Fermi’s Paradox – Where is Everybody?<br />
50 Solutions to a Paradox<br />
Who was Enrico Fermi (1901-1954)?<br /><ul><li>Discovered the “weak” force
1 of only 4 forces in nature
Designed the world’s 1st    nuclear reactor
Last great theoretical AND    experimental physicist
Part of a team that identified the nuclear chain reaction    underlying nuclear weapons
Won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1938</li></li></ul><li>Fermi Questions<br /><ul><li>Relied on estimates and were deeply...
How many grains of sand are on the    earth’s beaches?
How far can a crow fly?
How many molecules of air from    Caesar’s last breath do you take in with    each lungful of air?
How many piano tuners are there in Chicago?
Where is everybody?</li></li></ul><li>The Fermi Paradox<br /><ul><li>“Where is everybody?”
With even ordinary rocket technology, a species could colonize the entire galaxy in ten million years.  Why don’t we see t...
Fermi’s answer:  they aren’t there.</li></li></ul><li>The Drake Equation<br />
3 Possible Resolutions<br />
3 Possible Resolutions<br /><ul><li>They are here</li></li></ul><li>3 Possible Resolutions<br /><ul><li>They are here
They exist but have not yet     communicated</li></li></ul><li>3 Possible Resolutions<br /><ul><li>They are here
They exist but have not yet     communicated
They do not exist</li></li></ul><li>They are here…<br />
They are here: Solution #1<br />They are here and they call themselves Hungarians…<br />
They are here: Solution #1<br />They are here and they call themselves Hungarians…<br />Johnvon<br />Neumann<br />Edward T...
They are here: Solution #2<br />They are here and are meddling in human affairs…<br />
They are here: Solution #2<br />They are here and are meddling in human affairs…<br />Most UFOs become IFOs – must they al...
They are here: Solution #3<br />They were here and left evidence of their presence…<br />
They are here: Solution #3<br />They were here and left evidence of their presence…<br />2001<br />1976<br />
They are here: Solution #3<br />                                     <br />They were here and left evidence of their prese...
They are here: Solution #3<br />                                     <br />They were here and left evidence of their prese...
They are here: Solution #4<br />They exist and they are us – We are all aliens!<br />
They are here: Solution #4<br />They exist and they are us – We are all aliens!<br />
They are here: Solution #5<br />The Zoo Scenario…<br />
They are here: Solution #5<br />The Zoo Scenario…<br />
They are here: Solution #6<br />The Interdict Scenario…<br />
They are here: Solution #6<br />The Interdict Scenario…<br />
They are here: Solution #7<br />The Planetarium Hypothesis…<br />
They are here: Solution #7<br />The Planetarium Hypothesis…<br />
They exist but have not yet communicated<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br />Cosmic horizon = 10-12 billion light y...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />                                                                   ...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br /><ul><li>Only explains why they haven’t...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br /><ul><li>Rockets carry fuel and payload
Ramjets carry only payload</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br />Exotic technologies:<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #9<br />They have not had time to reach us…<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #9<br />They have not had time to reach us…<br /><ul><li>Population growth:...
Colonization in ~60 million years
Diffusion process – colonization time would depend on population growth
Near zero: 13 billion years for galactic colonization
Does not account for speed of interstellar travel
Other motives for exploration/colonization?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #10<br />A Pe...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #10<br />A Percolation Theory Approach…<br />Assumptions:<br /><ul><li>Inte...
Parent civilization exerts only weak   control over its colonies
Civilizations can’t establish colonies   on already colonized worlds
A given colony will have a certain    probability of having a “colonization   drive”</li></ul>Collectively, these assumpti...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #10<br />A Percolation Theory Approach…<br />Percolation problem: Mathemati...
forest fires, disease, etc.
N cells, each w/probability p of being    </li></ul>  populated – size of p determines   <br />  population density<br /><...
p>pc: earth is in a small void
Advantage: No motives are assumed
Disadvantage: Does not explain the “Great Silence”</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #11<br...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #11<br />Bracewell-von Neumann Probes…<br />Are automatons: can function in...
