Apa style dissertation why does effective leadership make a difference in high poverty schools

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Apa style dissertation why does effective leadership make a difference in high poverty schools

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Apa style dissertation why does effective leadership make a difference in high poverty schools

  1. 1. WHY DOES EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN <br />HIGH POVERTY SCHOOLS<br />By<br />2011<br />Doctoral Study Submitted in Partial Fulfillment<br />of the Requirements for the Degree of<br />Doctor of Business Administration<br />Why Does Effective Leadership Make A Difference In High Poverty Schools<br />Section One<br />Background<br />It is evident based on various scholarly articles (Witziers, 2003; Edmonds, 1979; Riley, 1998; and Jacobson, 2005), that high poverty school has struggled very much in their quest to survive and provide students with the necessary education. Apparently, there are a number of these schools that have rose to the occasion and performed extremely well in terms of academics. According to Taylor, 2006 there are tiny schools located in the midst of communities being extremely poor but do provide very high quality of education. For this reason, Leithwood, 2004; Symonds, 2003 and Jacobson, 2007 have shown that poverty despite a stumbling block can be overcome hence providing an example that can be emulated by the sister schools.<br />It is worth noting that high poverty schools are characterized by negative attributes such as lack of enough food, drug abuse, high rates of unemployment, high rates of other crimes, lack of enough facilities among other. Despite all these obstacles such schools are capable of producing individuals who fit in this competitive world; this thus lays the basis this research study (Caldwell, 1998). <br />There are a number of student challenges that need to be addressed in these kinds of schools such as: poor nutrition, inadequate health services, high rates of illiteracy, and criminal activities that include drug and substance abuse. Teachers also deal with high rates of student transience, absence, and indiscipline. This greatly hinders productivity in teaching. Nevertheless, legislative mandates in the United States. hold schools directly accountable for student performance, even in the face of such daunting challenges. The 2002 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) federal legislation in the UnitedStates is one of these legislative mandate. . While]NCLB has been the target of withering criticism that has attacked, among other things, the high stakes standardized testing regimes used to evaluate annual student progress as well as the lack of sufficient funding necessary to provide teachers with ongoing professional development, the fundamental underpinnings of the legislation, that is, to make sure that every American child, regardless of race, gender, ethnicity or wealth, be given the chance to succeed, was supported by both sides of the political aisle (Rosenholtz, 1985). Rebell and Wolffe, 2008 p. 321 pointed out:<br />[The cruel irony of the American education system is that low-income and minority children who come to school with the greatest educational deficits generally have the fewest resources and least expertise devoted to their needs - and therefore the least opportunity to improve their futures] (Rebell and Wolffe, 2008 p. 321) <br />It has been thought and argued that what makes a difference in whatever kind of school and especially, those characterized by high level of poverty in achieving excellent academic results is the style of leadership. This paper thus sought to establish how effective leadership impacts on all spheres of academic excellence of high poverty schools in the United States of America (Conley, 2001). <br />Most of the school principals especially,in urban areas find themselves working with students who come from families living in poverty. This is also a scenario in rural schools. It has been noted with concern that the gap between students from a poor school and those in low poverty school was high more so in terms of academic performance and academic excellence. The federal No Child Left Behind Act heighten the scenario as more children from poor background were provided with education (Rebell and Wolffe, 2008). <br />Althoughsuccess of any school usually depends on a number of factors for instance availability of resources, conducive learning environment, scholars have unanimously agreed that the style of leadership is significant in making sure that despite thatresources are scarce, they are used in the most appropriate manner, a learning environment for the student is created as well as an environment that stimulates teachers to impart knowledge to students Klug, 1989).. <br />A study by Elwood (1989) reveals shocking results concerning economic position of children and he found that, the situation of students not achieving academically worsened overtime. Slightly above 25% of White studentslived in poverty up from 10.5 and for Black children the rate stood at 42%.<br />On the same note there is clearly evidence that according to U.S. Department of Education,2006that poverty influences scores of students and those who are at high poverty schools are more likely to perform poorly compared to their counterparts. These student score less marks on standard test and have lower grade point averages (GPA) as compared to their counterparts in low poverty schools. There was a sharp fall in terms of academic performance with an increased level of poverty.<br />Despite all these negative attributes and a number of challenges facing school principals, while trying to run the day to day activities of their schools, there are several notable high poverty schools that have performed exceptionally well. This isattributed to the styles of leadership exhibited by their leaders, the principals that are student centered aimed at improving academic performance (Gold, 2003). <br />Problem Statement<br />According to Hogan andCraig, 2008, leadership refers to a process whereby an individual can influence thoughts, ideas and actions of others in achieving a set of preset goals, tasks, duties, and responsibilities. Time and again institutions of learning have had numerous kinds of personalities running the day to day activities of high poverty schools. Despite all the efforts by the government in fostering enhanced and improved performance of high poverty schools, it is apparent that much still needs to be done. For that matterthere is growing evidence that effective leadership of principals comes second to quality teaching in influencing in student learning (Witziers, 2003).<br />Studies have clearly depicted clear differences and wide gaps between the highest and lowest performing schools. The characteristics of these schools are high rates of poverty and low poverty in that order. All resources that are required in high poverty schools are provided, effective leadership from principals can close achievement gaps (Hackman & Wageman, 2007).<br />It has been argued that high poverty schools need the kind of leaders whoare in a position to successfully tackle issues relating to poverty attributed to lower performance. Additionally, such individuals need to evaluate their own values and commitment in trying to provide student with a learning environment that surpass difficult family circumstances. According to Sinclair, 2007 50% of high poverty schools are faced with poor performance, higher dropout rates as compared to their counterparts, however, having in place effective leaders provide such schools with an opportunity to improve their performance. <br />Purpose Statement<br />Phenomenological qualitative study will be to determine the relationship between effective leadership and the lack of academic performance in high poverty schools. For the study, the researcher’s main goal is to examine the distinct differences made by a leadership style deemed effective. Similarly, the attributes possessed by these leaders who exhibit effective kinds of leadership are of interest to the researcher. Additionally, this research is carried out tofill the gap in knowledge regarding how effective leadership enhances performance of high poverty schools in the school district that will be surveyed.<br />Similarly, a case study will be used which will help in contextualizing the research by immersing the researcher into comparing leadership styles of fifteen principals within twenty Title I schools from which data will be collected. To adequately address why effective leadership of principals make a difference in high poverty schools, data collection will include the use of questionnaires, observation as well as interviews. These methods have advantages as well as disadvantages. Using multiple data collection tools is an advantage. The target population is school principals of high poverty elementary schools in Orange County Public School district in Orlando Florida. These principals are in a better position to provide necessary and relevant information concerning effective leadership in high poverty elementary schools, school principals.<br />Sample selection will be purposive and the criteria for selection include that the selected schools are high poverty elementary schools that are well known to have achieved in terms of academic excellence and that the principle has served the school for a period of two years. The latter is important because it will provide enough time for the researcher to establish whether there has been change in style of leadership and how it enhanced performance in these schools.<br />School leaders who take their instructional role seriously are concerned with promoting and developing their schools as learning systems or professional learning communities. In doing so, such leaders exemplify the qualities of good learners through undertaking continue professional development, and encouraging and enabling others to do the same (Hopkins & Reynolds, 2001).