Surname 1Name:University:Course:Tutor:Date: Brand Strategy for the Supermarket Industry in Hong Kong Chapter one Introduction There can be arguments to certain brand management and its development catering to thesupermarket Industry in such practice can be presence of such branding system of retailing in Hong Kong.And there can be important brand strategies in placed for the supermarket industry within Hong Kong andthe globalization of the supermarkets. This study is related to the module of Brand Management and thereis the consideration as well as assessment of supermarket in Hong Kong, specifically the Park n’ ShopSupermarket as a case study which can be subject for discussion and analysis. Also, Supermarkets in Hong Kong are delivering such diverse offering to the marketplace frombetter goods and services in specific price and quality within such brand recognition and its significanceto the industry. The Supermarkets in Hong Kong is one of the pioneer industries in terms of brandingstrategy utilization as geared towards several ideal advances in Supermarket business in Hong Kong andthe brand management in which marketing and operational environment through innovation arestimulated along with variations of the Hong Kong supermarket chains. From the point of view of marketing strategy, Varadarajan criticized the extant literature for lackof international orientation, as most studies were in the context of such business. The fact casts doubt onthe generalization of strategy-performance relationships to the larger international context (Varadarajan,1999). Thus, Varadarajan argued that the cultural aspect in the strategy formulation process ininternational contexts is not well researched, even though this issue is critical within increasing globalised
Surname 2markets. There is the need to fill research gap on the understanding of the strategic role brand plays inbenefiting the firm financially at both the domestic and international levels (Malhotra1999). In otherwords, the relationship between brand performance and financial performance needs to be further studiedin order to measure and understand the brands strategic importance. The paper thus seek to criticallyexamine Brand Strategy and other related concept for the Supermarket Industry in Hong Kong Statement of the problem The concept of branding has come out to be deemed by management of any organization as a toppriority (Chaudhuri 2001). Additionally, it has been categorized together with human workforce to be themost valuable assets within an organization. Similarly brand building/development is a long process thatutilizes a lot of resources and cannot be separated from advertisement and strong marketing strategies. Organizations have resorted to branding with the belief that it will save them from failing as itwill enhance the value of the product/organization. However, many of these organizations fail to haveprior knowledge that adequate planning is key to successful branding (Kotler 1997). For this reason, long-term promotion prop up for a brand, on the basis of definitions of the distinctiveness of the targetconsumers is necessary. Additionally, understanding of customers preferences, aspirations andexpectations from the brand need to be considered. In Hong Kong, supermarkets are industries that seem to utilize branding in their day to dayrunning of their business. However there has not been a comprehensive study that has linked branding insupermarkets in Hong Kong and their performance, success and value. This thus lays ground for thestudy. Purpose of the study The purpose of this study is to critically examine Brand Strategy and other related concept for theSupermarket Industry in Hong Kong. The researcher’s main goal is to bring to light how Hong Kongsupermarkets develop brands, manage and use in fostering its performance and success.
Surname 3 It is has come to the knowledge of business organization that there has been dramatic change incustomers preferences, needs and aspirations. This has left the business world to be very competitive andcounter these business entities have adopted a myriad of strategies among them branding. Additionally, this research is carried out to fill the gap that did not explain brand strategy, brandmanagement as well as performance and success of supermarkets in relation to branding. The targetedaudience is those individual shopping at Hong Kong supermarkets particularly Shoppers from Park n’Shop. The required information and data will be obtained from two main sources; from primary andsecondary sources. Justification of the study The research (study) is of a lot of importance as it will seek to critically examine Brand Strategyfor the Supermarket Industry in Hong Kong. The findings will be of importance to various stakeholderssuch as supermarkets, customers as well as other business ventures. Additionally, the research will helpfill gaps pertaining branding in supermarkets. The research will define what branding is, its elements, history and transition, brand management,brand development. Additionally, the issue of branding relating to organization performance and successare brought to light to light. The findings herein will make the relevant stakeholders make rational and sound decisionconcerning blended learning. It is worth noting that this will result to ensuring more of our universitiesadopt the approach since they will be aware on how it works hence embracing technology which is thenorm to stay competitive in the changing world of technological innovation. This is very important indetermining the future of learners who seek to acquire skills and improve on their quality of education. Not carrying out this research will clearly depict that branding strategies in Hong Kongsupermarkets will remain unknown to some relevant stakeholders such as customers, business entities.Additionally, the gaps in the entire concept and topic for instance how to manage supermarket brands andbrand development, elements of brand its association with organizational success and performance, thechallenges facing branding and how they can be addressed might only remain an illusion. This will mean
Surname 4that those academic institutions as well as other relevant stakeholders such as future research scientistswill be left in the dark and cannot use the findings to improve learning in branding. Scope of the study With clear knowledge that no single study can adequately address all aspects of any given topic,there is need to clearly establish what the research will address. The scope of this study thus is tocritically examine Brand Strategy for the Supermarket Industry in Hong Kong. This is done by definingwhat branding is, its elements, history and transition, brand management, brand development.Additionally, the issue of branding relating to organization performance and success are brought to light.Lastly and more importantly, the benefits associated with effective branding are discussed in details.Through this analysis and data collected from primary sources, proper inference will be made concerningbranding strategy for Hong Kong supermarkets. It is worth mentioning that the results that will be generated from the study will not only have animplication on a narrow scope but applicable in not only supermarket in Hong Kong but other suchbusinesses across the globe. This is possible with some slight adjustments for it to fit the situation at hand. Research approach The research employs a mixed study to obtain relevant data and information. A theoretical study,a research approach in which the goal is to prove/disprove a hypothesized truth or proposed futureresearch plans that may be carried out in the future but not at the current moment. The choice of thismethod was as a result of its simplicity and ease of use. It is important to note that theoretical study callsfor deeper digging of various literatures ranging from journals, publications, books, other forms ofliterature and from the internet. Most of the data required will be collected by perusing through secondarysources of data as well to primary sources. Qualitative research is also employed in the study; the approach seeks to contextualize theresearch by immersing the researcher into the study scenario as well as with the study sample (Yu &Cooper, 1983). Hypotheses are developed and data is collected and the results tend to be subjective. Casestudy as a sub type of qualitative research is used to ensure that the study is flexible enough to give the
Surname 5researcher room to investigate issues that were not previously thought of and could be worth beingbrought to light. More data will be collected from primary sources which include; observation andquestionnaires (Salganik & Heckathorn, 2004). After establishing the target sample, issues of ethics,accountability and confidentiality are given a priority before collecting necessary data. Aims and objectives of the study The study sought to critically examine Brand Strategy for the Supermarket Industry in HongKong. The objective for this research is to acquire the awareness and knowledge regarding to how thesupermarkets in Hong Kong utilize, address, deal and apply the superb brand strategy and approacheswhen it comes to marketing ways in relation to the retailing power from the supermarket industry thatsuch brand management and imperative aspects will be discussed and explained along with the researchevidence and support to the information and knowledge as acquired. To determine and identify thebranding factors in lieu to the supermarket products and services found in Hong Kong market. Also, tointegrate the empirical structure of research data using appropriate research material and methodsrespectively. The research objectives are; 1. To be able to acquire useful research evidences, information and the finding out of applicable knowledge of branding as applied in the supermarkets in Hong Kong. 2. To be able to utilize properly case study analysis into the awareness of Hong Kong supermarkets and the branding application to the business markets. 3. To evaluate the realize the information and data collected from the relevant literatures and the possible surveys in searching for good brand management relationship that are crucial for understanding research focus. Research questions and hypothesesFrom these objectives, a number of research questions and hypotheses that aid in carrying out the researchinclude;
Surname 6The research questions that guided the study are the following;1. What is branding? What constitute a good brand as supported by such management and strategy in factors pointing to customer value and market operations within the Hong Kong supermarket industry?2. What relevance do certain theories provide in the application of brand strategy?3. Is there a better brand retailing for such innovative paradigm as applying in supermarkets in Hong Kong? Use Park n’ Shop as a sample in such application of branding strategy and management.4. What are the assumption that indicates ample supermarket demand in branding creation and influence over the Hong Kong market?5. Does the brand strategy impose as an ideal tool for the success of the supermarket industry in Hong Kong?Hypotheses from the research questions to be investigated are;The relationship between brand strategy and marketing:H1. Brand strategy is positive determinant of brand performance.H2. Brand strategy is positive determinant of supermarket value.The relationship between brand management and success:H3. Brand Management is positive determinant of industry performanceH4. The congruency of marketing ways is positive determinant of brand successDefinition of terms Brand: A name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them intended to identify thegoods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of other sellers(Chaudhuri 2002).
Surname 7 Branding: Has been though as a marketing process or practice of creating a name, term, sign,symbol or design, or a combination of them for goods and services in the minds of consumers throughadvertising campaigns with a consistent them. It aims at establishing significant and differentiatedpresence3 in the market with an ultimate goal of attracting and retaining loyal customers. Supermarkets: this is a term used to describe self-service stores that offer a wider range of food aswell as household merchandise and is in most cases organized into sections. Supermarkets are larger ascompared to traditional groceries but smaller than superstores or hypermarkets. Brand management: Brand management refers to a process of sustaining, civilizing, and keepinga brand so that the name is linked with desirable positive outcomes. This process entails severalsignificant aspects for instance competition, cost, in-store presentation and customer satisfaction (Mooij1998). Brand strategy: This refers to long-term marketing support an organization offer to its brand onthe basis of how the target audience or consumers have been defined. The concept include a clearunderstanding of an organization as well as customer preferences, aspiration needs, demands andexpectations from the brand. Mixed research design: It is a kind of research approach that encompasses both qualitative andquantitative research approach. Case study: Is a research approach that provides researchers/investigators with flexibility topursue area/issues in the research topic that were not initially thought of and factored into the study(Crook, 1994). Technological innovation: This has been used to refer improvement of existing forms oftechnology that result to development of new products as well as processes. The advent of computers andthe art of man in trying his hands in a number of issues concerning computers have resulted to continuouschange in terms of technology.