We are automatons</li></ul>Ronald Bracewell<br />John von Neumann<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #11<br />Bracewell-von Neumann Probes…<br /><ul><li>Galactic colonization t...
Fermi might ask: “Where are the probes?”
Copying errors would lead to mutations;     mutations to evolution
Different sources = different “species”
Would all ETCs choose not to risk it?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #12<br />We are Sol...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #12<br />We are Solar Chauvinists…<br />G2<br />O?<br />Dyson Spheres<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #13<br />They Stay at Home…<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #13<br />They Stay at Home…<br />Will we ever go back?<br />Are there good ...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #14<br />…and Surf the Net<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #14<br />…and Surf the Net<br /><ul><li>Plausible for individual species (u...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #15<br />They are signaling but we don’t know how to listen…<br />SETI: rad...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #15<br />They are signaling but we don’t know how to listen…<br />Tachyons:...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #16<br />They are signaling but we do not know at which frequency to listen...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #16<br />They are signaling but we do not know at which frequency to listen...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #17<br />Our search strategy is wrong…<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #17<br />Our search strategy is wrong…<br /><ul><li>All-sky surveys
Targeted searches
Optical SETI
SETI @ Home</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #18<br />The signal is already there in the d...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #18<br />The signal is already there in the data…<br /><ul><li>Could some a...
Gamma ray bursters: Cataclysmic fireball or ET chatter?
Infrared excess: Dust or Dyson Sphere?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #19<br />We have n...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #19<br />We have not listened long enough…<br />SETI:Billions of stars, bil...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #20<br />Everyone is listening; No one is transmitting…<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #20<br />Everyone is listening; No one is transmitting…<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #20<br />Everyone is listening; No one is transmitting…<br /><ul><li>Signal...
Same signal to be detected by an Arecibo-type dish on opposite side of Milky Way   could be sent by the Arecibo telescope ...
Lasers? Brief pulses can be billions of times brighter than a star.
Where would we point the dish or laser?
Isotropic transmission increases both odds and expense</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #2...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #21<br />Berserkers…<br />The ultimate deterrent?<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #21<br />Berserkers…<br /><ul><li>Why would a culture build them?
Could von Neumann probes have mutated?
Why are we still here?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #22<br />They have no desire to co...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #22<br />They have no desire to communicate…<br /><ul><li>Fear?
Berserkers? Conquest?
Lack of curiosity?
“Surfing the Net” is better
Uninterested in “backwards” civilizations like ours?
Maybe in scientific matters, but what about others?
Nonexpansionist philosophies
Like China under the Ming Dynasty?
Noninterference policies?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #23<br />They develop a differe...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #23<br />They develop a different mathematics…<br /><ul><li>Why does mathem...
Platonic ideal or human construct?
Can evolution dictate mathematics?
Inferior parietal cortex
Discrete vs. continuous variables
Could other mathematics (if they exist)     lead to the development of technology?
Inverse square law, etc.</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #24<br />They are calling but we...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #24<br />They are calling but we do not recognize the signal…<br /><ul><li>...
Waterhole; 2 X hydrogen; pi X hydrogen, etc.
Some signals would be easily discerned as artificial, others not
Even if we detected a signal, could we interpret it?
And you thought the Voynich Manuscript was tough?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #25<br ...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #25<br />They are somewhere, but the universe is stranger than we imagine…<...
Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics
The Galactic Overmind?
Telepathy and the Space-Time-Mind Continuum?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #26<br />A c...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #26<br />A choice of catastrophes…<br />Gray Goo problem?<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #27<br />They hit the singularity…<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #27<br />They hit the singularity…<br /><ul><li>Moore’s Law
Will superhuman AI be here by 2030?
Will Moore’s Law steadily decrease then in an “intelligence explosion?”