<br />The study targets twenty high poverty elementary schools in Orange County Public School district. These are targeted to provide necessary information for inferences and conclusion to be made includes twenty principals and three area superintendents of three learning communities selected schools. The findings in this study will help these selected high poverty elementary schools and neighboring Title I schools within Florida to know the kid of leadership style they exhibit and whether they are working for the benefit of the school..<br />Nature of the Study<br />The type of research method that will be used in this research is a qualitative research. This qualitative phenomenological design approach seeks to contextualize the research by immersing the researcher into the study scenario as well as with the study subjects and establish findings from the natural setting. According to Denzin and Lincoln, 1994, qualitative research is a multi-method approach that entails interpretive, naturalistic approach to the main subject matter. This implies that those carrying out qualitative studies unveil attributes under study in their natural settings, trying to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. Case study, personal experience, introspective, life story interview, observational, historical, interactional, and visual texts-that describe routine and problematic moments and meaning in individuals' lives are the life line of this approach (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). <br />Qualitative method was chosen over quantitative and mixed of methods because it has the potential of giving the researcher an opportunity to fully describe the issues of leadership from those that will be interviewed express and in naturalistic manner. It also gives the researcher a chance to actively take part in data collection as compared to quantitative approach. A close examination reveals that leadership phenomenon cannot be fully described, interpreted quantitatively and the only option that can do this best is a qualitative research method (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). <br />Research Questions<br />What are the various attributes of an effective principal in high poverty elementary schools? <br />What are the differences in leadership styles practiced by effective principals in high poverty elementary schools? <br />What are the challenges facing principals of high poverty schools in their desire to lead others in the most effective, efficient and successful way in high poverty elementary schools?<br />Which kind of leadership is most exhibited by principals in high poverty elementary schools?<br />What is the relationship between effective leadership and academic performance in high poverty elementary schools? <br />Conceptual Framework<br />There was interest in educational leadership in the early part of the 21st century. This is because of the widespread belief that the quality of leadership makes a significant difference to school and student outcomes. In many high poverty schools there is recognition that schools require effective leaders and managers if they are to provide the best possible education for their learners. As the global economy gathers pace, more governments are realizing that their main assets are their people and that remaining, or becoming, competitive depends increasingly on the development of a highly skilled workforce. This requires trained and committed teachers but they in turn need the leadership of highly effective principals and the support of other senior superintendents (Bush, 2007).Transformational leadership is a kind of leadership style in which the one at the helm engenders change in individual employees as well as the social system. Such leaders usually identifies the kind of change necessary within an organization, he/she then come up with a vision that will help give direction via inspiring the entire team, the change is then implemented with the commitment of all the members of the team (Bass, 1998).<br />This style of leadership (transformational) stems from neocharismatic leadership theories, leaders are capable of leading organizations to attain outstanding accomplishments despite stiff competitions, founding and growing very successful firms, the leaders are capable of amassing extraordinary respect, loyalty, dedication, excellent performance, motivation, admiration, commitment and huge followers, leaders in this group also stress symbolic and emotionally appeal leadership behavior for instance visionary, empowering, role modeling, risk taking, offer support, adaptive, image building, intellectual stimulation, leaders also identify themselves with organization’s vision values (House & Aditya, 1997). <br />According to Kouzes and Posner, 1999 transformational leaders usually challenge the process and are ready to take risks, they inspire a shared vision by envisioning a formulated vision and encourage and enlist the group members in pursuing that future, enable other team members to act via encouraging collaboration, empowering and strengthening them, they model the way by consistently practicing their own values and setting examples to the followers and they also encourage the hearth by giving positive feedback, recognize individual contribution and celebrate group accomplishment.<br />From Maxwell (1998) point of view, his 21 irrefutable law of leadership which he deemed inevitable cannot be disapproved as a vital tool for successful leadership in the 21st century are exhibited in almost total by transformational leaders. These law include in part; law of the lid, law of influence, law of process, law of navigation, law of legacy and transformation, law of sacrifice, law of priority, law of E.F Hutton, law of empowerment, law of big Mo, law of Buy In and law of connection.<br />The field of educational leadership and management is pluralist, with many competing perspectives and an inevitable lack of agreement on the exact nature of the discipline. One key debate has been whether educational leadership is a distinct field or simply a branch of the wider study of management particularly for high poverty schools. Al;though education can learn from other settings, educational leadership and management has to be centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education. These purposes or goals provide the crucial sense of direction to underpin school management. Unless this link between purpose and management is clear and close,, there is a danger of ‘managerialism’, “a stress on procedures at the expense of educational purpose and values” (Bush, 1999, p. 153) <br />The process of deciding on the aims of the organization is at the heart of educational management. In most schools, aims are decided by the principal, often working in association with the senior management team and perhaps also with the school governing body. However, school aims are strongly influenced by pressures from the external environment, and particularly from the expectations of government, often expressed through legislation or formal policy statements. Schools particularly high poverty schools may be left with the residual task of interpreting external imperatives rather than determining aims on the basis of their own assessment of learner needs. The key issue here is the extent to which school principals can modify government policy and develop alternative approaches based on school level values and vision. Do they have to follow the script, or can they ad lib? (Bush, 2003) <br />Definition of Terms<br />Effective leadership: this has been defined as the way of showing others the way forward by influencing their actions, beliefs and feelings by employing the most appropriate style at their disposal in light of the situation at hand (Harris, 2002).<br />High poverty school: These are schools that have the 90/90/90 characteristics. <br />Leaders: Are individuals capable of thinking and creatively act in a myriad of situation to influence the feelings, actions as well as beliefs of their followers/subordinates (Edmonds, 1979). <br />Leadership: Refer to a process whereby an individual can influence thoughts, ideas and actions of others in achieving a set of preset goals, tasks, duties and responsibilities.<br />Principal: The one in the realm of leadership in schools who ran day to day activities of a school, he/she offers vision, nurture students learning environment as well as conducive environment for the teaching staffs (Creemers, 2007)<br />Poverty: Have been though to refer to a situation whereby there is the lack of basic human needs, for instance food, clean water, health care, education, clothing and shelter because of incapacity to afford them. <br />Qualitative research: A research design that seek contextualize a study by immersing the investigator into the research situation and with the research subjects in which hypotheses are developed and data are collected and results tend to be subjective.<br />Assumptions, Limitations and Delimitations<br />In every study, there are a number of assumptions made. In the case of this doctoral study, the following assumptions held;<br /> The response will be 100% since am only dealing with twenty principles. Effective leadership brings positive differences in poverty schools.