1. 1Name:University:Course:Tutor:Date: Role of NATO post-Cold War. Introduction Cold war is a conflict that existed between the communist nations (Russia, china andNorth Korea) basically led by the Soviet Union and the western democratic nations that were ledby the United States. Cold presumably begun as early as in 1947 when president of United SatesTruman decaled an anti-communist policy leading to the onset of a cold with between SovietUnion and United States. Cold war is fought in all places using all means available like usingeconomic war, propaganda, occasional military clashes and diplomatic haggling. In addition tothat fighting of cold war is done in all places i.e. in newly independent nations in Asia, Africa, inneutral states and even in outer space (Paquette, 2001). Cold War Cold war was caused by the intensification of deep rooted ideological, political andeconomic differences that existed between the society union and United States before the SecondWorld War. Such intensification is often attributed to increasing mutual suspicion especiallyafter the Second World War. Some of these undying ideological causes include the fact that thetwo countries has opposing systems of government where United states government involveselection of government by free elections with its people being free to form political parties to useto voice their opinions with rights to assembly, of speech as well as of the press whereas the
2. 2government system of the soviet union was formed by communist party where people don’t haveany right to form political parties and that they do not enjoy rights to assembly, of speech andpress thus the two systems of government were in no way possible able to compromise betweeneach other (Rozoff, 2010). The underlying economic issues between the opposing countries is that united statespreferred a free trade through out the world but soviet union wanted to guard her sphere fromwhat it believed to be increased exposure to international commerce would influence thecounty’s system of government thus eroding the totalitarian regime hence the much ill fellingbetween the countries. In addition to that the underlying political cause of cold war is the powerrivalry especially after the Second World War which led to decline of the Europe facilitating thetwo countries to share the power which each party wanted to dominate thus the inevitableconflicts. Immediate case of cold war started at peace time conferences and intensified after theUnited States president declared the Truman doctrine and launched the Marshal plan of 1947.Prior to the end of world war Russia gradually extended it’s influence to eastern Europeincluding Poland and eastern Germany and by the end of war Soviet Union had consolidated hercontrol in the region and started influencing post war elections through intimidation of votersleading to formation of coalition governments mostly consisting of communists. Initially United States was optimistic that the there could be cooperation with SovietUnion but from 1945 onwards that perception changed as the united sates government startedfavoring a policy of strong resistance against Russian and its communist policy and this wastriggered when the president Roosevelt died in 1945 and succeeded by Truman a man whoadvocated for a strong resistance against the Russian expansion because he believed that Russia
3. 3will extend its influence to western Europe and that it was not going to form democraticgovernments in areas under its influence. Finally Truman was disgusted at the way Russia wasnot cooperative especially at Potsdam conference regarding the way Germany was supportingGreece and Italy and hence blocked Truman’s internalization bid for principal waterways. Such circumstances deteriorated relations between the Soviet union and united states andland lease was abruptly interrupted but united states also ignored the Russian request foreconomic aid intended for post wars reconstruction and the increasing conflict between the eastand west countries was evident in 1946 Churchill’s ‘iron wall’ speech when he said that ‘"FromStettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.... Behind that line lie all the capitals of the central and eastern Europe - all are subject in oneform or another not only to Soviet influence but also to a very high and increasing control fromMoscow." The speech highlighted the increasing suspicion of soviets aggressive design inEastern Europe and the continuing conflict between the western democratic and the easterncommunist countries (Schultz, 2010). In 1947 president Truman enunciated the Truman doctrine which its essence was that theUnited sates was to support free people wiling to resist attempted subjugation by outside pressureor armed minorities which was an anticommunist doctrine. The enunciation amounted toAmerica declaring war against communistic Russia consequently followed by massive militaryand economic assistance to both Greece and turkey where the influence by communism washigh. Another offer by United States to aid was financial aid to European countries for supportand reconstruction after the war an offer which Russia declined. The applicants for Marshal Aidwas required to disclose its economic records to the American government an action whichRussia saw as an interference of internal affairs of other states and that could expose Russia to
4. 4American influence. By 1949 Russia forbade its satellite countries from accepting the Marshallaid and offered a counter –Marshall Plan which offered financial aid to her satellites underMolotov plan. Proclamation of the Truman doctrine and launching of Marshall Plan meant thatUnited States was an official leader of western countries against the Russian communistexpansions in Europe and that signaled the beginning of cold war. The cold war resulted toseveral events like the return of parliamentary democracy in the west, the increased sovietcontrol of Western Europe, and Berlin crisis which was considered as the climax of conflict thatexisted between the east and west Europe (Kaplan, 1999). The Berlin crisis led to Western Europe to face with humanitarian problems which sawthe western countries unite and airlift supplies to the starving East Germany civilians and thatshowed a combined effort and greater determination to resist the Russian communism fromspreading further. In the mean time the United states formed what was anticommunist militaryalliance with the allied western nations forming the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)in 1949 which made Stalin to admit that he couldn’t force a withdrawal of western nations thusforced to admit to defeat and lifted the Berlin blockade. The alliance involved twelve nationswhich believed that the Russian communism with its anti-democratic ideologies threatened thedemocratic and thus stated that an attack on the alliance meant an attack on the entire alliancewhich was to be responded with anything possible including armed retaliation. Such alliance wasto offer security for the other Atlantic states and was to be valid for twenty years. The alliancepulled western countries into American leadership and its head quarters was known as SupremeHeadquarters of Allied Powers in Europe (SHAPE) and was based in Paris. Another importantorganization of NATO was permanent Council established in 1952 (Kaplan, (2004).