What need would our machines then have of us?
The Singularity will have been reached</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #28<br />Cloudy sk...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #28<br />Cloudy skies are common…<br />Venus<br />Titan<br />Europa<br />
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #29<br />Infinitely many ETCs exist, but only one within our particle horiz...
They exist but have not communicated: Solution #29<br />Infinitely many ETCs exist, but only one within our particle horiz...
They do not exist<br />
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LIFE - 1/27/2010 - Are We Alone?

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Lecture presentation from Daniel Kainer, Biology Professor, Lone Star College-Montgomery

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LIFE - 1/27/2010 - Are We Alone?

  1. 1. Fermi’s Paradox – Where is Everybody?<br />
  2. 2. 50 Solutions to a Paradox<br />
  3. 3. Who was Enrico Fermi (1901-1954)?<br /><ul><li>Discovered the “weak” force
  4. 4. 1 of only 4 forces in nature
  5. 5. Designed the world’s 1st nuclear reactor
  6. 6. Last great theoretical AND experimental physicist
  7. 7. Part of a team that identified the nuclear chain reaction underlying nuclear weapons
  8. 8. Won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1938</li></li></ul><li>Fermi Questions<br /><ul><li>Relied on estimates and were deeply insightful
  9. 9. How many grains of sand are on the earth’s beaches?
  10. 10. How far can a crow fly?
  11. 11. How many molecules of air from Caesar’s last breath do you take in with each lungful of air?
  12. 12. How many piano tuners are there in Chicago?
  13. 13. Where is everybody?</li></li></ul><li>The Fermi Paradox<br /><ul><li>“Where is everybody?”
  14. 14. With even ordinary rocket technology, a species could colonize the entire galaxy in ten million years. Why don’t we see them?
  15. 15. Fermi’s answer: they aren’t there.</li></li></ul><li>The Drake Equation<br />
  16. 16. 3 Possible Resolutions<br />
  17. 17. 3 Possible Resolutions<br /><ul><li>They are here</li></li></ul><li>3 Possible Resolutions<br /><ul><li>They are here
  18. 18. They exist but have not yet communicated</li></li></ul><li>3 Possible Resolutions<br /><ul><li>They are here
  19. 19. They exist but have not yet communicated
  20. 20. They do not exist</li></li></ul><li>They are here…<br />
  21. 21. They are here: Solution #1<br />They are here and they call themselves Hungarians…<br />
  22. 22. They are here: Solution #1<br />They are here and they call themselves Hungarians…<br />Johnvon<br />Neumann<br />Edward Teller<br />
  23. 23. They are here: Solution #2<br />They are here and are meddling in human affairs…<br />
  24. 24. They are here: Solution #2<br />They are here and are meddling in human affairs…<br />Most UFOs become IFOs – must they all be in order to “disprove” alien invasions?<br />
  25. 25. They are here: Solution #3<br />They were here and left evidence of their presence…<br />
  26. 26. They are here: Solution #3<br />They were here and left evidence of their presence…<br />2001<br />1976<br />
  27. 27. They are here: Solution #3<br />                                     <br />They were here and left evidence of their presence…<br />Erich von Daniken<br />Tunguska, 1908<br />
  28. 28. They are here: Solution #3<br />                                     <br />They were here and left evidence of their presence…<br />NASA has already “parked” sattelites at some of these Lagrangian points L1 and L2. What about ET?<br />Lagrangian Points<br />
  29. 29. They are here: Solution #4<br />They exist and they are us – We are all aliens!<br />
  30. 30. They are here: Solution #4<br />They exist and they are us – We are all aliens!<br />
  31. 31. They are here: Solution #5<br />The Zoo Scenario…<br />
  32. 32. They are here: Solution #5<br />The Zoo Scenario…<br />
  33. 33. They are here: Solution #6<br />The Interdict Scenario…<br />