<br />The target sample will be a representation of leadership in high poverty elementary schools in Orange County Public Schools district<br />All survey questions will be answered<br />The responses will correctly reflect why effective leadership makes a difference in high poverty elementary schools <br />Effective leadership is practiced by all high poverty elementary schools<br />The study will be completed within the stipulated time frame<br />Limitation of the study<br /> This researcher anticipates the following limitations; Effective leadership is a function of a myriad factors and factoring in all of them proved to be a challenge<br />There may be incidents were legal restriction may play a part in restricting those interviewed to submit some vital information<br />There may be incidences were some questionnaires are not completely filled while other may not be returned<br />Due to financial constrain, coupled with limited time, all aspects that could contribute to effective leadership in poverty schools may not be adequately addressed<br />Because both survey questions and interviews are dependent on upon the willingness of the anticipated and targeted respondents, possibility of biasness may come into play<br />Since the nature of the study is to collect data through interviews, biasness may a rise as no single principal can admit to not being effective in one way or another. <br />Delimitations<br />The delimitations of the study is to establish a number of attributes such as what leadership traits constitute an effective leader, the challenges these leaders face in their day to day activities, the differences in terms of academic performances of the effective leader brings, establishing the relationship between effective leadership and academic performance in high poverty schools and finally what needs to be done in enhancing or stimulating others to be effective leaders especially, in high poverty schools (Marzano, 2005). <br />Significance of the Study<br />Reduction of Gaps<br />The research is of great importance as it will evaluate why effective leadership makes a difference in high poverty schools, as well as other issues relating to leadership in high poverty elementary schools. The findings will be of importance to various stakeholders such as the schools, Non-governmental Organization, teachers, principals, other scholars that intend to carry out such related studies, the governments as well as varied academic institutions. The study will bring to light a number of reasons schools need to adopt effective kinds of leadership in running day to day activities of schools especially, from high poverty ones so that students come out successful just like their counter parts that are in non-Title I schools. Disparities in academic performance and standardized test will be reduced and students of Title I schools will perform at higher levels, and their grade point averages will be higher because of effective leadership in their individual schools. <br />Implications for Social Change<br />The findings herein will help those high poverty schools adopt leadership attributes if those in the frontline running the organization do not posses such attributes. It is worth noting that if this is done in a rational manner, then level of education, performance among other things will tremendously improve for the better in such schools. This is very important in determining the future of our children who seek quality education, thus producing academically successful students with great hope for future success as adults and productive citizens to our society. <br />A Review of the Professional and Academic Literature<br />Why Does Effective Leadership Make a Difference in High Poverty Schools?<br />The concept of leadership has been with mankind since his existence and it has been improved over time. Leadership is what shape how successful or not a society is in this case high poverty schools. Leadership refer to a process whereby an individual has the ability to influence thoughts, ideas and actions of others in achieving a set of preset goals, tasks, duties and responsibilities (Hogan & Craig, 2008). To have successful and highly motivated human product, how their thoughts are influenced is of significance importance.<br /> This not being enough, effective leadership which generally refers to the way of showing others the way forward by influencing their actions, beliefs and feelings by employing the most appropriate style at their disposal in light of the situation at hand is the major contributory factor especially in high-poverty schools. 90/90/9 schools which are generally high-poverty school and defined by Reeves 2003 as schools constituted of slightly above 90% of student being eligible to be provided with free and reduced lunch 90% and above of the students come from members of ethnic minority and lastly over 90% of the students in these schools do meet the district and or state academic standards as concerns learning and other areas that pertains education. Such schools are characterized by poverty which has been thought to refer to a situation whereby there is the lack of basic human needs, for instance food, clean water, health care, education, clothing and shelter due to incapacity to afford them (Jacobson, 2005). These attributes jeopardized learning of students. <br />It is leadership that articulates vision of the organization and later provides strategic direction for attainment of the objectives and goals in line with the mission and vision of the organization. Leadership is responsible in imbuing commitment to those values shared within any organization as well as creation of an environment for teamwork, provision of meaning, sustaining high productivity and morale in place of schools, transforming, sustaining and transmitting culture of an organization as well as motivating staff and students and raising commitment to high quality production. In addition, it is leadership that is responsible for shaping organizational strategic readiness, creating a safer and conducive working environment for all employees.<br />A growing body of research has successfully illustrated the need for strong leadership in enhancing student achievement (Fullan, 2001; Marzano, Waters & McNulty, 2005, Hallinger and Heck, 1996) reported that school leaders account for almost 5% of the variation in test scores, or roughly 25% of all in-school variables, although others find that these effects may to be stronger in the U.K. and U.S. than in countries such as the Netherlands (Creemers & Kyriakides, 2007; Witziers Bosker & Kruger, 2003).<br />There are a number of student challenges that need to be addressed such as: poor nutrition, inadequate health services, high rates of illiteracy, and criminal activities that include drug and substance abuse. Teachers also deal with high rates of student transience, absence and indiscipline. This greatly hinders productivity. Nevertheless, legislative mandates in the U.S. now hold schools directly accountable for student performance, even in the face of such daunting challenges. The 2002 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) federal legislation in the U.S. is one of this laws. While, NCLB has been the target of withering criticism that has attacked, among other things, the high stakes standardized testing regimes used to evaluate annual student progress as well as the lack of sufficient funding necessary to provide teachers with on-going professional development, the fundamental underpinnings of the legislation, that is, to make sure that every American child, regardless of race, gender, ethnicity or wealth, be given the chance to succeed, was supported by both sides of the political aisle. But, as Rebell and Wolffe, 2008 point out:<br />“The cruel irony of the American education system is that low-income and minority children who come to school with the greatest educational deficits generally have the fewest resources and least expertise devoted to their needs - and therefore the least opportunity to improve their futures.”<br />The major attributes associated with poverty which includes hunger, homelessness, lack of job employment, drug abuse, illiteracy, fatalistic minds among others must be managed in high poverty schools so that such schools can be in a position to send happy and highly motivated learners to the world. As suggested by Edmonds 1979, what makes a difference in whatever kind of school and especially those characterized by high-level of poverty in achieving excellent academic results and sending motivated individuals to the woprld is the style of leadership. <br />A study by Elwood back in 1989 reveal shocking results concerning economic position of children and he found out that from 1969, the situation has been worsening. Slightly above 25% of White students lived in poverty up from 10.5 and for Black students the rate stood at 42%.<br />On the same note there is clearly evidence that according to United States Department of Education, 2006 that poverty does influence scores of students and those who are at high poverty schools are at more risk of performing poorly as compared to their counterparts in low poverty schools. These students score less marks as compared to their counterparts in low poverty schools. There was a sharp fall in terms of academic performance with an increased level of poverty (Chenoweth, 2007).<br />Despite all these negative attributes and a number of challenges facing school principals, while trying to run the day to day activities of their schools, there are several notable high poverty schools that have performed exceptionally well. This kind of performance is attributed to the styles of leadership exhibited by their leaders, the principals.