.
      Jerome
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 72. AD 400
      NT Pseudepigrapha
      There are over 280 of these books.
      Virtually no church leader, canon, or council pronounced any of these books canonical.
      They show an incurable curiosity to discover things not revealed in the canonical books (eg. The childhood of Jesus)
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 73. AD 400
      NT Pseudepigrapha
      The Gospel of the Egyptians – an ascetic teaching against marriage, meat, and wine.
      The passing of Mary – the bodily assumption of Mary and shows Mary worship.
      The Acts of Peter – contains the legend that Peter was crucified upside down.
      The Acts of Thomas – presents the mission and martyrdom of Thomas in India.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 74. AD 400
      NT Pseudepigrapha
      The Acts of John
      The Lost Epistle to the Corinthians – forgery based on 1 Cor 5:9
      The Apocalypse of Paul
      Secret Book of John
      And many others…
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 75. AD 400
      Gnostic Gospels
      A large number of spurious documents emerged during the centuries following the ministries of the Apostles and were universally rejected by the early church. Copies of a group of these were found at Nag Hammadi in Egypt dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries.
      Part of NT Pseudepigrapha
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 76. AD 400
      Gnostic Gospels
      Examples
      The Gospel of Thomas – a Gnostic view of the alleged miracles of the childhood of Jesus.
      The Acts of Andrew – a Gnostic story of the imprisonment and death of Andrew.
      The Gospel of the Ebionites – a Gnostic Christian perpetuation of Old Testament practices.
      and several other documents.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 77. AD 400
      Gnostic Gospels
      They are not "gospels" at all, but rather speculative opinions, totally devoid of any verifiable facts.
      Furthermore, they were written under false pseudonyms in an attempt to gain legitimacy. The early church rejected any documents under pseudonyms as being inconsistent with the concept of God-breathed inspiration.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 78. AD 400
      Gnostic Gospels
      Lastly, they were all written centuries after the Gospel period - in contrast to the contemporaneous eyewitness accounts in the New Testament
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 79. AD 400
      NT Apocrypha
      These are books not included in the Bible, but held in high esteem by at least one church father.
      Examples
      The Epistle of Pseudo-Barnabas
      The Epistle to the Corinthians
      The Second Epistle of Clement
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 80. AD 400
      NT Apocrypha
      Other Examples
      Shephard of Hermas
      The Didache Teaching of the 12
      The Apocalyse of Peter
      The Acts of Paul and Thecla
      The Epistle to the Laodiceans
      The Gospel According to the Hebrews
      The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians
      The Seven Epistles of Ignatius
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 81. AD 500
      The Masoretes
      Special Jewish scribes (Masoretes) are entrusted with the sacred task of making copies of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament).
      Approximately AD 500-900
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 82. AD 500
      The Masoretes
      • The Masoretes develop a meticulous
      system of counting the number of
      words in each book of the Bible to
      make sure it was copied accurately.
      • Any scroll found to have an error is
      buried according to Jewish law.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 83. AD 1228
      Chapters and Verses
      • Stephen Langton (1228) divided Bible into chapters, RoberStephanus divided Bible in verses (1551).
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 84. AD 1300
      The Wycliffe Bible
      The first English Bibleis translated from Latin in AD 1382. It is called the Wycliffe Bible in honor of priest and Oxford scholar
      John Wycliffe.
      Page from Wycliffe Bible
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 85. AD 1408
      The Wycliffe Bible
      In AD 1408, in England, it becomes illegal to translate or read the Bible in common English without permission from a bishop.
      1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD 2000
    • 86. AD 1455
      The Printing Press
      The world’s first printing press,with moveable metal type, is invented in AD 1455, in Mainz, Germany, by Johann Gutenberg.
      • Mainz
      Mainz, Germany
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    • 87. AD 1455
      The Printing Press
      The Gutenberg Bible is one of the first books ever printed with the printing press. This Latin Vulgate version is often illuminated by artists who hand paint letters and ornaments on each page.
      Gutenberg
      Bible Page
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    • 88. AD 1522
      Martin Luther
      Martin Luther translates the New Testament into German in AD 1522.
      Martin Luther
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    • 89. AD 1535
      The Coverdale Bible
      The Coverdale Bible is translated by Miles Coverdale (AD 1535) and dedicated to
      Anne Boleyn, one of
      King Henry VIII’s wives.
      This is the first complete Bible to be printed in English.
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    • 90. AD 1545
      Council of Trent
      • Catholics confirmed OT, NT books, and Apocrypha.
      • 91. Catholics did not accept all 15 books of Apocrypha.
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    • 92. AD 1560
      The Geneva Bible
      This is the Bible of Shakespeare and the one carried to America by the Pilgrims in AD 1620.
      The AD 1640 edition is the
      first English Bible to omit
      the Apocrypha.
      William Shakespeare
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    • 93. AD 1611
      King James Version
      King James I commissions 54 scholars to undertake a new Bible translation.
      For six years, six teams of scholars using the Textus Receptus, Bishops Bible, and Tyndale’s Bible, complete the new version in AD 1611.
      King James I of England
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    • 94. AD 1889
      Codex Vaticanus
      Codex Vaticanus is released to scholars in
      AD 1889 by the Vatican Library. It is the earliest
      (AD 325), and probably best, copy known of the New Testament at this time.
      Vatican City Flag
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    • 95. AD 1947
      The Dead Sea Scrolls
      The Dead Sea Scrolls,
      found in a cave in AD 1947 by a shepherd in pottery jars, contain the oldest known copies of portions of the Old Testament.
      These copies were made between 100 BC and AD 100.
      A Qumran Cave near the Dead Sea
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    • 96. AD 1947
      Dead Sea Scrolls
      These copies of Old Testament books are over 1000 years older than most of the manuscripts scholars previously had available for study and translation
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    • 97. AD 2009
      Conclusion
      • The Bible correctly includes 66 books.
      • 98. The other writings may have historical value but they should not be included in the Bible.
      • 99. A thorough reading and study of the entire Bible will reveal the errors of the excluded writings.
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    • 100. AD 2009
      Conclusion
      Recommended Book:
      From God to Us:
      How We Got Our Bible
      By Norman Geisler &William Nix
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