  34. 34. They are here: Solution #6<br />The Interdict Scenario…<br />
  35. 35. They are here: Solution #7<br />The Planetarium Hypothesis…<br />
  36. 36. They are here: Solution #7<br />The Planetarium Hypothesis…<br />
  37. 37. They exist but have not yet communicated<br />
  38. 38. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br />
  39. 39. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br />Cosmic horizon = 10-12 billion light years<br />Sloan Digital Sky Survey<br />
  40. 40. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    <br />The Stars are Far Away…<br /><ul><li>Only explains why they haven’t visited us (maybe)</li></ul>0.000058c<br />73,000 years to a Centauri<br />
  41. 41. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br /><ul><li>Only explains why they haven’t visited us (maybe)</li></ul>4.2 light years away<br />
  42. 42. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br />
  43. 43. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br /><ul><li>Rockets carry fuel and payload
  44. 44. Ramjets carry only payload</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br />
  45. 45. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #8<br />The Stars are Far Away…<br />Exotic technologies:<br />
  46. 46. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #9<br />They have not had time to reach us…<br />
  47. 47. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #9<br />They have not had time to reach us…<br /><ul><li>Population growth: 0.03/year; emmigration rate =0.0003/year
  48. 48. Colonization in ~60 million years
  49. 49. Diffusion process – colonization time would depend on population growth
  50. 50. Near zero: 13 billion years for galactic colonization
  51. 51. Does not account for speed of interstellar travel
  52. 52. Other motives for exploration/colonization?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #10<br />A Percolation Theory Approach…<br />
  53. 53. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #10<br />A Percolation Theory Approach…<br />Assumptions:<br /><ul><li>Interstellar travel is possible but difficult
  54. 54. Parent civilization exerts only weak control over its colonies
  55. 55. Civilizations can’t establish colonies on already colonized worlds
  56. 56. A given colony will have a certain probability of having a “colonization drive”</li></ul>Collectively, these assumptions produce apercolation problem<br />
  57. 57. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #10<br />A Percolation Theory Approach…<br />Percolation problem: Mathematical method of filling a large array of empty<br />Spaces with objects<br /><ul><li>Key task is to Calculate the probability that, in a given system, there is a continuous path from one end of the system to another
  58. 58. forest fires, disease, etc.
  59. 59. N cells, each w/probability p of being </li></ul> populated – size of p determines <br /> population density<br /><ul><li>Spanning cluster when p>pc</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #10<br />A Percolation Theory Approach…<br />Fermi paradox might be resolved:<br /><ul><li>p<pc: colonization has stopped before it</li></ul> has reached us<br /><ul><li>p=pc: earth is in a great void
  60. 60. p>pc: earth is in a small void
  61. 61. Advantage: No motives are assumed
  62. 62. Disadvantage: Does not explain the “Great Silence”</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #11<br />Bracewell-von Neumann Probes…<br />
  63. 63. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #11<br />Bracewell-von Neumann Probes…<br />Are automatons: can function in the world & make copies of themselves<br /><ul><li>consists of a constructor & a program
  64. 64. We are automatons</li></ul>Ronald Bracewell<br />John von Neumann<br />
  65. 65. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #11<br />Bracewell-von Neumann Probes…<br /><ul><li>Galactic colonization time would be short
  66. 66. Fermi might ask: “Where are the probes?”