<br />Coming up with a conducive environment for learning in high poverty-schools do encompass a number of activities such as supporting families as well as caring and addressing challenges facing students. Most of such schools do not meet the learning needs of students as well as their families (Kouzes & Posner, 1987). For this reason, a number of researches carried out clearly support the need for high poverty schools to have well informed, compassionate as well as committed individuals in the forefront (leaders) having adequate knowledge, will, skills, ability and positive attitude towards creation of a learning environment that is effective and successful. <br />Irrefutable laws of effective leadership<br />The irrefutable 21 laws of leadership include; the law of the lid, its acknowledged that every individual have their own outdoing or limiting factor to make great ideas real, the law suggests that such person should identify these factors and try to remove them from their path to success. Most high-poverty schools that are a success despite their state have mastered this law. This law covers the principle of leadership that require leaders to know clearly know who they are and how to be a better leader. The law of influence, leadership is nothing less than influencing thought, ideas and actions of other aimed at achieving set goals, without influence one cannot be a leader. The law of process considers the fact that for a leader to achieve their goals, a process is clearly laid developed and followed, a step by step process is vital for success as one leads successfully to the next this help in attaining the principle of ensuring that duties and tasks are comprehended, supervised and accomplished. <br />The law of navigation indicates that the achievement of tasks is not as vital as why and how these tasks are arrived at, it’s important to follow steps that are safe and efficient in trying to accomplish goals in an organization. With this, the steps followed can be replicated later and suitable adjustments made whenever necessary based on situation on hand. In this way the principles of rational and timely decision making as well as seeking and taking responsibility for leader’s action is addressed. This principle of making timely decision is captured in the law of timing. Good leaders make decision at the right time to seize any given opportunities despite the hurdles. Developing a sense of responsibility in workers is another principle fully addressed in the law of legacy and reproduction. These ensure that current leaders adequately prepare individuals to take charge and do what the current leader is doing in future. <br />The law of sacrifice calls for leaders to forsake such thing as current salary, time for leisure and family as well as carrying out task beyond and above what is expected of them-principle of setting an example in the organization. Principals in hig-poverty schools that are a success in terms of academic achievement among others research shows have sacrificed a lot in making the school what it is. The laws of priority help leaders to put down a list of activities to be carried out in an order of importance, this helps in ensuring that timely and rational decisions are made. A Law of E.F. Hutton coin to the idea of being listened to this is attributed to ones character, success in the past and experience. This hence facilitates rely of information from the leader to his the teaching staff as well as students. Law of Buy In as noted by Maxwell ensures that leaders provide the best example as subordinate tend to do right thing when leaders promote it. It’s important that subordinates have strong belief in their leaders. Law of the big Mo depicts that in the initial steps, if success is attained, then this set very good pace for success of subsequent steps hence accomplishing the tasks in hand (Kouzes & Posner, 1987). Law of empowerment makes leaders provide opportunities for their followers to carry their duties and responsibilities with a sense of ownership, creating trust vital for success of the leader and the school. <br />The law of connection help leaders appreciate the fact that to be emotionally associated with the goals and other workers is an important tool for successful leadership, secondly leaders have to ‘touch’ ones heart before being assisted in attaining his targets (Kouzes &Posner, 1999). Law of inner circle depicts that for great leadership, one has to be in association of very supportive family, friends as well as subordinate staffs. Leaders do require other individuals to carry out their duties as they do not have all knowledge necessary for running of an organization they work for. In the law of magnetism, leader does attract the kind of people similar to them in all aspects to make sure the task a head is accomplished and possibly leading to creation of other leaders. <br />Laws of solid ground and respect generally bring about mutual relationship between the leader and his followers; this is of significance in creating a conducive and successful environment for learning. The law of explosive growth requires that for development of any organization, leaders should show every member the right path to follow-how to accomplish the task successfully. Other laws are law of victory and intuition. All these laws fully describe the principles of leaderships which are; using full capabilities of an institution, training as a team, knowing who you are and try to improve, having a technical know how, responsibility-based management, making rational and timely decisions, setting examples, knowing ones workers and check for their well being, making information available for followers, developing a sense of responsibility to followers, and ensuring that tasks are comprehended and finally training.<br />Types of leaders in high-poverty schools<br />Transformational leader is whereby the one at the helm engenders change in individual employees as well as the social system. Such leaders usually identifies the kind of change necessary within an organization, he/she then come up with a vision that will help give direction via inspiring the entire team, the change is then implemented with the commitment of all the members of the team (Bass, 1998).<br />This style of leadership (transformational) stems from neocharismatic leadership theories, leaders are capable of leading organizations to attain outstanding accomplishments despite serious challenges being faced by schools, founding and growing very successful firms, the leaders are capable of amassing extraordinary respect, loyalty, dedication, excellent performance, motivation, admiration, commitment and huge followers, leaders in this group also stress symbolic and emotionally appeal leadership behavior for instance visionary, empowering, role modeling, risk taking, offer support, adaptive, image building, intellectual stimulation, leaders also identify themselves with organization’s vision values (House & Aditya, 1997). <br />According to Kouzes and Posner, 1999 transformational leaders usually challenge the process and are ready to take risks, they inspire a shared vision by envisioning a formulated vision and encourage and enlist the group members in pursuing that future, enable other team members to act via encouraging collaboration, empowering and strengthening them, they model the way by consistently practicing their own values and setting examples to the followers and they also encourage the hearth by giving positive feedback, recognize individual contribution and celebrate group accomplishment.<br />The spin doctor<br />This type of leader have all attributes that a leader opt to have but it is worth noting that their behaviors are not in line with a number of attributes that describe an effective leaders and in most cases are self-serving. These kind of leaders are characterized with undeveloped confidence, for this reason, they are not known to venture in risky activities to enhance success and attainment of performances using unpopular ways/ mechanisms (Kouzes & Posner, 1987). However, leaders categorized under this group are distinguished from others by their abilities to convincingly argue a case out and successfully justifying the same to their subordinates as well as students. <br />The enforcer<br />It is worth to note that this category of leaders do act in a manner that is characterized by cautious optimism as well as a desire to make it a parent that specific predetermined goals and objective set by the school especially in terms of academic excellence are attained. They are ready to employ all tact as well as resources at their disposal to make it happen while adequately making each and every one within the institution play a part and at the same time feel incorporated towards attainment of the objectives at hand (Burns, 1978). Additionally, these leaders clearly depict strong belief in their commitment as well as the things they intend to do in order for the whole system to remain on course. Another characteristic that paints the leaders the other picture is that enforcers in most cases have a tendency to bound alternatives, this in most cases work against them if indeed there are a variety of options to better make a decision. Lastly, enforcer lacks the courage to take action in instances where there are high risk potentials. <br />The deal maker<br />Deal maker encompass individuals who are capable of winning the hearts of a larger number of their followers. This is attributed to their energy as well as excitement for anything that has not been tried before. These kinds of leaders are the best to have when it comes to adopting change within the school. Deal makers usually do extremely well in the face of change and are usually credited for breaking the mold. In most high-poverty schools that have achieved academic excellence despite all odd they face, principles who exhibit this kind of leadership rise to fame for what they have done to bringing their schools in the limelight in terms of academic performance. Similarly, deal makers are very strong when it comes to making as well as venturing in risky activities provided they are geared to wards achieving success. However, their downfall is that these kinds of leaders are not capable of or rather have little desire or regards to sustain the performance attained after initial success is attained.<br />The serial entrepreneur<br />The serial entrepreneur are the set of leaders that are full of imagination, nonetheless, they are full of calculation as well as gambling. Additionally, these leaders are capable of sweeping their followers making them to follow what they intend to achieve. This is so because they are full of energy and commitment, have the potential to successfully making what are being seen to be impossible challenges as well as other stumbling blocks achievable. Leaders under this category are characterized by their strong desire to take risk, having conviction and capable of challenging change the positive way. Additionally, they care so much regarding their legacy while on the other hand move violently to articulate the broader context of their decisions in a way that is meaningful to their subordinates. However, they are generally weak when it comes to imposing context as well as generating critical mass.