Surname 8 Qualitative research: A research design that seek contextualize a study by immersing theinvestigator into the research situation and with the research subjects in which hypotheses are developedand data are collected and results tend to be subjective. Information technology: Information technology refers to a process whereby computers andsoftware are used in management of the information. Information is stored, protected, processed, sharedand can be retrieved when need arise by use of the technology. It is worth noting that it is application isalmost ‘unlimited’ (Skehan, 1999). Organization of the study The study is organized in such a way that it depicts the recommended format of dissertationpaper. Five distinct sections are what constitute the whole paper and this design makes it easy for thosewho will review it get to relevant section with ease. Section one which is the first chapter is made up of introduction, background of the study,problem statement, rationale/ justification of the study, aims and objective of the study, research questionsand hypotheses, and finally definition of terms used in the paper. Each of these subsections is adequatelyaddressed to give insight to readers of what they expect in the paper. Section two normally referred to as chapter two is made entirely of all literature that relates to thestudy topic. Data concerning branding in Hong Kong supermarket are analyzed and brought to light.Generally history and transition of branding coupled with its various characteristics and benefits areadequately discussed. What branding can do for business entities especially supermarkets in Hong Kongare discussed in details. Similarly, developing a brand is also discussed, issues relating to brandmanagement as well as branding and organizational performance analyzed, synthesized and linked to theresearch topic.
Surname 9 Additionally, core practices for success that are practiced by school leaders that impact onsuccess of poverty school are also tackled, the efforts made by the government to ensure that leaders insuch school, plus other relevant information are brought forth. Section three is the methodology chapter. It entails the following subsections; research design orapproach, description of study area, population and sampling procedures, instrumentation, data collectionprocedures and data analysis procedures. Additionally, issues relating to validity, reliability as well asethical consideration are brought to light in this chapter. The fourth section chapter three is results and analysis. It is here that all statistical tests will bedone and represented by use of descriptive statistics. Issues involved include demographic characteristics,t-test, and correlation and regression test. It is in this chapter that forms the backbone of the paper. The last section is organized as chapter five and is under the title discussion, conclusion andrecommendation. A recap of the finding is done in this section.
Surname 10 Chapter two Literature Review The advent of computers and technological innovation that has faced mankind in the recent pastcoupled with varied customers need and aspiration has left the business world to be highly competitive.For this reason, there are a number of strategies that organizations have used to cut for themselves amarket edge in this competitive business world. The main strategy is branding usually followed byadvertisement and publicity. The concept of branding has come out to be deemed by management of anyorganization as a top priority (Chaudhuri 2001). Additionally, it has been categorized together withhuman workforce to be the most valuable assets within an organization. It has been argued that brandbuilding is a long process that utilizes a lot of resources and cannot be separated from advertisement andstrong marketing strategies. Organizations have resorted to branding with the belief that it will save them from failing as itwill enhance the value of the product/organization. However, many of these organizations fail to haveprior knowledge that adequate planning is key to successful branding (Kotler 1997). For this reason, long-term promotion prop up for a brand, on the basis of definitions of the distinctiveness of the targetconsumers is necessary. Additionally, understanding of customers preferences, aspirations andexpectations from the brand need to be considered. History and transition of branding Historically, ‘brand’ was though to mean a hot or burning thing and thus associated with markingof animals with unique symbols so that owners can easily identify them (Gregory, 2003). The processinvolved burning an iron that has been fashioned into a distinct symbol then pressed on the animal skinleaving a permanent mark. Over the years the term has been used in a wider context especially in the fieldof business to refer to "name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them intended to identifythe goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of othersellers (Chaudhuri 2002). One notable example of earlier use of branding in China, where merchants usedbranding names "Misty Mountain Tea", or "Garden in the Sky Tea" to sell poor quality garden tea tobuyers
Surname 11 Oscar Wilde wrote that pessimist is an individual that who is a ware of all things but do not knowthe price of anything. It is only in the recent past that top management have deem brand to be animportant asset to their organization. (Davidson 1998; Ward and Perrier 1998) In simple terms, brand is entity that provides end-users with an added value on the basis basedfunctional performance. All these help distinguish the product or service being offered by a businessentity. The four Ps of marketing has been used for a very long time to bring about values associated witha brand (Lancaster 1995; Kotler 1997) As time passed, knowledge possessed by the community that engage in marketing has led tomanagers being brand leaders. There is recognition of branding strategy as source of competitiveadvantage in domestic markets (Chaudhuri 2001; De Chernatony 2001; Moore et al 2000). In addition to view of branding, brand can be used as corporate strategic tool to enhance firmsperformance. (Mosmans 1996; Mosmans 1998) The brand as an important resource of firm can serve as astrategic reference point. It can shape business development by realizing an alignment between thecapabilities of the firm and the external environment. The emphasis of brand strategy is shifted to brand-based strategy (Mosmans 1998) Branding is technique to build sustainable, differential advantage by playing on the nature ofhuman beings. Only humans can attach meaning and feeling to inanimate objects and random collectionof symbols, which suggests the appeal of branding, is not entirely rational. (O’Malley 1991). Onceconsumers become accustomed to a certain brand, they do not readily accept substitutes (Ginden 1993).Organizations seek ways to take full advantage of human trait – popularity of branding. Organizations develop brands as way to attract and keep customers by promoting value, image aswell as lifestyle. By using particular brand, the consumer can cement positive image (Ginden 1993)Brands also reduce the risk consumers face when buying something that they know little about.(Montgomery 1992)
Surname 12 What branding do According to the suggestion of Randall, 1993 concerning what brands do for both customers andconsumers, there are five major functions coined. One very important one is the creation of identity. Anybrand is created in order to identify itself clearly and unambiguously. For this to be attained, there is needfirst to obtain a legal protection and design elements, which will ensure that no other organization willused such trademark or brand. Brands also function as shorthand summery to consumers. Product brand or the identity bringswith it a summery of all information deemed necessary by the end user. It has been established thatmemories seem to work when information is stored in a set of network. A good brand links the networkby providing the necessary or triggering association. Additionally, a brand has been thought to function as creating a sense of security to end-user of acertain product or service. A good brand makes its consumers reassured when buying well known brands.Security is coined to guaranteeing provision of benefits anticipated by consumers of any goods orservices. An element of differentiation is also brought out by a brand. This is what mousiness ventures cutthemselves an edge in the competitive business world (Kotler 1997). It is a company brand that willappeal to consumers only if it succeeds to prove to have shown uniqueness and difference from the sameproduct or substitutes from its competitors. Lastly, it has been noted that a brand brings added value to any given product or service. Due tostiff competition, business organization more so those that are profit oriented have realized that providingcustomers and consumers with the generic product is not sufficient enough to meet customers aspirationsand need. Thus there is need to supplement this and using a brand proved to be the ultimate best solution.Generally speaking to come up with a good brand which provide all these broad functions, organizationsneed to do some soul searching. Generally speaking, the major aim of branding is to pass vividly a massage, creating customerloyalty, persuade a customer to buy a good as well as establishing an emotional association between thebuyers and the product being offered. It is the brand that builds customer perception concerning a given
Surname 13product. It does this by raising end-users expectations about the good in question. Primarily, brandingseek to create differentiation. It has been documented that strong and well thought brands are capable ofreducing customers’ perceived monetary, safety as well as social risk while buying a product or a service.It is from the concept that there is need for organizations to make potential buyers to in a better positionto imagine the intangible good that a brand came into play. There are also other rewards that come with branding. Through branding, a loyalty to the brand iscreated, what this implies is that business enterprises will attain a greater consistency of demands viaretaining their customers (Moore 2000). It has been noted that as time elapse branding strategies deemedgood and successful leads to higher volume of production that provides the organization with economiesof scale hence having a favorable and positive influence on costs per unit. This further makes theorganization to be in a position to attain greater margins hence placing it in a better position in thecompetitive business world. Similarly, the concept of brand resilience has been key in ensuring that organizations that areprofit oriented comfortably and smoothly find their way out despite a stormy business environment. Atypical example is back in 1982 when car manufacturers suffered due to poor branding and low sales,Mercedes did not felt this as its sale exceeded those of their competitors by slightly above 50%. It isworth mentioning that the magnetic power an organization has as it concerns how customers buys, verysuccessful brands allow organizations to charge a premium price for what they are offering thus leadingto accumulation of higher profit. Studies show that a well thought brand has the potential to return amargin of between 4 and 6 times as compared to that of the competitor deemed to be very close (Shugan,2005). Lastly and more importantly, brands have been thought to be capable of aiding businesses tomove, infiltrate and capture new markets; this will be a better move to Hong Kong supermarkets. A clearexample of how this is attained is provided by Dunhill a tobacco industry that was once at the verge ofcollapsing did revitalize itself and is now a giant in the filed.