  67. 67. Copying errors would lead to mutations; mutations to evolution
  68. 68. Different sources = different “species”
  69. 69. Would all ETCs choose not to risk it?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #12<br />We are Solar Chauvinists…<br />
  70. 70. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #12<br />We are Solar Chauvinists…<br />G2<br />O?<br />Dyson Spheres<br />
  71. 71. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #13<br />They Stay at Home…<br />
  72. 72. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #13<br />They Stay at Home…<br />Will we ever go back?<br />Are there good reasons to “go for a cosmic swim?”<br /><ul><li>How likely is it that all ETCs</li></ul> have chosen to “stay home”?<br />Dennis Tito<br />
  73. 73. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #14<br />…and Surf the Net<br />
  74. 74. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #14<br />…and Surf the Net<br /><ul><li>Plausible for individual species (us?), but not likely for all civilizations</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #15<br />They are signaling but we don’t know how to listen…<br />
  75. 75. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #15<br />They are signaling but we don’t know how to listen…<br />SETI: radio, visible Dyson Spheres: infrared<br />
  76. 76. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #15<br />They are signaling but we don’t know how to listen…<br />Tachyons:<br />There was a young lady named Bright, <br />Whose speed was far faster than light. <br />She went out one day, <br />In a relative way, <br />And returned the previous night!<br /> -Reginald Buller <br />
  77. 77. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #16<br />They are signaling but we do not know at which frequency to listen…<br />
  78. 78. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #16<br />They are signaling but we do not know at which frequency to listen…<br />Even with<br />billions of<br />channels, there<br />is still nothing<br />on!<br />H: 1.42 GHz<br />OH: 1.64 GHz<br />Other logicalspots?<br />
  79. 79. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #17<br />Our search strategy is wrong…<br />
  80. 80. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #17<br />Our search strategy is wrong…<br /><ul><li>All-sky surveys
  81. 81. Targeted searches
  82. 82. Optical SETI
  83. 83. SETI @ Home</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #18<br />The signal is already there in the data…<br />
  84. 84. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #18<br />The signal is already there in the data…<br /><ul><li>Could some astronomical phenomena be ETC signatures?
  85. 85. Gamma ray bursters: Cataclysmic fireball or ET chatter?
  86. 86. Infrared excess: Dust or Dyson Sphere?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #19<br />We have not listened long enough…<br />
  87. 87. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #19<br />We have not listened long enough…<br />SETI:Billions of stars, billions of frequencies, and billions ofyears: trillions of possible combinations!<br />
  88. 88. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #20<br />Everyone is listening; No one is transmitting…<br />
  89. 89. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #20<br />Everyone is listening; No one is transmitting…<br />
  90. 90. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #20<br />Everyone is listening; No one is transmitting…<br /><ul><li>Signal that could be detected @ 100 light years by a small antenna would require more power than entire electricity-generating capacity of the entire world
  91. 91. Same signal to be detected by an Arecibo-type dish on opposite side of Milky Way could be sent by the Arecibo telescope – but with an extremely narrow band
  92. 92. Lasers? Brief pulses can be billions of times brighter than a star.
  93. 93. Where would we point the dish or laser?
  94. 94. Isotropic transmission increases both odds and expense</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #21<br />Berserkers…<br />
  95. 95. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #21<br />Berserkers…<br />The ultimate deterrent?<br />
  96. 96. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #21<br />Berserkers…<br /><ul><li>Why would a culture build them?
  97. 97. Could von Neumann probes have mutated?
  98. 98. Why are we still here?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #22<br />They have no desire to communicate…<br />
  99. 99. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #22<br />They have no desire to communicate…<br /><ul><li>Fear?
  100. 100. Berserkers? Conquest?
  101. 101. Lack of curiosity?
  102. 102. “Surfing the Net” is better
  103. 103. Uninterested in “backwards” civilizations like ours?
  104. 104. Maybe in scientific matters, but what about others?
  105. 105. Nonexpansionist philosophies
  106. 106. Like China under the Ming Dynasty?
  107. 107. Noninterference policies?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #23<br />They develop a different mathematics…<br />
  108. 108. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #23<br />They develop a different mathematics…<br /><ul><li>Why does mathematics demonstrate an “unreasonable effectiveness?”
  109. 109. Platonic ideal or human construct?
  110. 110. Can evolution dictate mathematics?
  111. 111. Inferior parietal cortex
  112. 112. Discrete vs. continuous variables
  113. 113. Could other mathematics (if they exist) lead to the development of technology?