<br />The administrator<br />Those school principles under this category of leaders have been thought of as strategic executors who are very clear on what is supposed to be done and attained; they heartlessly or ruthlessly follow through so that the predetermined goals and objectives are attained no matter what. Strictly speaking these leaders are autocratic in nature, the manner with which they approach issues and they won’t let anything stand their way in their quest to attain the overall objectives of the schools as regards academic excellence. They are also very strong in imposing context to their subjects and generate critical mass (Kouzes &Posner, 1999). Administrators do prefer detailed and rigorous project plans; constantly monitor events, like being up to date with events within the schools. Similarly, they exhibit very strict and tight control over various resources within the school as well as the followers (Kouzes & Posner, 1987). <br />Effective leadership and high-poverty schools<br />It has been acknowledged and established that several; schools currently are not in a position to help support as well as foster student learning (Persall). It is true that several students at present do go through learning at different degree as others fail to impress the job market due to failing terribly. A greater proportion of failing exams in some of high-poverty schools has been attributed to how the school principle exercises their daily duties. Research has shown that a good number of school principles do engage themselves in tasks concerning administration. By doing so these principles more often than note do lose contact with student, teachers, other school employees as well as what goes on in classrooms<br />Other studies carried out by Druian and Butler (2001) also found out that a stronger kind of leadership dictates and is indeed one of the major factors that in most cases contribute to a school and its entire system to be successful or not. Similarly the two held that a good leadership quality is instrumental in contributing to high-poverty school success as compared to the various well drafted programs as well as resources for education.<br />School leaders especially the principles who are at the helm of schools opt to serve as motivators to all individuals within the system day in day out to achieving the desired goals and objective which is none other than academic excellence as well as producing student that are well competent to meet the desires of the changing world. According to Klug, 1989school principles opt to influence the degree of how they motivate their followers probably by “shaping the school ‘s instructional climate” which will definitely impact on the attitudes and perception of all primary stakeholders which encompass parents, teachers, students and more importantly the community at large with regards to learning and knowledge acquisition. By being in a position to successfully such a culture in high-poverty schools, school principals are thus capable of increasing both students as well as teachers motivation and indirectly impacting on enhance academic performance. <br />Other scholars namely Leithwood & Montgomery, 1984 hold that when principals are personally motivated, such motivation can be easily felt in part of the students as well as the teaching staff via the functioning of goals. In instances that school principals offer encouragement now frequently to both students and teachers there is increased motivation which in turn results to increased academic excellence in part of the students. It has been also argued that indeed there are a number of strategies that can be put in place to ensure that student and teachers are motivated. Similarly, students can be catalyzed or encouraged to set goals and determine the best way to learn. When students are given room to be actively involved in deriving such ways, they will come to school in regular basis because they hold the opinion that they are indeed valued since their opinion count. As a result they will definitely work more hard which results to increased academic performance despite the various odds they face compared to their counterpart.<br />According to Gleason, 2002 she held that school head are the key to either success or failure of especially high-poverty schools. Through her research, we are made to establish that schools located in urban centers that performed extremely well academically and in o0ther sphere had at their disposal principals that had exhibited a myriad of good leadership qualities, ready to adopt change as well as being effective. To make high-poverty school shine, principals mostly centers on the whole school on instruction and offer emerging information to their followers more so to teachers, students and other support staff, create a structure that fosters active involvement of all stakeholders, lead in talking about how student work, perform, achievement in terms of academics as well as the mission of the schools. Additionally, those principals deemed to be effective seem to spend more of their time in heightening the morale of both teachers and students, they also help teachers to center on instruction, encourage and support high levels of academic achievement in students and more importantly creating a conducive environment for learning. They also closely look and analyze how student in their schools perform in order to successfully identify where students are weak and why making appropriate adjustment to counter the problem (Burns, 1978). Similarly, effective principals do aid in proper allocation of resources that are deemed necessary to both students and staff.<br />An example of effective leader can be seen Ms. Wilcher a principal in James Ward Elementary School in Chicago a high-poverty school (Kouzes &Posner, 1999). According to her, she said during an interview that she actively help teaching staff to collaborate as well as supporting one another. Similarly, it was apparent from her word that constantly improving how her students perform academically is her central focus. It is no doubt that these are just among the attributes she posses that saw to it that the school did receive several accords ranging from district to state for greatly improving in terms of academic performance over the years despite its status and the challenges it faces. <br />Another example of an effective leader is Smith a principal at J.L Francis Elementary School in Richmond. Record proves that 70% of students come from low income background. Despite such a background, students in this school in grade five were among those ranked to have scored highly on SOL tests in Virginia. The principal has been applauded for consistently concentrating in academic performance. The leader offer after school tutoring, games that are educative as well as providing both student and teachers academic trips on weekends. What this ahs achieved is motivated staff and students. More importantly, the principal stages a number of workshops where parents are actively engaged in a number of issues regarding student achievement for instance skills that their student must have to be adequately capable of passing SOL exams. <br />It has also been established that effective leadership has mastered the concept of providing students in high-poverty schools emotional support (Sinclair, 2007). This is not only to students but also to their families and teaching staff. Having in place a caring, giving, highly motivated staff, dedicated and hard working staff comes with having an effective leader in place. For instance, principal of Harrison says, “Every one here is for the kids, it is a course” (Kouzes &Posner, 1999). Principals in high-poverty school when are effective in leading their followers make the whole school community to go an extra mile in trying to reach to parents as well as their children in order to make them feel and see beyond reasonable doubt that they are cared for and can attain success. The principle is to make all individuals in the school to be strong-willed, compassionate to attain such a desired success. Collaborating is the key here and is summarized in the statement ‘minds working together make a great impact’<br />Principals, who push so to speak staffs to work together through effective sharing of information, support, building teamwork and pressure. When this are achieved each and every staff member usually have the dire need to see that students succeed (Schein, 2004). When parents are brought into the equation and thought of first implying that their desires are what counts make them feel part and parcel of the school hence will support most if not all of the school plans and projects especially those deemed contributory in attaining academic excellence for their children. <br />Additionally, effective leaders do have values that are mostly in line in trying to attain improved performance in high-poverty schools. For instance, a principal in Harrison when asked what her values were, she clearly stated that she supported, value, respect human live. On the same note she said that treating [people the way she wants to be treated is what drives her decisions. Giving persons around her freedom, since every body is human and have different capability has seen to it that her school develops innovation although risky but has seen an improved performance (Burns, 1978). What she hates is seeing people being a clone of another which she said hinders innovation and creativity. Having in mind that they are where they are for a period of time, it’s only appropriate to value what others do. In summery, an excellent school is as a result of an excellent support staff, working together, high level of commitment of teaching both students and their parents, having clear vision that guide the school, celebrating success together as a family. Generally, doing things different is what counts and this cannot be achieved by not having in place an effective leader who exhibit most of the best qualities a leader opt to have (Kouzes &Posner, 1999).