Surname 14 Internal and external elements of a brand To customers, a brand is made up of two major elements; internal and external. Among theinternal elements of a brand are; personality which typically refers to how end users of a good or servicewill describe a brand. Self image is another internal element, this comprises what the audience orcustomers for that matter will feel and say as far as the brand in question is concerned, a typical exampleis provided by one’s image in driving a ford or a Jaguar. Concerning external elements of a brand, relationship revolves a round the customersidentification with the brand itself. Physique or rather the outward characteristics or attributes of a brandthat will make the audience want to know more about the brand is equally an important external elementof a brand. Lastly, reflection which refers to nurturing of customers towards a given brand is anotherexample of an external element of a brand. Brand Management Brand management refers to a process of sustaining, civilizing, and keeping a brand so that thename is linked with desirable positive outcomes. This process entails several significant aspects forinstance competition, cost, in-store presentation and customer satisfaction (Mooij 1998). The entireprocess is fabricated on a marketing basis, but centers mostly on the brand it self and how it can be madeto remain highly favored by customers. It has been asserted that properly managed brand can lead to anorganization realizing higher sales of not only one product, but also other goods and services connectedwith that brand. A typical example can be drawn from if a customer loves a coca cola soda and does trustthe brand such an individual will have more chances of buying other goods that are offered in the marketby Coca Cola Company for instance Dasani water. There are a number of principles of brand management that when followed and implemented tothe later will ensure that a brand created successfully built into customers’ state of mind. This can beattained by positively influencing end users perceptions as well as attitude that relate to an offering thatleads to a positive customer buying behavior (Schmidt, & Ludlow, 2002). Additionally, it has beensuggested that mangers need to have very wide knowledge on customers’ base. The principles mentioned
Surname 15previously are that a good brand name opt to stand out among a group of other competitive brands, bevery attractive, easy to pronounce, know, remember, recognize, translate into all possible language in themarket where the brand will reach, attract attention, be protected under the trademark legislation (Mooij1998). Additionally, a good brand should differentiate the products positioning in relation tocompetition, suggest an organization or rather the good or product image and finally suggest the benefitof a product. Managing all brands and building brand equity over a period of time is very essential. Theimportance and value of brand management is that it helps in constructing a business image. Anymanager bestowed with the responsibilities of branding need to keep an eye on overall performance of abrand. A brand is deemed successful when created under a competent brand management process (Moore2000). The brand strategy, the key to business strategy (Berry 1993) can possibly promote the financialvalue of the brand rather than making it better product that the customer wanted. Creating brand imageinvolves getting customers to know that the brand exists. The branding process itself may be the startingpoint for product differentiation (Allen 1992). It is worth mentioning that organizations or companieswith very strong brand do have higher market value as compared to their counter parts with weakerbrands. Having, in mind that any brand can potentially loose its value, there is need to give such a brand agood support so that it can sustain its position for a longer period of time. The consumer will perceive one brand as more desirable than its competitors and purchase itbased on those perceptions. Carey suggests that if the brand has a recognizable identity, then it should beaimed at opportunity markets to yield maximum success. (Carey 1991) Supermarket companies mustmanage the image and identity of brand and tie it to the total business strategy the organization mustdecide how branding fits into its general strategy (Carlino 1991). The point is, brand strategy should berelevant to goals of the organization. Although there are directions for matching brand with certainstrategy (Wentz 1993), market operations must create unique strategy that works for the Hong Kongsupermarket industry.
Surname 16 Developing brand strategy Coming up with a desired brand strategy has been deemed to be one of the most challengingactivity while making plans that pertains to marketing. Despite it being very challenging, there is no othershortcut in ensuring that a company is created with a very strong identity other than by branding(Chernatony 2001). This is because branding has been proved to be a very essential ingredient in makingof successful organizations, locally, nationally and across the globe. Being a fact that once a brand isdeveloped; it is evident that its identity will be repeatedly passed across in various ways together withnumerous frequencies for as long as the business exists. For this reason, it is only rational to developing abrand strategy that will be the best (Olins, 2003). It is sad to note that most organizations fail to point out the main objectives or purposes of theentire exercise of branding they undertake. There are suggested steps that will help organizations be at perwith the whole process of branding from planning, developing and execution of the exercise. As noted byWare, 2010, to develop an effective brand strategy is one very important aspect that needs to be masteredby each and every serious business venture to guarantee success, Hong Kong supermarkets not beingexceptions. He further asserts that those organizations that do not understand the whole concept ofbranding as well as coming up with an effective branding strategy are at the verge of terribly failingbusiness wise. Steps in developing brand strategy The first step that each and every organization that seeks to come up with an effective brand, is tounderstand the meaning of branding. It is very important to distinguish branding from marketing andadvertisement. When organizations set out the main objectives and purpose of branding coupled with theknowledge that the whole idea is a promise to end-users of a given product or services that will then leadthem to experience an unexpected experience, then the whole process is deemed successful (Keller 1998). Broadly speaking, there are three major steps that are very important in coming up with aneffective branding strategy; they include thorough research, strategy developing and finallyimplementation or execution. Before engaging in research step, starting by pointing out the core values of
Surname 17a brand opt to be done. It is worth noting that core values are those qualities an organization deems to bemost important to their day to day running of their business. For instance, a Hong Kong supermarketmight have customer satisfaction, integrity, trustworthiness, provision of high quality services andproduct It is worth noting that a set of these core values in most cases are not made public but can beseen through a glass via numerous activities done by the organization (Keller 2003). These core valuesconcerning brand should not change despite the fact that brand preposition can change any time. It hasbeen argued that these core values of branding should at no time be taken lightly as it depicts anorganization creed for doing business hence success. As stated previously, the issue of research being conducted in a thorough manner will definitelydictate developing of a successful brand. Marketing and branding scholars have proved that once brandcore values have been identified, without carrying out objective and comprehensive research about theentire process of branding, the whole activity will be a flux (Mooij 1998). The research stage looks indepth several issues that broadly include the whole organization, services and goods offered by theorganization, the target market as well as the desired audience and competitors. Having enoughknowledge on all these categories is key in placing the organization at a better place when crafting how todevelop a brand. Strictly speaking, the study will center on finding out the philosophy of the business organization,its customers and clienteles, the determining factors on customers decisions on buying, the anticipatedbenefits brought about by the goods and service to be offered, identifying the potential competitors andfinally the reason that will make end-users to choose ones goods over their competitors. On the samenote, further research need to be carried out to establish the strengths and weaknesses of the brand(Chernatony 2003). Additionally, depending on the availability of financial resources available, it isadvisable for an organization to dig deeper into the history of branding, what is happening at present aswell as try to predict what the picture will look like in the near future and probably propose somedirections.
Surname 18 After thorough research has been conducted, moving to the second stage-development phase thenfollows. In this stage those individuals that conducted the research in groups come together and strategizehow all the varied aspects from the research will be integrated. It is important to always have in mind thatmaking each and every of the aspects brought forth to work with the aim of ensuring that theorganization’s main objective are attained will foster success of the branding (Moore 2000). It is no doubt that it is at this phase that brand preposition is done. Brand statement is thusdeveloped which in turn carries a promising statement to end-user. In case of a supermarket, a promisecan be that if one buys goods or services from it, then he/she will get maximum satisfaction from highquality, saving money (Davidson 1998). While coming up with the preposition, having at the back ofmind that there is need for it to be engaging, easy understand, unique relevant and more importantlyprovide solution to the needs and aspirations of customers is of paramount importance. All these areattainable only if the various teams are capable of successfully integrating their findings with those of theothers. An engaging, easily understood and relevant brand preposition comes with an emotionalinfluence that will propel customers to crave for what is to be offered. This in turn will make them have achanged positive perception and attitude hence turn to an organization way other than to its competitors.Research phase will also make it possible for the organization to establish principle stumbling blocks thatmight hinder effective and successful branding (Holt, 2004). With such knowledge plans can be put inplace to crush these barriers hence a smooth process of branding. The last stage in brand strategy is the most challenging one-execution phase. Any organization inthis matter supermarket in Hong Kong need to ensure that each and every one within and without isactively, directly or indirectly take part in branding. If the whole idea is bought by even the employees,there are higher chances of realizing success. The entire workforce when are in a position to believe in thecapabilities of the management, the organization as a unit as well as its product and services, then this isthe right direction towards a successful branding (Chernatony 2001).
Surname 19 However, effective implementation of brand heavy relies on what skills, knowledge and ability ofthe top management. Thus having in place by recruiting highly skilled and capable workforce will ensurethat the entire process of branding is smooth and attain the desired goals and objectives (Kotler, &Pfoertsch, 2006). While this is being done, ensuring that the entire workforce is motivated and fullysupport the process is significant. Generally speaking, the three stages aim at delivering unexpected and winning the hearts andminds of customers. For any organization that seeks to carryout branding, developing a brand prepositionthat is not expected or anticipated will make the organization stand out from the potential competitors(Lancaster 1995). More importantly is winning the minds as well as hearts of potential customers. This isdone by creating an emotional feeling between the customers and the brand which in turn leads to areaction from the target audience even before tasting or experiencing the product or the service. While developing a brand strategy, the brand preposition needs to factor in several importantfactors. According to Davidson 1998,these include; alignment with the brand core values, ability to adaptto a dynamic market, being clear, engaging, different and in line/relevant to the targeted audience, echoedby all partners/team players, be able to incorporate positive emotional attachment that is better beyond theconcept of good. Additionally, the preposition needs to be always consistent although several marketingas well as media of advertisement and finally be always consistent with the ability of the workforce todeliver the promise made (Fan, 2002). Arguably, it has been demonstrated that a well though, plannedand executed brand strategy brings with it a successful brand performance. Similarly, brand managementdoes positively determine successful industry performance. Influences of brand on potential targeted audience As suggested by Chaudhuri 2002 brands are not only names, signs, symbols, terms or expressionbut something more than that. It is true that it helps differentiate products and services. A successfulbrand is a name praised every now and then in almost every household. Creating a brand personalitymakes people to identify themselves with it. This is achieved by making the target population to see theorganization and what if offers affect their minds which entails sensation, intuition, thinking and feeling.