  114. 114. Inverse square law, etc.</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #24<br />They are calling but we do not recognize the signal…<br />
  115. 115. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #24<br />They are calling but we do not recognize the signal…<br /><ul><li>Maybe frequencies that are obvious to us are irrelevant to them
  116. 116. Waterhole; 2 X hydrogen; pi X hydrogen, etc.
  117. 117. Some signals would be easily discerned as artificial, others not
  118. 118. Even if we detected a signal, could we interpret it?
  119. 119. And you thought the Voynich Manuscript was tough?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #25<br />They are somewhere, but the universe is stranger than we imagine…<br />
  120. 120. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #25<br />They are somewhere, but the universe is stranger than we imagine…<br /><ul><li>Parallel universes?
  121. 121. Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics
  122. 122. The Galactic Overmind?
  123. 123. Telepathy and the Space-Time-Mind Continuum?</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #26<br />A choice of catastrophes…<br />
  124. 124. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #26<br />A choice of catastrophes…<br />Gray Goo problem?<br />
  125. 125. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #27<br />They hit the singularity…<br />
  126. 126. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #27<br />They hit the singularity…<br /><ul><li>Moore’s Law
  127. 127. Will superhuman AI be here by 2030?
  128. 128. Will Moore’s Law steadily decrease then in an “intelligence explosion?”
  129. 129. What need would our machines then have of us?
  130. 130. The Singularity will have been reached</li></li></ul><li>They exist but have not communicated: Solution #28<br />Cloudy skies are common…<br />
  131. 131. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #28<br />Cloudy skies are common…<br />Venus<br />Titan<br />Europa<br />
  132. 132. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #29<br />Infinitely many ETCs exist, but only one within our particle horizon (us!)…<br />
  133. 133. They exist but have not communicated: Solution #29<br />Infinitely many ETCs exist, but only one within our particle horizon (us!)…<br />
  134. 134. They do not exist<br />
  135. 135. They don’t exist: Solution #30<br />The universe is here for us…<br />
  136. 136. They don’t exist: Solution #30<br />The universe is here for us.<br />
  137. 137. They don’t exist: Solution #31<br />Life can have emerged only recently…<br />
  138. 138. They don’t exist: Solution #31<br />                                                                                                    <br />Life can have emerged only recently.<br />
  139. 139. They don’t exist: Solution #32<br />Planetary systems are rare…<br />
  140. 140. They don’t exist: Solution #32<br />Planetary systems are rare.<br />Protoplanetary disk<br />
  141. 141. They don’t exist: Solution #32<br />Planetary systems are rare.<br />
  142. 142. They don’t exist: Solution #33<br />We are the first…<br />
  143. 143. They don’t exist: Solution #33<br />We are the first…<br />
  144. 144. They don’t exist: Solution #34<br />Rocky planets are rare…<br />
  145. 145. They don’t exist: Solution #34<br />Rocky planets are rare…<br />
  146. 146. They don’t exist: Solution #35<br />Continuously habitable zones are narrow…<br />
  147. 147. They don’t exist: Solution #35<br />Continuously habitable zones are narrow…<br /><ul><li>One assumption of most astrobiologists is that habitable planets must maintain stable climates over very long time periods, probably such that the planet can maintain a large supply of</li></ul>liquid water<br /><ul><li>Originally, the only variable that was considered was the nature of the orbit of the planet around its star </li></ul>HZ<br />
  148. 148. They don’t exist: Solution #35<br />Continuously habitable zones are narrow…<br /><ul><li>CHZ: Continuously Habitable Zone
  149. 149. Inner edge thought to be ~0.85-0.95 AU
  150. 150. Outer edge thought to be ~1.37-1.67 AU
  151. 151. Presence of Jupiter- like planets nearby</li></li></ul><li>They don’t exist: Solution #35<br />Continuously habitable zones are narrow…<br /><ul><li>Alternative (non-star) sources of energy that can support life</li></li></ul><li>They don’t exist: Solution #35<br />Continuously habitable zones are narrow…<br /><ul><li>Just how hearty is this thing we call life anyway?
