cross-reference nursing research 1900-1960 Nursing Research: Survey and Assessment, 1964 Nursing Studies Index, 1972 (4 volumes)
Awards, Honorary Doctorates & Lectureships <ul><li>Christianne Reimann Prize </li></ul><ul><li>Yale University, Catholic U. of America, Pace U., Emory U., Boston College, Rush U., Old Dominion U., U. Rochester, U. Western Ontario, Thomas Jefferson U., etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Royal College of Nursing </li></ul><ul><li>Sorbonne </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Nursing Assoc. </li></ul>
Basic Principles of Nursing Care, 1960 The Nature of Nursing, 1966 Principles and Practice of Nursing, 1978
in the process of writing textbooks, Henderson was forced to define nursing  …
Definition of Nursing “ The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge, and to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.” 
“ It is my contention that the nurse is, and should be legally, an independent practitioner [as long as she is not performing the doctor’s duties.] But the nurse is the authority on basic nursing care. Perhaps I should explain that by basic nursing care I mean helping the patient with the following activities…” 
14 Fundamental Needs  <ul><li>Breathing normally </li></ul><ul><li>Eating and drinking adequately </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminating body wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Moving and maintaining a desirable position </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping and resting </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting suitable clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining body temperature… by adjusting cothing and modifying the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping the body clean and well-groomed… </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding dangers in the environment and avoiding injuring others </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Worshipping according to one’s faith </li></ul><ul><li>Working in such a way that one feels a sense of accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Playing or participating in various forms of recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Learning, discovering, or satisfying the curiosity that leads to normal development and health, and using available health facilities </li></ul>
Nurse’s role <ul><li>Substitutive : acting for a person </li></ul><ul><li>Supplementary : assisting a person </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary : working with the person </li></ul><ul><li>“… with the goal of helping the person become as independent as possible.”  </li></ul>
“ Today I see the role of nurses as givers of ‘primary health care,’ as those who diagnose and treat when a doctor is unavailable… Nurses may be the general (medical) practitioners of tomorrow…” 
<ul><li>Henderson wrote her definition of nursing before the development of theoretical nursing  </li></ul><ul><li>Henderson describes nursing roles in relation to patient needs instead of a general theory of nursing  </li></ul><ul><li>Henderson’s work is useful for and used by nurses in different nations and cultures [1,7] , because her work is practical and based on her nursing experience </li></ul>
a critique of the nursing process by Henderson : the nursing assessment, diagnosis, plan, and evaluation parallels the doctors’ and general decision-making processes; therefore, what is uniquely nursing in the nursing process? 
a critique of a 1989 conference on primary care by Henderson : nurses need more work on basic sciences and scientific method, application of science to nursing, financial management, policy-making, being assertive 
Question: Virginia Henderson’s major contributions to the nursing profession included: (A) creation of the nursing process (B) the promotion of nursing as a research-based profession (C) arranging Maslow’s need in a 14-step hierarchy (D) all of the above
<ul><li>http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEED71739F931A15750C0A960958260 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.unc.edu/~ehallora/henderson.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virginia_Henderson </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nursinglibrary.org/Portal/Main.aspx?PageID=4017 </li></ul><ul><li>Blais et al. (2002). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives (4 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>D’Antonio et al. (eds.). (2007). Nurses’ work: Issues across time and place . New York: Springer Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>George, J.B. (ed.). (1995). Nursing theories: The base for professional nursing practice (4 th ed.). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.enursescribe.com/Henderson.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Harmer, B., & Henderson, V. (1939). Textbook of the principles and practice of nursing (4 th ed.). New York: Macmillan. </li></ul>
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