Surname 20 There are those brands that aim at appealing to the rational part of individuals, to aspects of logicsas well as good sense which is ascribed to be the thinking dimension. A typical example is how a toothpaste will help teeth not to decay. Some appeal to human sense of smell, seeing, taste among others(Keller, 1993). On the other hand other kind of brands does attract emotional aspect of human beings. This kindof appealing has been thought as impacting on the feeling making customers respond with such feelingsas of warmth as well as belonging (Alden, 1999). A brand also brings some sense of intuition to humanbeings especially the potential end-users of products or services being offered by an organization. Personsdo get attracted to a brand just because they feel comfortable to be associated with. The reason here is thatthey feel the brand is an extension of what they are, fitting to their way of life, personality as well asbehavior (Birkin, 1994). Judging by what is currently happening in the business world and drawing from past history ofbranding, we are in the world of brand-scape (Ward, 1998). For this reason each and every seriousorganization that need to be always ahead of its competitors need to have in place plans on how toexecute successful branding, this applies to Hong Kong supermarkets. Questionnaire Branding Questionnaire I am Joan Cheng Yuk Yi a student in Edinburgh Napier University. I am carrying out a researchon “Brand Strategy for the Supermarket Industry in Hong Kong” as a partial fulfillment for the award ofMaster of Science in Marketing. I will be obliged if you would tick the appropriate box and providenecessary information in spaces provided. The information provided herein will only be used for thestated purpose. Additionally your identity will be kept confidential.Profile and basic informationYes or No questions
Surname 21Multiple choice questions 1. Age 15-25 25-35 35-45 45+ 2. Gender Male Female 3. To which of the following racial or ethnic groups do you belong? European Asian Hispanic Indian African Others 4. Are you Employed Unemployed Student Self employed 5. What is your level of education?
Surname 22 Some high school High school graduate Some college Graduated from college Graduate6. Monthly income in US Dollars 0-5,000 5001-10,000 10,001-15,000 15001-20,000 20,001-25000 25,001-30,000 30,001+7. Marital status Single Married Divorced Separated
Surname 238. How many dollars did you spent in a supermarket in the last two months? 1-500 501-1000 1001-1500 1501-2000 2000+9. How close to your residential place is a supermarket located (Distance in Meters)? 0-500 501-1000 1001-1500 1501-2000 Over 200110. Are you the principle shopper in your household? Yes No11. How frequent do you visit the supermarket? Every day Thrice a week Twice a week
Surname 24 Weekly Twice a month Monthly Others12. Are you aware of branding usage in Hong Kong supermarkets? Yes No13. If yes in 9 above how did you get to know about it? From friends From media From relatives Other sources14. In your opinion, how developed is branding in the country’s supermarkets? Highly developed Moderately developed Developed Poorly developed15. On the basis of your response in question 11, rate what constitute a good brand by using values 1 to 10 where 1 is poorly rated and 10 is highly rated. Easy to read Bring added value
Surname 25 Eye catching Unique and differentiated Household name Bring a sense of security Creating identity Build customer loyalty Cost effective Create positive emotional impact16. Branding do influence where you shop Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree17. Does Hong Kong supermarkets mastered firmly staying top in providing customers by delivering quality products, consistent brand messages and innovative ideas? Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree18. In your own opinion, are you satisfied with the kind of branding exhibited by supermarkets in Hong Kong?
Surname 26 Yes No19. For your response in question 18 please elaborate.20. What is your opinion on how Hong Kong supermarkets carryout their branding strategies. Poorly Fairly good Good Very good Excellent21. Basing on your response in question 20, what then needs to be done?22. Please indicate whether you agree with these statements; Hong Kong supermarkets need to change their branding strategies Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree23. As a consumer, provide the possible benefits brought about by branding to you.24. Please indicate whether you agree with these statements; brand strategy imposes as an ideal tool for the success of the supermarket industry in Hong Kong.
Surname 27 Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree25. Please indicate whether you agree with these statements; brand strategy is positive determinant of brand performance. Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree26. Do you agree with the statement that brand Management is positive determinant of industry performance Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly agree
Surname 2827. On the basis of how the supermarket you shop utilize address issues pertaining branding, will you continue shopping there? Yes No Please elaborate.
Surname 29 Methodology Research Methodology This chapter describes in details how the research was accomplished especially the manner withwhich the study was carried out. In addition, the issue of qualitative and quantitative methods employedin the study is brought out clearly, the entire mechanisms used to identify the sample of the data;mechanisms of data collection, analysis of the data collected and finally the interpretation of results fromthe analyzed data as well as presentation of the finding are addressed. The study sought to criticallyexamine Brand Strategy for the Supermarket Industry in Hong Kong. Additionally, branding characteristics that make goods of a given organization for this case Parkn’ Shop supermarket unique are brought out in a clear manner. The research will also bring forth howbranding influences the targeted audience. On the same note, the advantages to customers brought aboutby branding are also examined among other issues. The study will put forward recommendations that willhelp the industry successfully adopt best branding strategies as well as management in order to remaincompetitive in this business world. Both primary and secondary sources of data will be used to collect therequired data, while qualitative research methodology and quantitative methodology will be used incarrying out this research. This provided me with an opportunity to come up with suitable informationthat one can bring forth relevant recommendation (Patton, 2002). Data will be analyzed and presentationdone using graphs charts and tables where appropriate. The research will seek to obtain the necessary data that will be very informative in try to answerthe research questions and find out more about branding strategies and management in Hong Kongsupermarkets. A mixed study and a research approach will be used to carryout the research in order tomake comprehensive findings (Creswell, 2003). This method was chosen due to the ability to implementit easily and effectively with few error; it is also practical and suited for the study. The approach lays itsbasis on various studies that have been done by others and an understanding of the past and current
Surname 30information from literature. The data required will be needed in order to support the following researchquestions. Research QuestionsThe research questions that guided the study are the following;6. What is branding? What constitute a good brand as supported by such management and strategy in factors pointing to customer value and market operations within the Hong Kong supermarket industry?7. What relevance do certain theories provide in the application of brand strategy?8. Is there a better brand retailing for such innovative paradigm as applying in supermarkets in Hong Kong? Use Park n’ Shop as a sample in such application of branding strategy and management.9. What are the assumption that indicates ample supermarket demand in branding creation and influence over the Hong Kong market?10. Does the brand strategy impose as an ideal tool for the success of the supermarket industry in Hong Kong?Hypotheses from the research questions to be investigated are;The relationship between brand strategy and marketing:H1. Brand strategy is positive determinant of brand performance.H2. Brand strategy is positive determinant of supermarket value.The relationship between brand management and success:H3. Brand Management is positive determinant of industry performanceH4. The congruency of marketing ways is positive determinant of brand success
Surname 31 Research design The research employs a mixed research design method. It is important to note that theoreticalstudy calls for deeper digging of various literatures ranging from journals, publications, books, otherforms of literature and from the internet (Beiske, 2002). What this implies is that some of the datarequired will be collected by perusing through secondary sources of data. Qualitative research is also employed in the study; the approach seeks to contextualize theresearch by immersing the researcher into the study scenario as well as with the study subjects.Hypotheses are developed and data is collected and the results tend to be subjective. A case study as a subtype of qualitative research is used to ensure that the study is flexible enough to give the researcher roomto investigate issues that were not previously thought of and could be worth being brought to light(Tabachnick, & Fidell, 2000). The aim of this research is to critically examine Brand Strategy for the Supermarket Industry inHong Kong. This will provide me with an opportunity to offer recommendations regarding the same tobusinesses especially supermarkets in regard to branding. The objectives of the study will be to establish what relationship between branding andsupermarket values and success exist. Secondly establishing how branding influences potential targetaudiences are clearly brought out. Population and sampling procedure The population of interest for the study are residence of Hong Kong shoppers from Park n’ Shopsupermarket. This is because they were in a better position to provide the necessary and relevantinformation as regards to branding in Hong Kong supermarkets. Due to the fact that the study cannot fullyincorporate all of them, selecting a sample which will represent the whole population is always deemednecessary in such a study. The sample will however be representative of the general population. The sampling strategies that will be used to obtain the sample population will include; randomsampling, stratified random sampling, snowball sampling and careful biased sampling (Creswell, 2003).