  152. 152. Before you answer – check out these extremophiles!</li></ul>halophile<br />Thermophiles in volcanic mudpot<br />acidophile<br />Deinococcus radiodurans can survive radiation levelsthousands of times higher than what would kill most<br />organisms (including people) – panspermia candidate?<br />
  153. 153. They don’t exist: Solution #35<br />Continuously habitable zones are narrow…<br />Type of Star:<br />O, B, A, F, G, K, M <br />
  154. 154. They don’t exist: Solution #35<br />Continuously habitable zones are narrow…<br />Galactic Habitable ZoneGalaxy Type<br />irregular<br />Intragalactic position:<br />elliptical<br />spiral<br />
  155. 155. They don’t exist: Solution #36<br />Jupiters are rare…<br />
  156. 156. They don’t exist: Solution #36<br />Jupiters are rare…<br />
  157. 157. They don’t exist: Solution #36<br />Jupiters are rare…<br />Comet Shoemaker-Levy Collision with Jupiter (1994)<br />
  158. 158. They don’t exist: Solution #37<br />Earth has an optimal “pump of evolution”…<br />
  159. 159. They don’t exist: Solution #37<br />Earth has an optimal “pump of evolution”…<br />
  160. 160. They don’t exist: Solution #38<br />The galaxy is a dangerous place…<br />
  161. 161. They don’t exist: Solution #38<br />                                                                                                                <br />The galaxy is a dangerous place…<br />?<br />Supernova 1994I<br />
  162. 162. They don’t exist: Solution #38<br />                                                                                                                <br />The galaxy is a dangerous place…<br />Gamma ray burster<br />
  163. 163. They don’t exist: Solution #39<br />A planetary system is a dangerous place…<br />
  164. 164. They don’t exist: Solution #39<br />A planetary system is a dangerous place…<br />
  165. 165. They don’t exist: Solution #39<br />A planetary system is a dangerous place…<br />
  166. 166. They don’t exist: Solution #39<br />A planetary system is a dangerous place…<br />
  167. 167. They don’t exist: Solution #40<br />Earth’s system of plate tectonics is unique…<br />
  168. 168. They don’t exist: Solution #40<br />Earth’s system of plate tectonics is unique…<br />
  169. 169. They don’t exist: Solution #41<br />The Moon is unique…<br />
  170. 170. They don’t exist: Solution #41<br />The Moon is unique…<br />Mars<br />Uranus<br />Saturn<br />Jupiter<br />Venus<br />Earth<br />
  171. 171. They don’t exist: Solution #42<br />Life’e genesis is rare…<br />
  172. 172. They don’t exist: Solution #42<br />Life’e genesis is rare…<br />
  173. 173. They don’t exist: Solution #43<br />The prokaryote-eukaryote transition is rare…<br />
  174. 174. They don’t exist: Solution #43<br />The prokaryote-eukaryote transition is rare…<br />
  175. 175. They don’t exist: Solution #44<br />Toolmaking species are rare…<br />
  176. 176. They don’t exist: Solution #44<br />Toolmaking species are rare…<br />
  177. 177. They don’t exist: Solution #45<br />Technological progress is not inevitable…<br />
  178. 178. They don’t exist: Solution #45<br />Technological progress is not inevitable…<br />
  179. 179. They don’t exist: Solution #46<br />Intelligence at the human level is rare…<br />
  180. 180. They don’t exist: Solution #46<br />Intelligence at the human level is rare…<br />
  181. 181. They don’t exist: Solution #47<br />Language is unique to humans…<br />
  182. 182. They don’t exist: Solution #48<br />Science is not inevitable…<br />
  183. 183. They don’t exist: Solution #49<br />We Are Alone<br />
  184. 184. Is there anyone else out there asking the eternal question: “Are We Alone?”<br />
  185. 185. © Daniel Kainer<br />Lone Star College-Montgomery<br />

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