5. 5 North Atlantic treaty Organization was essentially a defensive organization to prevent thespread of communist aggression as well as a successful strategy directed towards European andtransatlantic cooperation. Formation of NATO led to lifting of the Berlin blockade by SovietUnion resulting to halted advancement of the communism in Europe. The formation of thealliance led to many other efforts in cooperation amongst the western European countries. Thepermanent council of the organization was composed of representatives from all member statesand it was the decision making organ which was done unanimously on agreement. The councilwas tasked with many functions including military, cultural and economic cooperation amongthe member states. To promote its efficiency several committees such as the economic andfinancial committee as well as the defense and military committees and planning boards were setup. The most important role of the council was that of military affairs consisting of the chief ofstaff from France, Britain and the United States. Occurrence of the Korean War promotedwestern power to anxiety to strengthening own defenses through an alliance and unity resultingto an attempt by western nations to form integrated forces in Europe. Formation of NATO meant that United states was therefore committed to a militaryalliance in peace time and that was the first incidence in her enter history thus from the formationof the alliance in 1949 ,United states for the following twenty year could witness a largenumber of American troops being stationed in western Europe and that her allies would at anypoint time call for assistance from the American military and such commitment marked an end tothe isolationistic policy which united sates had always upheld. In addition to that effect formation of NATO alliance resulted to formation of WarsawPact by Russia incorporating its communist allies or satellites. After the confrontation at theBerlin wall in 1948-49 coupled with the formation of NATO signaled that cold war was to
6. 6continue and Russia therefore following the successful communist victory in Indo-China formedthe War saw Pact with its satellites and the Pact spoke of defense and peaceful intentionsprecluding its members to participate in any other alliance or coalition but assured them ofimmediate assistance that included armed force incase of an event of armed aggression againstthem is done. The alliance therefore provided military assistance with Russian supremecommander appointed as a leader of the combined forces of its member states. Further more apolitical understanding of its members was fostered by the formation of the consultativecommittee. The war saw pact served to allow Russia to station its troops in parts of easternEuropean countries meaning that an attack on Western Europe was imminent at any moment thuswas able to suppress signs of rebellion in her satellite countries. Another significant role of thePact was that it prompted the two conflicting super powers to organize their satellites intoalliances that opposed each other leading to a continued political tension between the west andeast countries. Since its establishment NATO’s fundamental roles bestowed upon the allied forces wasto guarantee security as well as territorial integrity of its member states and this was attainedthrough deterrence and collective defense. That role still remain fundamental but resulting froman end to the cold war between United states and Russia due to the fall of Berlin wall in 1989and the dissolution of soviet union on 1991, the roles and the organization of NATO’s force havegone through some major changes that has made it adapt to evolving security environmentswhile at same time promoting military cooperation in the partner countries. Euro-Atlanticsecurity has since then become complex coupled with emerging challenges especially from statesthat are outside Europe and such countries include failed states which has led to proliferation ofweapons of mass destruction including its delivery and spread of terrorism. This changing
7. 7security environment and changing roles by NATO is evident in 1990’s when ethnic conflicterupted in Balkans leading to deployment of NATO forces to play peace support and crisismanagement roles in the affected region. More recently NATO forces have been contributing to the defense against acts ofterrorism and wider participation in the peace support missions which takes NATO beyond theEuro-Atlantic area an act never done in the past. This is clear considering the aftermath ofSeptember 2001 terrorist attacks on United States an act that has led to subsequent operations inAfghanistan as a means of rooting out of Al-Qaeda a terror group responsible for the attacks.Such security threats has growth concerns regarding threats from terrorism ,failed states as wellas the continued spread of weapons of mass destruction. NATO’s role in crisis management is and peace support increased in mid 1990’s when itsforces were called upon and became involved in the Bosnian war which took place between 1992and 1995. NATO’s forces supported the United Nations by helping in monitoring andenforcement of the United Nations sanctions in the Adriatic together with the no –fly zone overthe sate of Bosnia and Herzegovina thus providing close air support to the ISAF Protectionforces stationed on the ground. NATO’s forces played an important role when they launched airstrikes in1995 to lift the siege over Sarajevo thus helping to shift the balance of powers securingpeaceful agreements ending the war. Consequently NATO forces has subsequently deployed aUnited Nations mandated, multination force responsible for implementing the military aspects ofpeace agreement which was done in 1995 (Powaski,1994). Another role that NATO ha played post the cold war era is the roles of crisis managementconducted in the spring of 1999 when the allies launched air operation against the regime inYugoslav forcing it to complying with the international demands to ending the ethnic and