Surname 32Use of random sampling ensures that a group of the entire population is selected to represent it in theresearch being done. This will involve the whole population being divided into samples that represent theentire population. Careful biased sampling will also be used; this ensures that specific individuals especiallyshoppers that frequent Park n’ Shop supermarket are selected. Stratified random sampling will be used tosubdivide (distinguish) between individuals/shoppers according to residential distance from thesupermarket (Yu & Cooper 1983). Additionally, snowball sampling a technique for developing a researchsample where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances. Thus thesample group appears to grow like a rolling snowball. As the sample builds up, enough data will becollected. This sampling technique is often used in hidden populations which are difficult for researchersto access. According to Salganik & Heckathorn, 2004 this kind of sampling makes it possible for me toinclude individuals I do not know in the study, similarly the technique allows for locating individualshaving vital information that are otherwise difficult to locate. The main down fall of the samplingtechnique is that it’s prone to creating biasness. Data collection methods The data required to fully address all the objectives and research questions will be obtainedthrough perusal of secondary as well as primary data sources. It is worth mentioning that beforeembarking on collection of the required and necessary data one would first seek permission from therelevant authorities from the institutions of higher learning targeted. This was done to eliminateplagiarism and make the report comprehensive and conclusive. The main activities will be outlining the required data, data collection preparation of the materialand tools, and the arrangement of the needed assistance. The tools will include preparing, thequestionnaires structures and questions and the data collection items to record the collected data. Formswill be designed so as to ensure the data collected is systematic and easily understood. After thecollection of data there will be presentation of findings before the analysis where the data collected will
Surname 33be sorted or arranged appropriately to bring out a meaning; this will make it possible to emphasis on timemanagement, accuracy and precision of the data (Beiske, 2002). Primary sources The primary sources of data collection to be used depending on where they were most applicablewill include: interviews, observation and questionnaires. Questionnaires will also be used to collectrelevant information; I will distribute them to respondent situated in the targeted institution of higherlearning and would be collected later at an agreed date. According to Beiske, (2002) questionnaire coversa large population at a time as they would be distributed to different participants at a time and be collectedlater or at the same day depending on the willingness of the responded in addressing the questions, due toit being standardized they are more objective, data collected from questionnaire are easy to analyze, dueto familiarity with the tool, responded will not be apprehensive, it is also very cost effective as comparedto face to face interviews, the tool also reduces bias. The questionnaires will be issued to persons who shop at Park n’ Shop supermarket who are in aposition to provide the required sett of data. It is expected that these individuals will also issue suchquestionnaires to other individuals they know who usually shop at the supermarket. According toCohen & Manion, (1996) the major problem with questionnaires as a tool of data collection is that there istendency of respondent to forget vital information, they may answers the questions superficially when itis a long one, to counter this I developed a short but very inclusive questionnaire, due to standardization,there is no room for explanation incase respondents misinterpret or do not understand the questions (Yu,& Cooper, 1983). This error will be eliminated through interviewing numerous respondents who willhave different answers; which will later be combined to make out a comprehensive and conclusiveanalysis. Observation were also used, this seemed to provide more accurate information. However, thistool had some challenges. One, with this kind of data collection analyzing data obtained form it prove inmost cases to be a serious challenge. To counter this there is need to have qualified personnel that were
Surname 34capable of interpreting physical as well as outward characteristics associated with branding insupermarkets. To supplement the two tools, interviews were also used. This was chosen because when theresearch will be done, as a researcher there will be need to be able to have directs contacts with theinterviewee and obtain first hand information. Both the interviewer and the interviewee would be able toclarify on issues of the research done hence, being able to obtain information which is well elaborated andauthentic (Yu & Cooper, 1983). The main questions to be asked will be revolving around the researchquestions where the interviewee will be asked to briefly expound on issues with regard to branding andorganization performance. It is also a flexible data collection tool as when questions are not well graspedby the interviewee I will be in a position to rephrase and elaborate them. Interview will allow one to learnabout things and facts that cannot be observed directly and finally it adds internal viewpoints to outwardbehaviors. Despite the advantage mentioned, according to Beiske, (2002) it’s a slow method because theprocess calls for interview of one person at a time, cannot fully trace events and trends that occurred inthe past. Additionally, interview is an expensive tool to use; it is also subject to respondent andinterviewer bias. This will be eliminated through a tight time and structural frame work that will ensurethat everything is done on time and appropriately. Secondary source Materials from the library, internet and related research reports will be used to provide therequired data and information concerning branding management, characteristics its association withorganization performance. Internal sources to be sort after as the study is being carried includeinformation compiled by the supermarkets regarding branding and how it has been performing over time.External data sources included information from the government sources, previous research studies andacademic institution (colleges and universities material related branding in supermarkets). According toCreswell, 2003 the secondary sources will be very essential to support what has been collected in theprimary data session i.e. from the observations, interviews, and questionnaires.
Surname 35 Data analysis and presentation The collected data will be analyzed using non parametric statistics. The data will be filtered toclean it, modeling and transformation will be done in a way that will expose useful information indrawing of conclusion and recommendation, then codification follows. Descriptive statistics will also beemployed in analyzing the data. T-test will also be used to test research questions. The data will first beentered in to spreadsheets after coding where initial analysis will take place such as checking the errorslogs and percentages of the data to check any outliers which will then be transferred to Statistical Programfor Social Science (SPSS Version 12.0) package which will aid in the final data analysis (Pallant, 2007). To find out what are the significant issues (ranking the issues from the most significant to thosenot significant) that concerning branding and supermarket performance a principle component analysiswill be carried out. Logical regression and correlation analysis will also be done to see the relationshipbetween branding strategy and industry success and performance. Cross tabulations will be used toestablish the most important attributes supermarket opts to include while branding. Cross-tabulation is amultivariate statistical method of data analysis used most often in marketing research. It will be easy tointerpret. T-test will be used for analyzing the relationship between brand strategy and marketing as wellas brand management and success. To analyze the demographic characteristics such as age, gender,income level and the frequency of shopping among others of the sample used in the study, descriptivestatistics such as frequency, means graphs will be employed (Pallant, 2007. The presentation of the resultswill be done by using tables, graphs and charts which will present the required information of thepopulation and what they have said about brand strategy for the Supermarket Industry in Hong Kong. Ethical consideration In view of the fact that the research involves human subjects, there was need for high level ofethical consideration to upheld. As indicated by Beiske, 2002 some of the ethical consideration includesthe following; the targeted sample populations that will be involved in the study to provide relevant
Surname 36information are to be informed about the same in advance. The reasons for carrying out the survey as wellas how they stand to gain from the study will also be brought out clearly. As well, research ethics demands that the information be sought after by the researcher will beprovided in good faith, and voluntarily without any influence be it monetary or otherwise for instancegiving of incentives, rewards, and gifts. It is important to note here that the rights and welfare of theparticipants involved in the study must be protected and guaranteed. To do this, their identities will bekept confidential. Moreover, the information collected while soliciting for data is to be kept confidentialand opt not to be used in any other purpose apart from what was initially intended for. It is expected thatthe interviewees/respondents will be ethical and provide accurate information to the best of theirknowledge. This means that they should not knowingly give false full information. More importantly, I opt to be ethical in providing the participant especially the respondent’sguidelines and necessary information that are correct. Similarly, I should not be judgmental on theinformation am provided with during the course of interview and should be as neutral as possible duringthe entire process. Lastly, there is need to omit any kind of personal bias that might arise; this will bedone at the end of the study. This is with the knowledge that such bias can negatively impact on thestatistical analysis. Scope, assumptions and limitations of the studyIn every study, there are a number of assumptions made. In the case of this study, the following areamong the assumptions held; 1. That the response rate will be slightly above the standardized threshold for proper inferences to be made. 2. Effective branding strategy does positively influence performance and success of supermarkets in Hong Kong. 3. The target sample will be a representation of the whole Hong Kong shoppers 4. All survey questions will be answered. 5. The responses will correctly reflect branding strategy in Hong Kong supermarkets.
Surname 37 6. The study will be completed within the stipulated time frame The research has a global scope highlighting the concept of branding strategy, management andsupermarket as an industry success and performance. A number of limitations/constraints wereanticipated in this study and are discussed herein. 1) Time constraints: I had to work under pressure especially where the sources of information gave me close deadlines, like in cases where interviews were used, and some respondents had just a particular time in which they were free. Also some respondents delayed with questionnaires 2) Non cooperative respondents: Some respondents were not willing to corporate in availing required business information /documentations. I had to employ a lot of tact to counter this in order to get information from them and dispel fears that were developed. 3) Hostility: Some information sources and retail may appear hostile and not ready to give out the desired information. In fact I had to employ all tact of oratory prowess to dilute this hostility. 4) On the basis of the sampling method used, snowball might not be an accurate techniques hence may result to biased findings. 5) Legal restrictions: I was unable to access some information due to legal restrictions and jurisdiction limits of businesses that only allow certain sensitive information to be accessed by specific people. In order to get a clear picture of this trend, I was needed to access even the company’s inventory accounts, capital accounts and other relevant ones that could give a projection of the changes that have occurred as stipulated by the research objectives. I had to convince certain premise that I had no intentions of making any legal implications with the information I collected from them before I could win their policies.
Surname 38 6) Hostility: Some information sources and retail officials appeared hostile and did not readily give out the information I needed .In fact I had to employ all tact of oratory prowess to dilute this hostility. 7) Ignorance: Some shoppers may seem to be uninformed and could not therefore give me the required information as pertains branding in supermarkets. Data analysis, presentation and discussion The section thoroughly presents the finding after carrying out statistical tests. Information ispresented by use of descriptive statistics. It is worth noting that 120 survey questionnaires weredistributed to customers shopping at various Hong Kong supermarkets particularly, Park n’ Shop. 100 ofthe questionnaires were filled and made available for data analysis, representing 83.33 response rateswhich is way above the recommended percentage. SPSS version 12.0 was used to analyze data (Coakes,2008) Demographic characteristics Age Of the 100 respondents, 18 were between 15 and 25 years representing 18.0%, 26 were between26-35 years representing 26.0%, between 36 and 45 and those above 45 years were 28 representing 28%.There were no missing data on this variable.Table 1 Age characteristics of the respondents Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Valid 15-25 18 15.8 18.0 18.0 26-35 26 22.8 26.0 44.0 36-45 28 24.6 28.0 72.0 45+ 28 24.6 28.0 100.0 Total 100 87.7 100.0 Total 100.0
Surname 39 Males were 51 (51.0%) while females were 48 (48.0%). There was one missing data representing1.0%. are you a female or male 60 50 40 30 n u q F y c e r 20 10 0 male female missing are you a female or male Figure 1 A bar Graph showing gender of the respondents In terms of racial groups, Asian constituted the largest percent standing at 51.0% (51), Indians15.0% (15), others 12.0% (12), European 9.0% (9),, African 7.0% (7) and Hispanic 6.0% (6).