<br />Less successful schools leadership<br />To fully gain insight on the difference brought about by effective leadership in high poverty schools, it would be rational if we briefly look at less-successful high-poverty schools leadership. Having in mind that all school would at no time be the same, there are chances that less-successful school can adopt some of the attributes of leadership of their successful counter parts. One reason that contributes to poor performance in high-poverty school revolves around the issue of having a lot of planning and doing very little or nothing at all (Schein, 2004). If principal lack good qualities of leaders, they will definitely not do what is required in order to foster learning. Additionally leaders do not value what other are doing, are very autocratic, are resistant to change, engage mostly in administrative work, do not share information, are not in a position to critically analyze student performers, are poor motivators (Sinclair, 2007). Generally speaking, poor performing high-poverty school principal act contrary to what high performing high-poverty school principals do, the results thus is having unmotivated staffs, lack of team work and collaboration translating to poor student performance. However, there is always room for such poor performing schools to incorporate what successful school does with some slight adjustments (Burns, 1978). <br />Characteristics of successful high poverty schools<br />Various characteristics ensure that high poverty schools are successive. This characteristic is very volatile, as most of them require money, which is meager due to situation in such schools. Otherwise when practiced consistently, they work well for these schools making them become cream of the society academic wise. It is a little bit challenging but it is possible to make these schools successful when well staged.<br />There are various things that make such characteristics work by fully involving the students. This is by incorporating them in free or reduced lunch program through the measure of poverty of the students to ensure that they do not lag behind their peers who are a little bit well up. This ensures that they close the gap between such students making the school appropriate place for education purposes thus increasing success in the school. The following characteristic are basis of school success;<br />High expectation for all students<br />It is very important to have a firm believe that students from high poverty schools can learn. This is a paramount stand to all the school to ensure that they succeed in their pursuit for success. According to research that has been done for years, high poverty schools performs very well especially when the notion of high expectation is put in place in such schools. Rather than creating a failure notion in such schools where teachers may constantly refer to their parents’ background and other circumstances that are prone to their life, they mostly commit themselves in ensuring that all the students pass and succeed.<br />Most of these schools that are high poverty should feel that they should not have any excuse for their schools to fail. According to research done in most of the schools, teachers said that they do not have a reason why their students should not succeed in school. Such sentiments are echoed all over the place where high poverty school performs well. Research like the one that was done in the schools in North Carolina show that principal in such schools set high goals for both students and the teachers that are meant to maintain high morale to ensure that the schools succeed. They always observe pervasive tradition for achievement. These help in separating between the students and their poor background making them to concentrate on how they are supposed to do in school. Such schools hold with high esteem principals of both the students and the teachers. This make that they are able to integrate them as one family boosting the school morale and in response, good marks are achieved. These schools are capable of forming a cohesive bonds between the students and the students making them understand each student back ground thus ensuring that they instill the required notion by trying to eliminate in their mind their past experiences(Shannon & Bylsma 2003). <br />The result of the survey shows that teachers in such schools are able to narrow the gap of the poor student and the privileged ones in attempt to make them all succeed. They develop intrinsic factors in the school such as reading and instruction programs to help the students concentrate in their work much than thinking about their plights. The teachers are supposed to concentrate mostly on in school factors rather than blaming the out of school factors such as the environment created by parents of the students in any child failure. This helps to ensure that they take whole responsibility of making the school succeed oblivious of the student background. Consequently, this close achievement gap between the schools that are well up and the high poverty school in terms of academic and co-curricular activities performance.<br />Focus on student achievement<br />Most of the high poverty schools that are high performers make this by ensuring that they focus in their wide but specific school goals. The management of such schools ensures that they set attainable goals to their students and their teachers. These goals put in place are visible and they keep them in close contact to ensure that they do not divert from the main course. There many challenges that may disrupt them from attaining their goals putting in mind that most of their students are from poor household. Otherwise, by ensuring that they are capable of keeping track of each student’s record, they are able to beat this problem. These schools are always in pursuit of ensuring that the students raise their performance by ensuring that they monitor their achievements in school.<br />High poverty school has also beaten the circumstances that have been affecting the student by introducing free/reduced feeding program. Most of these schools has fully explored 90/90/90 program which have seen them very successful. This means that ninety percent of the student qualify free/ reduced meal program, they ensure that ninety percentages of them are from ethnic minorities making ninety percent of the student achieve high academic standards. <br />According to research done, the above mode is accomplished to ensure that they students perform well as they do not have substantial complain when it come to focusing on achievement. This is achieved by making the stakeholders of such school understand that the focus of the whole process is academic oriented. This unification process is made around to ensure that there is coherence in the school management to ensure that they eventually make the school succeed by consistently focusing on the students’ achievements.<br />Frequently assessment of student progress<br />Due the goals that this high poverty, high achieving schools has in ensuring that the students are able to achieve greatly, they ensure that they consistently and continuously assess their students’ progress to ensure that they achieve this. They ensure that the No child Left Law that has been put in place for annual basis beyond the one requires their testing. Most of these schools that are successful in their academic have put objectives to their teachers to ensure that they use assessment data to ensure that they track each student progress in their academics. They also make sure that they give feedback to them on the progress of the students. This will help establish the weak students and their areas of concern making sure that each one of them is tackled individually. This makes them to close the gap between the stronger and the weaker students to ensure that they harmonize their achievements.<br />Research has established that schools that are more frequent in and consistent in data taking and tracking of the progress of the student especially in the high poverty schools, have been having consistent record of achievements over the years than those who do it after a long time. According to the research done, most of these school rely on periodic student assessment which are concurrently run by along with detailed disaggregation data of the teachers, student subgroups that are meant to give feedbacks that in consistent with curriculum objectives(Shannon & Bylsma 2003). Other things that normally used in the assessment of the students in various schools to ensure that student progress is kept in track are state assessment data, reading inventory and information that was collected from the previous data to ensure that they monitor the student progress in both academic and co-curricular activities. This is where the staff inclines their functions in helping the students especially those who might be struggling. They ensure that they meet their needs by identifying the level at which these students requires their supports. Through these, they are able to limit their fall in grade making such schools to perform exemplary well. As the research established, the data is used to ensure that they establish the weakness with the students and attacking the weakness before it kill their grade. School based assessment use has emerged to very supportive in the establishment of the reduced/ free lunch program in the school to ensure that those who are in need are the one who benefit creating a level playing ground for all the students. This ensures that the school creates a competitive edge for all the students making sure that they increase their level of their education. <br />Teachers in these schools reported that they are able to give informative information about their students and help them to refine their instructions hence increasing their productivity. Formative assessment help low achievers, therefore, this become very important as students are gap are eventually reduced and made minimal to a point where every student is able to achieve good marks. The teachers are able to make sure that they plan for their work and tackle accurately.