8. 8political repression in the province of Kosovo. Large number of NATO-led multination forceswas then sent to help in restoration of stability. In 2001, in cooperation with new democraticgovernment of Yugoslav NATO allied forces engaged in crisis prevention roles in southernSerbia consisting of a large population of Albanian ethic population. Moreover towards the endof same year NATO was also involved in collaboration with the European Union in somepreventive diplomacy that were significant in preventing an outbreak of a civil war in republic ofMacedonia a former state of Yugoslav through negotiations on peace plan which was coupledwith a peaceful disarming of the rebels and provision of security for the international observesefforts that consequently restoring stability to the troubled state (Beer, 1969). Following the end of the cold war era NATO forces got involved in the Balkanoperations which gave them a lot of experience allowing them to building a great deal ofessential techniques regarding peace support and management of crises operations. This hasmade NATO force to be an invaluable asset when it concerns today’s security environment andafter the September 11 attacks the allied forces has played an increasing roles in contributing tothe building of security in zones marred with instability and are found beyond its traditionaleuro-Atlantic area. NATO allied forces has played a vital role in Afghanistan where the alliance in 2003agreed to take the command of the International security assistance force(ISAF) to try and helpthe failed sates often plagued by both civil war and as a haven for terrorist groups. NATO priorto the take over had played significant roles in planning in support of sate allies which previouslytook leading roles in ISAF and therefore enhanced NATO to continue to be dynamic ensuring acontinuous operations while not having to find new nations after every six months to beresponsible in leading the mission. therefore NATO personnel operates under the banner of
9. 9ISAF as they continue to work with in the United nations mandate which underwent someexpansion to allow operations to be conducted even in areas beyond Kabul (Sandler, & Hartley,1999). The engagement of NATO allied forces in Afghanistan was the first ever allied missionthat was beyond the Euro-Atlantic area and this therefore reflected the decision taken by theallied foreign minister in 2002 in Reykjavik seminar where it was decide upon that NATOshould be able to field forces able to move quickly to areas they are needed with sustainedoperations over distance and time. Following the Unite states led intervention to ousting SaddamHussein’s regime NATO supported the polish-led multinational division based in central Iraq inforce generation, communications, logistics and intelligence and the organization is evenprepared to offering similar support to allies that request and this implies the changing roles thatNATO allied forces are playing after the cold war era. Finally, after the September 11 security environment has seen use of sea power to curbthe merging threats and since the year 2001 NATO ships under the operation Active Endeavour,have been engaged in the patrolling of eastern Mediterranean particularly focusing in monitoringof shipping to help in detecting and deterrence of terrorist’s activities. Their roles have even beenextended to include escorts of nonmilitary shipping upon request. In addition to that the forcesare also tasked to boarding suspect ships. A part from helping deter terrorism NATO navaloperations has improved levels of security and stability in the Mediterranean region thusbenefiting both to trade as well as economic activities (Stephen, & Brinkley, 1997). Conclusion NATO was initially formed to help the western countries to prevent the spread ofcommunistic influence of the soviet union and succeed in doing so but after the end of the cold
10. 10war era the organization has undergone dynamic and complex challenges that has seen it takeother more current engagement in issues of security that has made its operations extend beyondthe Euro-Atlantic region. The organization has involved itself more with crisis management andpeace support roles in failed states, participated in deterrence of spread of weapons of massdestruction, and more over in countering the acts of terrorism which threatens the currentsecurity of the world. Therefore the roles played by NATO have been made global.
11. 11 List of ReferencesBeer, F. A. (1969). Integration and Disintegration in NATO: Processes of Alliance Cohesion and Prospects for Atlantic Community. Columbus: Ohio State University PressKaplan, L. S. (2004). NATO Divided, NATO United: The Evolution of an Alliance. New Delhi: PraegerKaplan, L. S. (1999).The Long Entanglement: NATOs First Fifty Years. New Delhi: PraegerMatthias, S. (9, April 2010). New Research Sheds Light on Soviet Plans for World War III. New York: Spiegel OnlinePaquette, L. (2001). NATO and Eastern Europe after 2000. New York: Nova SciencePowaski, R. E. (1994). The Entangling Alliance: The United States and European Security, 1950–1993. California: Greenwood Publishing GroupRick, R. (11 February, 2010). NATO’s Role in the Military Encirclement of Iran. Global ResearchRick R. (16, March, 16, 2010). US-NATO Strategic Concept: Global Warfare. Global ResearchSandler, T. & Hartley, K. (1999). The Political Economy of NATO: Past, Present, and into the 21st Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressStephen E. A. & Douglas G. B. (1997). Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy Since. New Delhi: Penguin Books