Surname 40 to which racial group do you belong? 60 50 40 30 n u q F y c e r 20 10 0 european Asian Hispanic Indian African others to which racial group do you belong? Figure 2 A bar graph of racial group Concerning employment status, 38.0% (38.0) were employed, 23.0% unemployed, 16.0% werestudent and 21.0% were self employed. Two individuals did not offer information regarding theiremployment status representing 2.0%. with regards to education level, 25.0% had acquired some highschool education, 24.0% were high school graduates, 24.0% had some college education 13.0 graduatedfrom college and 14.0% were graduates. Annual income characteristics of the sample population was as follows, 17.0% earned between0-5000 US dollars, those earning 5001-10000 represented 19.0%, 17.0% were earning between10001-15000, 15.0% 15001-20000, 13.0% 20001-25000, 11.0% 25001-30000, 11.0% earned annualsalaries in excess of 30000.
Surname 41 annual income in US dollars 20 15 10 n u q F y c e r 5 0 0-5,000 5001- 10001- 15001- 20001- 25001- 30001+ 99.00 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 annual income in US dollars Figure 3 Annual incomes in US dollars One respondent did not provide information concerning annual earning. When asked how muchthe respondent spent in buying things from a supermarket, 25.0% reported to have spent over 2000 in thelast two months, 2.0% said they spent between 501-1000 dollars, 21.0% spent between 1001-15000,17.0% used 1-500 while 13.0% spent between 1501 and 2000.
Surname 42 How many dollars did you spend in a supermarkt in the last two months? 25 20 15 n u q F y c e r 10 5 0 1-500 501-1000 1001-1500 1501-2000 2001+ How many dollars did you spend in a supermarkt in the last two months? Figure 4 Dollars spend in supermarket in the last two months With regards to marital status, 17.0% were single, 47.0% married, 14.0% divorced, 19.0%separated. 3 individuals did not provide data on the same which represented 3.0%. of the 100 respondents,31.0% live within 0-500 meters to a supermarket, 28.0% between 501-1000 meters, 19.0% reside within1001-1500 meters, 12.0% reside within 1501-2000meters and 10.0% are live over 2000 meters ways froma supermarket.
Surname 43Table 2 How close to your residential place is a supermarket located in meters Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Valid 0-500 31 27.2 31.0 31.0 501-1000 28 24.6 28.0 59.0 1001-150 19 16.7 19.0 78.0 0 1501-200 12 10.5 12.0 90.0 0 2001+ 10 8.8 10.0 100.0 Total 100 87.7 100.0 Missing System 14 12.3 Total 114 100.0 With regards to visiting supermarkets to do shopping, 24.0% went everyday, 17.0% thrice aweek, 20.0% twice a week, 14.0% weekly, 13.0% twice a month and 12.0% did shopping once a month. how frequent do you visit the suppermarket to shop? 25 20 15 n u q F y c e r 10 5 0 everyday thrice a twice a weekly twice a monthly week week month how frequent do you visit the suppermarket to shop?
Surname 44Figure 5 Frequency of visiting supermarkets to shop When asked if they are aware of branding in supermarket industry, 60.0% said they were, 39.0%were not aware while one person did not provide the information (1.0%). Of those who responded thatthey were aware, when asked how they got to know about branding 38.0% reported that they learnt aboutit through friends and media, 17.0% from relatives and 7.0% from other sources.Table 3 How did you know of branding in Hong Kong Supermarkets? Valid Cumulative Frequency Percent Percent Percent Valid from 38 33.3 38.0 38.0 friends from 38 33.3 38.0 76.0 media from 17 14.9 17.0 93.0 relatives other 7 6.1 7.0 100.0 sources Total 100 87.7 100.0 Missing System 14 12.3 Total 114 100.0 Out of 100 respondents, 56 (56.0%) were principle shoppers in their households while 44 (44.0%)were not principal shoppers in their households. Branding It is no doubt that the majority of the sample population is aware of branding. When asked toelaborate further on what they understand it to be, the numerous components used to define a brand weretalked about. The respondent held the view that a brand is a sign, name, symbol or either a combination ofthese attributes. Thus this is in line with the definition of the term brand which is "name, term, sign,symbol or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller orgroup of sellers and to differentiate them from those of other sellers (Chaudhuri 2002).
Surname 45 As previously noted throughout the literature review, developing a brand without popularizing itis an effort that has been wasted (Prasad & Dev, 2000). On this regard, the majority of those who saidthey were aware of branding in Hong Kong supermarkets fully obtained information regarding the samethrough friends (38.0%), relatives (17.0%), media (38.0%) and other sources. how did you know of branding in hong kong supermarkets 40 30 20 n u q F y c e r 10 0 from friends from media from relatives other sources how did you know of branding in hong kong supermarketsFigure 6 Knowing branding in Hong Kong supermarkets It is of interest to find that major characteristics of a brand brought forth by various scholars suchas Holt, 2004 and Gregory 2003 have been manifested in the study carried out. Descriptive data clearlyindicated that shoppers in Hong Kong believe that a brand should be eye catching 23.2%, creating apositive change 15.2%, unique and differentiated 13.1%, cost effective and bringing added value 9.1%
Surname 46each, build customer loyalty and household name 6.1% each, brings sense of security and creatingidentity were thought to be attributes of a good brand by 5.1% of the respondents. Being easy to read wasthought to be an attribute of a good brand by 8.1% of the sample population. Strictly speaking, to customers, a brand is made up of; internal and external. Among the internalelements of a brand are; personality which typically refers to how end users of a good or service willdescribe a brand (O’Neill & Mattila, 2004). Self image is another internal element, this comprises whatthe audience or customers for that matter will feel and say as far as the brand in question is concerned, atypical example is provided by one’s image in driving a ford or a Jaguar. Concerning external elements of a brand, relationship revolves around the customersidentification with the brand itself. Physique or rather the outward characteristics or attributes of a brandthat will make the audience want to know more about the brand is equally an important external elementof a brand. Lastly, reflection which refers to nurturing of customers towards a given brand is anotherexample of an external element of a brand (Allan et al. 2004). For the reasons and ranking of the attributes brought forth, it will be rational for Hong Kongsupermarkets to develop brands that are eye catching, that create positive notion and well differentiated.Similarly, it will be appropriate for supermarket industries in Hong Kong to work hard in furtherestablishing the other attributes of a good brand as it will help serve in the interest of the industry as wellas the customers.
Surname 47 on the basis of your response in question 14, are what constitute a good brand by using values 1 to 10 where 1 means poorly rated and 10 higly rated 25 20 15 n u q F y c e 10 r 5 0 ho bu us ild ea ey cr co cr br un br eh ea cu in ea ing st sy iq ec old sto gi ue tin ef tin to ng ss atc na m fe g an g re er ct m id ad en hin po ad d e loy iv en ed se di e alt sit g tit ffe va y y ive of re lu se nt e ch ia cu te an rit d ge y on the basis of your response in question 14, are what ...Figure 7 Attributes of a good brand Benefits of branding From the data analysis, it is evident that the respondent identified a number of benefits as a resultof branding. 14.0% of those who answered the question regarding the benefits of branding said that itenhanced loyalty, familiarity and premium image. When the public hold a positive understanding with abrilliant brand, theyre more likely to buy that product or service again than what the competitor isoffering (Jones, 2003). Individuals who are closely associated with a given brand identity are not onlymore likely to repurchase what they bought, but also to buy related items of the same brand, torecommend the brand to others and to resist the lure of a competitors price cut. “The brand identity helpsto create and to anchor such loyalty” (De Chernatony, 2003).
Surname 48 As suggested by Tepeci, 1999 very high competition and the desire to increase and preservemarket share does not only entail winning new customers but also keeping them. It is no doubt that thiscan be achieved by using brand loyalty since it is the most significant tool that can help firms survivesince customers who are loyal to an organization as they offer repeated business transaction, highermarket shares as well as profits, competitive advantage and referrals. There are various strategies thatneed to be adopted in order to create a loyal customer among them developing a unique environment inservice sector that encompasses balanced variables between employees as well as physical attributes ofthe firm. According to De Chernatony 2003 branding not only affects customers but also non customers. Ithas been established by psychologists that familiarity usually induces liking. For this reason, it is nodoubt that although one has not transacted business with one’s organization but in one way or anotherhave encountered your its identity are in a better position to recommend the company to others despite thefact that the individual do not have personal knowledge of the products and services offered by theorganization in question. Additionally branding can lift what an organization is selling out of the realm ofa commodity, so that instead of dealing with price-shoppers you have buyers eager to pay more for yourgoods than for those of competitors. The characteristic value intrinsic in a brand can possibly makeindividuals to discharge evidence they would normally use to make buying decisions. 16.0% of the respondents were of the opinion that branding enhances memorability. With theunderstanding that branding help create a distinctive and durable perception in the minds of potentialcustomers, it eventually serves as a tool for building a company reputation as well as good will. It hascome to the knowledge of a number of business entities that very few customers can take their time to gothrough yellow pages thus tit is rational for organizations to develop memorable brands that will capturethe memories of the target consumers (Malhotra, 2010).