<br />Support of struggling students<br />According to Izumi 2002, High poverty high achieving schools have demonstrated quick response to the needs of the struggling students as indicated by the data collected in the school. These schools have monitor team that ensure that the needs of these students are attended to. They employ specific protocols in ensuring that the effects of the students are implemented through appropriate intervention. The survey done has established that the act of employing comprehensive monitor of the students by providing early support to students ensure that falling behind of the student marks are tackled. The team that has been employed to monitor and support the student ensures that they resolve the minor issues before they turn to great problems. This is by ensuring that they get the first sign of the students that may lead to difficulty in learning and curbing it appropriately. By early detection and intervention, it prevents the possibility of special education services to be offered to them, which is considered the last intervention in such schools. <br />Staff collaboration<br />The staff of these schools reported that they feel a state of ownership when their student does well in their academics. They usually share the responsibility of the school performance through staff collaboration. Teachers in these schools ensures that they visit others classes to check on the instructional strategies often, to ensure that the gap between the students and all the staff is completely narrowed. This has lead to complete collaboration of the staff to ensure that they make the school successful as a whole. The staff collectively provides supportive instruction to the entire student fraternity especially out side the classroom when they are out of their regular classes. They are able to share purpose ideas among themselves especially about the students who are struggling. They organize common grade level planning to ensure that work together to align curriculum discussing instructional approaches. In schools that support these move has been very successful according to the research done. Teachers in high poverty, high performing schools forms groups that are interdisciplinary personalized learning communities that is used to coordinate integrating curricula and instruction in away that will be helpful to the students performance (Izumi, 2002). The staff and the supportive staff in most of the school, according to the research done, work in collaboration to ensure that all the complication that the students may be having, are suppressed. They are seen to have allotted some time together to address the need s of these students especially those who are diagnosed by certain difficulty.<br />In the staff collaborative moods, the staffs are established to have willingness to analyze students’ data together discussing the student work and the way forward.<br />Effective leadership<br />This is another very important factor that should be considered in the pursuit of success in the high poverty, high performing schools. The study established that the principal in these schools are able to set high but attainable expectations of the students. They are able to set appropriate vision and the mission of the school and ensure that they show the way the y are to be achieved. They are the first one to be involved in focusing in these mission and goals. They ensure that they rally their staff to certain specific goals as they provide the required support to them to ensure that they attain them. They provide the required resources, training materials to ensure that they attain these goals. They also ensure that both students are motivated in the pursuit of attaining the required goals.<br />According to Jesse et al 2004, the leadership is not very important when these leaders are incapable o showing their staff and students the appropriate and leading by example. It is important for these school leaders to have effective instructional capability to help them establish good relationship and trust with the staff. This collaborative approach has helped the students and staff to work hard and eventually forming a winning environment. In the schools where the leaders treat the staff as colleagues and allow them, a great deal of freedom in their work registers a consistent success over the year as established by the research.<br />Trust and respect is another paramount characteristic that good leaders in high poverty, high performing school embrace with great vitality. This makes all the stakeholders of the school to feel welcomed and feel encompassed in the right position in the school. This creates a good atmosphere for the students, staff, parent and visitors helping them to intermingle and at the end creating a winning position. Success in these schools is pro-founded by respect to the entire stakeholder in these schools. When working in a caring and nurturing environment where there are respect and good relationship among all the people in the school as established by the leaders. This helps the school to rise above the challenges that they experience due to the level of the student from poor background and emerges victorious (Hargreaves, Lieberman, & Fullan, 2010).<br />Parental involvement<br />High poverty, high performing school has ensured that they integrate the parents in the school program in pursuit of success in the school. They ensure that they make the parents to be involved in the process of teaching their children. They do these with enough respect to them to ensure that they feel integrated in the school and feel to be one community. The school takes the initiative to ensure that they inform the parents about their students and ensure that they are a ware of the events that are taking part in the school throughout the education period. They are let to understand the school policies in time to ensure that they do not start predicting to ensure smooth flow of administration as well as continuous parent support in pursuit of school success.<br />In these schools, the leadership ensures that they constantly communicate to the parents by either meeting all through their children. They constantly involve them in school-based activities such as fundraising to ensure that they get the touch and ownership of the school. This also helps them come together in capacity building, hence ensuring that they appreciate every bit of their togetherness.<br />The success of the parent-based activities in the school requires a lot of support from the administration and above all respect. This peaceful coexistence of the parents and the school makes the student, teachers and the supporting staff to feel very encourage and thus work very hard ton achieve the final goal. It also makes the teachers to learn more on the background of the students and thus enable them in tackling the students problem better making sure that they are able to close the student gap raising their education level.<br />Some of the school has established a special place for the parents where they can make themselves comfortable as they wait to be served. Teachers and non-teaching staff ensure that they welcome them well with a lot of respect. They are out to encourage them during in according to their status and always make sure that they get the challenge posed by them in good faith without intimidating them for what their children are going through due to poverty. Otherwise, they encourage them and create high expectation notion on them. This ensures that the school position itself in a good place to achieve its goals ( Symonds, 2003).<br />Leadership challenges in high poverty schools<br />As all other organization, leaders in these schools are constantly under various challenges especially purring mind that they work in a society that has different challenges in live causing poverty. Therefore, leaders work under pressure to ensure that they succumb to these challenges to ensure that they deliver the required objectives and goals. Some of the leadership challenges that hinder them from getting their goals faster as postulated are as follows.<br />Creating and maintain diversified team<br />All the leaders work with people who are mostly in teams who have diversified interest especially in such school as high poverty schools. The team that leaders work with is from different background and has diversified experiences and ethnicity. The greatest challenge is to unify this group and ensure that they work as one group to ensure that they n=meet the school goals in the time stipulated. Therefore, the leaders must ensure that they are always close to them. This is because the more they keep them in remote place the more they become difficult to manage.<br />Therefore, for the leader to ensure that they fight against this challenge, they should ensure that they create a good communication strategy that ensure that the both upward and down movement of information in the school. This is because, the situation of these schools are very volatile and require constant communication to cater for ever raising issue that erupt on daily basis. The leader can come up with also horizontal communication protocol to help the teachers share freely among them, while the students and the parent do the same thing. This makes the flow of information to be fast in the school organization and everybody feel involved in the decision making process.<br />The best method especially in such school to uphold a team that is diversified is by ensuring that they form a habit of routine communication to all the stakeholders of such high poverty school (Lapp, 2004). This wills always that they are able to integrate the whole school fraternity to achieving the school goals with as less pressure as possible. The more diversified the teams are created towards the attainment of the goals, the faster and enjoyable the leadership will acquire its objectives.