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Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
Introduction to Biotech
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Introduction to Biotech

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  • 1. Biotechnology<br />A Rapidly-Developing Industry<br />
  • 2. What is Biotechnology &amp; What Does it Mean to You?<br />
  • 3. What is Biotechnology?<br />Standard Definition:<br />technology that uses living organisms (or their products) for human or environmental benefit, to make a product, or to solve a problem<br />
  • 4. Biotechnology has a long history<br />Humans have been using organisms for benefits for centuries<br />Examples:<br />Domestication of animals<br />Fermentation: some yeast break down sugars and produce alcohol/CO2<br />Selective breeding of plants/animals<br />Gene cloning<br />Genetic engineering &amp; recombinant DNA technology<br />Human Genome Project<br />Human Proteome Project<br />
  • 5. Biotechnology is an Interdisciplinary Industry<br />Biotech companies are always looking for people with training in:<br />Molecular biology<br />Computer science<br />Mathematics<br />Engineering<br />Philosophy<br />Economics<br />Bioinformatics: application of computer science to study DNA &amp; protein data<br />Etc.<br />
  • 6. What Types of Biotechnology are There?<br />Your subtopic goes here<br />
  • 7. Microbial Biotechnology <br />Photo Courtesy of ASM MicrobeLibray<br />Yeast used for fermentation<br />Bacterially-derived components can:<br />Help leach oil &amp; minerals from the soil to increase mining efficiency<br />Decontaminate industrial waste<br />Genetically-engineered bacteria can:<br />Produce batch amounts of medically important proteins like insulin &amp; HGH<br />
  • 8. Agricultural Biotechnology<br />Photo Courtesy of Panda.org<br />Plants can be genetically engineered to become resistant to:<br />Pests<br />Severe weather<br />Molecular pharming: use of plants as sources of pharmaceutical products<br />Produce with new characteristics, such as enhanced flavor or vitamin content, can be developed via genetic engineering<br />
  • 9. Animal Biotechnology<br />Photos Courtesy of the Roslin Institute &amp; the University of Arizona<br />Animals can be used as sources of antibodies for therapeutic or research purposes<br />Transgenic animals can produce various therapeutic protens in body fluids (e.g., milk)<br />Knock-outexperiments reveal information concerning gene function<br />Animal cloning has been carried out and is controversial<br />
  • 10. Forensic Biotechnology<br />Picture Courtesy of <br />Santa Monica College<br />DNA fingerprinting is a powerful technique for gathering evidence concerning crime scenes, paternity cases, and genetic research<br />
  • 11. Bioremediation<br />Picture Courtesy of <br />Alken-Murray Corp.<br />Bioremediation: use of biotech to process &amp; degrade substances that pose environmental threats<br />Example: genetically-engineered bacteria broke down components in crude oil and cleaned up areas affected by Exxon Valdez oil spill (Prince William Sound, Alaska)<br />
  • 12. Bioremediation<br />
  • 13. Aquatic Biotechnology<br />Photos Courtesy of <br />The Marine ScienceInstitute<br />Aquaculture can be used to replenish endangered and over-harvested species (giant clams, sea urchins…)<br />Genetically-engineered oysters<br />Disease-resistant strains which resist salmon-infecting viruses<br />Vaccines against such viruses<br />Transgenic fish w/enhanced GH production<br />Aquatic extremophile gene products<br />
  • 14. Medical Biotechnology<br />Gene discovery (HGP)<br />Gene therapy pioneering<br />Stem cell technologies<br />
  • 15. Regulatory Biotechnology<br />Quality Assurance (QA) - All activities involved in regulating the final quality of a product<br />Quality Control (QC) - lab testing and monitoring of production processes to ensure consistent product standards (part of QA)<br />
  • 16. Biological Challenges of the 21st Century<br />Your subtopic goes here<br />
  • 17. What to do with the HGP?<br />We now know that humans have ~20,000-30,000 genes<br />Genomics provides insights into the function/regulation of genes, how genes direct cell activities, &amp; how altered genes function in disease<br />Proteomics will be the next logical frontier<br />Comparative genomics will give insight into evolution &amp; taxonomy<br />
  • 18. How might we benefit from the HGP?<br />Early detection &amp; diagnosis of genetic abnormalities<br />Customized drug regiments for individual genomes<br />Application of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and correlation with disease states<br />DNA microarray (gene chip) – contains thousands of gene sequences; can be used to ID SNPs in particular patients<br />Pharmacogenomics = “customizable medicine” for both an individual’s physiology &amp; specific types of tumors<br />Gene therapy – the replacement or augmentation of a defective gene<br />Stem cell technologies &amp; regenerative medicine – work is progressing with both ES cells and AS cells<br />
  • 19. The Biotechnology Workforce<br />Jobs in Biotechnology<br />
  • 20. Research &amp; Development (R&amp;D)<br />Laboratory technicians – clean &amp; maintain scientific equipment &amp; lab inventory – A.S., B.A., B.S. Degrees<br />Research assistants/associates – carry out experiments under supervision of senior scientists – B.S. or M.S.<br />Senior Scientists – manage large scientific projects – Ph.D. &amp; post- doctoral experience<br />
  • 21. Manufacturing &amp; Production<br />Job details are typically company- or product-specific<br />Entry-level jobs are plentiful<br />Supervisory/management jobs usually require B.S./M.S. in a science and several years of experience<br />Engineers are highly sought after by biotech manufacturing and production companies<br />
  • 22. Marketing &amp; Sales<br />Academic training in both science and business are ideal<br />Sales reps work with medical personnel to promote their company’s products<br />Marketing specialists develop advertising campaigns and promotional material<br />

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