Surname 49 It is worth noting that the concept of memorability when the respondents were asked to elaborateon this kind of benefit comes from their association with color combination, unique services, andemployees’ style of clothing. For that reason, Hong Kong supermarket needs to come up with their owndifferentiated characteristics that will leave lasting memories in their minds of customers. Additionally, 12.0%, 9.0%, 8.0% 7.0% and 5.0% of the respondent were of the opinion thatbranding enhances premium prices, greater company equity, and lower risks to consumers, extension andlower marketing expenses respectively. It is held by some respondent that buying goods and servicesfrom a well established brand posses less risk to consumers as compared to products bought from no-name organization. This means that firms that have mastered in developing their brands are building abetter brand thereby flattening their bottom line. On the same note, despite the fact that a firm needs to pump in money for the entire project ofbranding, immediately the brand is successfully developed, advertized and publicized the brand sell itself(Keller, 2004). For example, if the local populations are of the view that a supermarket is adequatelyusing branding in a better way and re associated with it, there are high chances that they will jingle thesame to other potential customers at no extra cost on the side of the firm in question. With regards toextension, a firm that has established and respected brand can use it to its advantage by developing newproducts that meet customers’ needs and desire which ultimately help the firm win the hearts of potentialnew customers. Influence of branding A cross tabulation which is merging of frequency distributions of two or more variables in asingle table was carried out to establish how one variable for instance gender, income relates to anothervariables for instance, influence of branding on where one shops. A cross tabulation reveals that a greaterpercent of males, 39.2% strongly agree that branding influence where they shop as compared to female
Surname 5027.1%. On the same note, 39.6% as compared to 27.5% of males agree that branding do influence wherethey shop. On the basis of the percentages of both males and females responses to each category and bylooking at the clustered bar chart it is apparent that male respondents were more likely to be influenced bybranding when they intend to shop. Nonetheless, the percentage difference is too small that on averageboth genders are influenced by branding. 27.5% of males and 39.2% of female agree that they areinfluenced by branding. Similarly, 39.2% males and 27.1% females strongly agree that branding influencewhere they shop. The finding are in consensus with that of Kapferer, 1997.Table 5 Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. Value df (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 8.770(a) 10 .554 Likelihood Ratio 9.494 10 .486 Linear-by-Linear .007 1 .932 Association N of Valid Cases 100a 12 cells (66.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .01. From chi-square test, the relationship between gender and whether branding influence whererespondent shop is not significant. (t=8.770, df= 10, p=0.554) thus there was no relationship betweengender and influence of branding to where one can shop. However, the Cramer’s V =0.209 indicates thatthere is a weak positive relationship between gender and influence of branding on here individuals shop(Buchholz & Wolfram, 2000). To establish how developed branding is in Hong Kong supermarket, the respondents were askedto rank how developed it was using five -level Likert scale. From analysis of data, it is evident thatmajority of the respondent were of the view that the industry was moderately developed (31.0%), 27.0%
Surname 51said it was developed, 26.0% held the view that it was poorly developed and a mere 16.0% responded thatit was highly developed. As a result of the views brought forth, there is much that needs to be done bysupermarket industries to ensure that they are viewed by majority of both customers and non-customersthat it is developed. In this sense, as suggested by Odin et al. 2004 developed brand industry means beingat par with the expectations and aspiration of consumers. For instance a developed brand poses most ifnot all the attributes of a better brand. how developed is banding in supermarket in Hong Kong 30 20 n u q F y c e r 10 0 highly developed moderately developed poorly developed developed how developed is banding in supermarket in Hong KongFigure 8 How developed is branding
Surname 52Table 6 Are you a female or male * branding o influence where you shop? Cross tabulation Branding influence where you shop? Total strongly disagre undecide strongl disagree e d agree y agree 33.00are you male Counta female 4 5 7 14 20 1 51or male % within are you a 100.0 7.8% 9.8% 13.7% 27.5% 39.2% 2.0% female or % male female Count 1 3 12 19 13 0 48 % within are you a 100.0 2.1% 6.3% 25.0% 39.6% 27.1% .0% female or % male Missing Count 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 % within are you a 100.0 100.0 .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% female or % % maleTotal Count 5 8 19 34 33 1 100 % within are you a 100.0 5.0% 8.0% 19.0% 34.0% 33.0% 1.0% female or % male
Surname 53 Bar Chart branding o influence 20 whereyou shop? strongly ydisagree disagree undecided agree 15 strongly agree 33.00 10 C n u o t 5 0 male female missing are you a female or maleFigure 9 Influence of branding on where respondent shop To establish if Hong Kong supermarket have mastered firmly staying top in providing customerswith goods and services that are quality, consistent branding message and innovation, a five-level Likertscale was used to sought the responses. 34.0% and 32.0% of the respondents disagreed and stronglydisagreed respectively on the questioned asked. 19.0% were undecided, while only 9.0% and 6.0% of therespondents strongly agreed and agreed in that order. This thus means that most shoppers in Hong Kongbelieve that the supermarket industries are have not mastered firmly the concept of providing consumerswith products and services that are quality, consistent branding massages as well as ideas deemed to beinnovative. This might be part of the explanation why the industry is not such a force in retail industrylike in most developed countries (Braun, 2004). After a clear understanding of what branding is, the respondents were asked to state whether theywere satisfied with the kind of branding being exhibited by Hong Kong supermarkets. Majority, 58.0%said that they were not satisfied while 42.0% were of the contrary opinion. To find out whether race
Surname 54influenced such a notion a cross tabulation was carried out. Compared to all the racial groups used in thisstudy, Indian 60.0% were satisfied with the manner with which Supermarkets industry in Hong Kongexhibited the concept of branding while Europeans were the one with the least percentage that believedthe industry was exhibiting branding in the best way that satisfy them (11.1%). Consequently, European88.9%, African 71.4%, Hispanic 66.7%,, others 58.3%, Asian 54.9% and Indian 40.0% were of theopinion that they were not satisfied with the kind of branding exhibited by supermarket industries I HongKong. To test for significance difference between racial groups and satisfaction of respondents withregard to how branding is exhibited, a chi-square was carried put. Data established that there is nosignificance difference between race and how satisfied the respondent were regarding exhibition ofbranding (Χ2= 6.425, df=5, p=0.267). Nonetheless, there is a weak positive association between the twovariables, Cramer’s V=0.253. From the clustered bar graph, it is evident that majority of the responded from various ethnicgroup apart from Indians indicated that they were not satisfied with the manner with which branding wasbeing exhibited in Hong Kong supermarkets. The implication of the result here in is that Hong Kongsupermarket despite being seen by Indian to be satisfactory, other racial group’s views that thesupermarkets are not satisfactorily exhibiting branding needs to be factored in when strategizing for theindustry’s brands. As previously mention, when a brand is viewed by the majority of the customers aswell as non-customers, then the brand is said to have developed and thus meet the aspirations as well asdemands and expectations of the target audience thus working at the advantage of the firm. It was of interest to establish the relationship between age of the respondent and their views onwhether Hong Kong supermarkets exhibition of branding is satisfactory or not. To do this a correlationanalysis was carried out. The results clearly depict that the Pearson correlation r=0.112 which means thatthe association between age and satisfaction is positive but weak; similarly, the association is not
Surname 55significant since p=0.268>0.05. This thus suggests that age does not in any way dictate how satisfied onefeels with regards to the way Hong Kong supermarkets exhibit branding.Table 7 Correlations in your own opinion are you satisfied with the kind of branding exhibited by Hong Kong what is supermarkets your age ? Spearmans rho what is your age Correlation 1.000 .112 Coefficient Sig. (2-tailed) . .268 N 100 100 In your own Correlation .112 1.000 opinion are you Coefficient satisfied with the Sig. (2-tailed) kind of branding .268 . exhibited by Hong N Kong supermarkets? 100 100 Bar Chart in your own opinion 30 are you satisfied with the kind of branding exhibited 25 by hong kong supermarkets? yes no 20 15 C n u o t 10 5 0 european Asian Hispanic Indian African others to which racial group do you belong?Figure 10 Respondent satisfactions on branding exhibition
Surname 56 The relationship between brand strategy and marketing A number of scholars among them Matsuno &Mentzer, 2000 and Smith & Wright, 2004 haveshown that there is a relationship brand strategy and marketing. It is worth to note that brand strategyrefers to long-term marketing support an organization offer to its brand on the basis of how the targetaudience or consumers have been defined. The concept include a clear understanding of an organizationas well as customer preferences, aspiration needs, demands and expectations from the brand. On the otherhand marketing refers to a process by which firms perform market research, sell products or services toconsumers and promoting them through advertisements to further enhance sales. Marketing is the majorstrategy that is fundamental in nurturing sales techniques, how information is shared and development ofthe businesses in various firms. Strictly speaking marketing is employed to clearly identify who the potential customers are, meettheir need in a satisfactory manner as well as keeping them via creating an environment that will fostercustomer loyalty. There is agreement among marketing research scholars that brand strategy is a positivedeterminant of brand performance as well as industry value, for this matter supermarket value. When asked whether the respondent strongly agreed, agreed, undecided, disagreed or stronglydisagreed, with the statement that brand strategy imposes as an ideal tool for the success of supermarketsindustry in Hong Kong, 55.6% of male agreed with the statement as compared to 44.4% of the femalerespondent. 45.2% of males strongly agreed as compared to 51.6% of females. This means that both thegender were of the opinion that brand strategy is an ideal tool for supermarkets to be successful in HongKong. It was also necessary establish whether gender affected such an opinion; which fostered a chi-square analysis to be executed. Χ2=4.461, df=8 p=0.813. This means that there is no significantrelationship between gender and the opinion held concerning brand strategy being an ideal tool forsupermarkets success in Hong Kong. However, there is a positive weak relationship between the two
Surname 57variables (Cramer’s V=0.149) meaning that gender is linked with how individual thinks of brand strategybeing an important tool to enhance success of the industry (Simoes & Dibb, 2001)Table 8 Are you a female or male * please indicate whether you agree with these statements; brandstrategy imposes as an ideal tool for the success of supermarkets industry in Hong Kong Crosstabulation please indicate whether you agree with these statements; brand strategy imposes as an ideal tool for the success of supermarkets industry in Hong Kong Total strongly disagre undecide strongl disagree e d agree y agree are you Male Count a female 3 5 9 20 14 51 or male % within please indicate whether you agree with these statements; brand strategy 33.3% 55.6% 60.0% 55.6% 45.2% 51.0% imposes as an ideal tool for the success of supermarkets industry in Hong Kong Female Count 6 4 6 16 16 48 % within please indicate whether you agree with these statements; brand strategy 66.7% 44.4% 40.0% 44.4% 51.6% 48.0% imposes as an ideal tool for the success of supermarkets industry in Hong Kong Missing Count 0 0 0 0 1 1 % within please .0% .0% .0% .0% 3.2% 1.0% indicate whether you agree with these statements; brand strategy imposes as an ideal tool for the success of supermarkets
Surname 58 industry in Hong Kong Total Count 9 9 15 36 31 100 % within please indicate whether you agree with these statements; brand strategy 100.0 100.0 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% imposes as an ideal % % tool for the success of supermarkets industry in Hong Kong To establish the relationship between brand strategy and brand performance, respondents wereasked if they agreed, strongly agreed, undecided, disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement;brand strategy is a positive determinant of brand performance. With the understanding that those whoshop frequently can be in a better position to respond, I resorted to also establish whether there was anassociation between being a principle shopper for a household and the view held on the statement asked.The finding here in were contrary to what a number of scholars did find out (Jones et al., 2002) as theanalysis showed that a greater percent of those who were principle shoppers were in disagreement withthe statement (72.7% for strongly disagreeing and 80.0% for disagreeing with the statement asked). Onthe other hand, a greater percent of those who were not principle shoppers agreed with the statement(53.1% for agreeing and 38.5% for strongly agreeing). It is worth noting that there is no significant relationship between the two variables; being aprinciple shopper or not and the view with regards to brand strategy being a positive determinant of brandperformance (Χ2=7.247, df=5 p=0.203). Nonetheless, there is a weak positive relationship between thesetwo variables meaning that individual gender may slightly influence the views held (Cramer’s V=0.269)
Surname 59Table 9 Are you the principal shopper in your household? * Please indicate whether you agree withthese statements, brand strategy is a positive determinant of brand performance Cross tabulation please indicate whether you agree with these statements, brand strategy is a positive determinant of brand performance Total strongl y strongl disagr undecid y ee disagree ed agree agree 12.00Are you yes Counttheprincipalshopper in 8 8 9 15 16 0 56yourhousehold? % within please indicate whether you agree with these statements, 46.9 72.7% 80.0% 45.0% 61.5% .0% 56.0% brand % strategy is a positive determinan t of brand performanc e no Count 3 2 11 17 10 1 44 % within please indicate whether you agree with these statements, 53.1 27.3% 20.0% 55.0% 38.5% 100.0% 44.0% brand % strategy is a positive determinan t of brand performanc eTotal Count 11 10 20 32 26 1 100
Surname 60 % within please indicate whether you agree with these statements, 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% brand % % % strategy is a positive determinan t of brand performanc e The relationship between brand management and success Marketing researcher’s for instance Roberts & Downing, 2002 content that there is a relationshipbetween brand management and industry success. Currently, a number of multinational companies suchas coca cola, fastest growing companies for instance Research In Motion among other have used brandmanagement as a competitive advantage in this world of fierce competition (Docters, 2004). By definition brand management refers to a process of sustaining, civilizing, and keeping a brandso that the name is linked with desirable positive outcomes. This process entails several significantaspects for instance competition, cost, in-store presentation and customer satisfaction (Mooij 1998). Aspreviously mention, creating customer loyalty is one way of ensuring that a firm not only attracts newcustomers but also keep them as well as the existing ones. It is no doubt that all companies do haveidentity and there are issues it must tackle in order to remain competitive (Temporal, 2000). Brandstrategy aims at increasing the appeal and attraction of the firm in the eyes of the customers. There is alsoa relationship between brand strategy and brand management and the two opt to be used in a manner thatthey complement one another and thus need to be ultimately integrated to enhance the industry success(Aaker, 1996). A cross tabulation analysis was carried out to establish how those who were aware or not ofbranding in Hong Kong thought of the idea of brand management as being a determinant of supermarket
Surname 61success. The finding clearly depicted that a higher percentage of those who were aware of brandingactivities in the country were in disagreement with the statement; brand management is a determinant ofindustry’s success (57.8% for strongly disagreeing and 84.6% for disagreeing). On the other hand, ahigher percentage of those not aware of branding in Hong Kong were in agreement with the samestatement (56.3% agreeing and 38.7% strongly agreeing). The clustered bar graph gives a clearillustration. Bar Chart 20 do you agree with the statement that brand managment is positive determinant of industry 15 performance strongly disagree disagree undeided agree 10 C n u o strongly agree t 13.00 22.00 5 0 yes no 99.00 are you aware of branding in Hong Kong supermarketsFigure 11 Branding awareness It was of interest to also know whether, customers in Hong Kong could continue shopping wherethey used to base on how the supermarket utilizes and address issues relating to branding. A descriptivestatistic was run to give an over view. The result shows that only 47.0% were of the view that they would
Surname 62continue shopping where they used to. On the other hand, 53.0% of the respondent clearly depicted thatthey would not continue shopping where they used to initially shop. The research was limited inestablishing the underlying factors behind the decision arrived at by the respondents. However, thereasons are open to discussion based on what has been established herein (Aconis et al. 2006). This is inline with the desires of a majority of the respondent who were of the view that Hong Kong supermarketneed to change their branding strategies, 34.0% and 40.0% of the respondents agreed and strongly agreedwith the statement that Hong Kong supermarkets needs to change their branding strategies as compared to8.0% and 5.0% of those who strongly disagreed and disagreed with the statement. A higher percentage of those who were aware of branding activities in the country were indisagreement with the statement; brand management is a determinant of industry’s success (57.8% forstrongly disagreeing and 84.6% for disagreeing).
Surname 63 Conclusion and recommendation The relationships between branding strategy, brand management and company success,performance and supermarket value were closely examined. Survey questionnaires were distributed to120 individual of whom only 100 filled the survey and made available for inferences to be made. Maleswere 51 (51.0%) while females were 48 (48.0%). 60.0% of the responded were aware of branding while39.0% were. It is worth to note that friends, relatives and media are what made individual be aware ofbanding. Out of 100 respondents, 56 (56.0%) were principle shoppers in their households while 44(44.0%) were not principal shoppers in their households. Shoppers in Hong Kong believe that a good brand should be eye catching 23.2%, creating apositive change 15.2%, unique and differentiated 13.1%, cost effective and bringing added value 9.1%each, build customer loyalty and household name 6.1% each, brings sense of security and creatingidentity were thought to be attributes of a good brand by 5.1% of the respondents. Being easy to read wasthought to be an attribute of a good brand by 8.1% of the sample population. Customers believed thatbranding brings with it numerous advantages such as memorability, enhances premium prices, greatercompany equity, and lower risks to consumers, extension and lower marketing expenses, loyalty,extension among others. It was evident that branding does influence where customers shop (Tellis &Golder, 2002). It is apparent that majority of the respondent were of the view that the industry was moderatelydeveloped (31.0%), 27.0% said it was developed, 26.0% held the view that it was poorly developed and amere 16.0% responded that it was highly developed. With regards to being satisfied with the kind ofbranding exhibited by Hong Kong supermarkets; most of the respondent 58.0% were not satisfied while42.0% were of the contrary opinion. There was no significant difference between a number of variablessuch as gender, being a principle shopper and such variables as brand strategy being a positive
Surname 64determinant of brand performance, brand strategy being an ideal tool for supermarkets success in HongKong. Pearson correlation (age and satisfaction of how branding is exhibited) r=0.112 means that theassociation between age and satisfaction is positive but weak; similarly, the association is not significantsince p=0.268>0.05. This thus suggests that age does not in any way dictate how satisfied one feels withregards to the way Hong Kong supermarkets exhibit branding. This is contrary to existing literature(Franzen & Moriarty, 2009). Both the genders were of the opinion that brand strategy is an ideal tool forsupermarkets to be successful in Hong Kong; the notion being in line with other previous literature.Majority of the responded said they would not continue shopping where they used to. Recommendation 1. A further research needs to be carried out to establish the exact reason underlying the notion that majority of the respondent will not continue shopping where they used to. 2. Hong Kong supermarkets need to blend and balance the attributes deemed by customers to be determinant of a good brand. 3. Since branding influence where customers shop, there is need for Hong Kong supermarket industries to balance between brand strategy and brand management.
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