<br />Inspiring others to share in the school vision<br />The vision and the mission of the school are very important as it make it to have a clear guideline on where they are headed to as far as excellence is concerned. Otherwise, this is not enough. The leaders are required to incorporate all the school members to share the same mission and vision amid challenges encompassed therein. They have to integrate all their personality to let them see the sense of working an extra mile in helping these poor children to close their gap between the well up ones. <br />In doing this, the leaders must work together with his team in constant communication to try to show them how the mission and the vision of the school will be of help to both the school and in their life. In explaining how these teams are to benefit from the school mission, a leader is supposed to make them share the school vision.<br />Facilitating open and clear communication among coworkers<br />Communication that is clear and concise facilitates essential success in this school. A leader has a responsibility to ensure that there are required communications among the school members. He/she is also required to teach the others to communicate clearly among themselves to avoid collision. This will facilitate cohesion among the teachers in the school and ensure that they are impartial in decision making especially when selecting those students that are poor to get the necessary support. This may take time due difference in personality among the school team, but when constantly done, it will lead to success in the school.<br />Dealing with unfamiliar responsibilities<br />High poverty school I is a very volatile and fragile place to work in as a leader due to the situation of the student and their background. In addition, the pressure that is meant to be there to make student pass their exams oblivious of their status makes leadership even more complicated. Therefore, equipping oneself with the necessary leadership skills of handling the unfamiliar responsibility is a big challenge. <br />In times, coordinating team to achieve what one requires out of the school tend to be so challenging. This is because, a lot the teachers and the students in these schools are not of the same level. Due to especially poverty among the people in these schools, different issues erupt on daily basis making the leadership be always put in jeopardy due to working in an environment with many variables. These variables range from family issues to the school matters that the leaders cannot ignore as they are affecting the school mission and vision. The responsibilities of leaders in these schools involve ensuring that they are able to uplift the non-performers, speak for the team to ensure oneness in the school, motivate the school members to ensure that they perform and carry out other unfamiliar task.<br />To succeed in this, the leader should be ready to learn new skills to tackle all his/her responsibilities and keep him/her up to date on the matters pertaining leadership. Eager to learn and open to feedback makes the leaders to deal with their weakness and eventually ensuring that the school is managed as required meeting the appropriate goals of the school.<br />Handling accountability<br />In high poverty school this is a very important aspect to ensure that the little resource that is in place is well appropriated to ensure that needy student are helped using them. In leadership, various traditional functions are involved such as term of scope of a certain resource, scale of the resource, the time pressure of time to accomplish certain things for example, excellence in high poverty schools.<br />It is the responsibility of the leaders to make decisions that will help the overall school fraternity. The performance of the team is based mostly on the performance of the leaderships and their motivation. He is liable of issuing instructions that are to be followed in the school to facilitate the school performance. Leaders are liable for the mistakes that are done by their subordinates especially if they are doing not give appropriate communication (Izumi, 2002). They are supposed to own the mistakes that are done especially in places as fragile as high poverty school to ensure that they do not divert the children mentality from their final goal. The leaders are supposed to develop maturity in the school to ensure that any upcoming incompetency either from the children or from the teachers is dealt with in a mature manner. This will show the level at which the school leaders are mature and successful in their duty execution making the school to get its goal consistently.<br />Managing change<br />Several changes happen in these high poverty schools on daily basis. Due to the situation in the school, the leaders must ensure that they are able to tackle these changes appropriately. They should think out of the box for solutions that are very innovative to ensure that they sustain the school caliber. Amidst ambiguity that may be in the school due to the poverty situation, they should operate in such that they overcome these challenges to ensure that they maintain the whole school focused to the final goal. There are sometime that the leaders are require d to make tough and on spot decision to save certain situation as such schools are prone to abrupt changes (Lapp, 2004). In spite of the pressure that they may experience in their work, leaders in these schools are supposed to show a lot of perseverance even at time of adversity. They should never give up and are suppose to work in an ad-hoc basis to ensure that any vision that they have for the schoolwork to the best of the whole school and especially students who are the most affected by any decision.<br />Improvement strategy in high poverty school<br />Effective administrative leadership is on of the strategy that each leader in this school must adapt to ensure that they improve the standard of the education in the school. The principal and the teachers should up hold the vision fashion of learning that share the support of the community in learning. This will ensure that they are able to integrate education in the institution with the appropriate learning capacity. <br />The principal should be in a position to nurture and ensure that they sustain the culture of the school. This is by ensuring that they come up with program that is conducive to learning of the students and the growth of the staff. This increases the morale of the school community making them to develop a success mood. The school principal should also ensure that they include their staff in making decision that is direct to the school matters. These are a as, curriculum interpretation and instructions that are to be followed in the school. This will make them feel being part of the school leading to school improvement.<br />Teachers’ leadership and collaboration<br />The senior staff is capable of delegating some duties to the teachers as they assume some leadership roles by providing professional development in the school through brainstorming time, presenting issues to the staff especially regarding to the student welfare and performances or they can be participated in interviewing and hiring process. This strategy can be used to ensure that more integration is made in the school.<br />The teachers should participate in peer evaluation to ensure that they are able to set standards to their own self. By this, they are able to set high standard making the school to improve at a great height. They can also involve in mentoring each other and team teaching. This strategy improves the quality of the education that is delivered in the school making the student t in such school to achieve highly (Izumi, 2002).<br />The teachers can focus on lesson plan, student assessment and problem solving method by means of group method using team approach method. By the use of this strategy, the staff will be very cohesive to each other and the administration is able to get to its goal. This is a strategy that will boost their morale and in addition, helping them to learn each other as they work in-group. They are also able to establish the student’s weakness differently, thus coming up with a more comprehensive method of tackling these problems communally saving time and energy. Their way of working will also create morale to the students due to the unity created. Therefore, by using the strategy appropriately, the school is lest assured of success.<br />Work ethics and morale<br />A strategy that can be enhanced in these schools to ensure that the teachers work towards attainment of the goals not to the clock. This is by fostering the culture of responsibility and feeling that they own the school achievements. In this strategy, the teachers are made not to blame the students of their current situation. They uphold their ethics to a position whereby they do not segregate students due to their background but are out to exploit fully student potential in all areas.<br />Transition and Summary<br />The aim of the research is to critically analyze the question why does effective leadership make a difference in high poverty schools? So as to offer recommendation regarding the same to organizations that seek to have improved performances in high poverty elementary schools.<br />As the researcher provides additional insight and proven data results will provide information that will assist principals, future principals and other leaders in concluding the following: to find out the attributes of an effective leader in high poverty schools, to evaluate the differences as a results of adopting effective leadership in high poverty schools and to find out the challenges facing principals in high poverty schools in their desire to lead their organizations to achieve desired results. <br />Section two adequately covers the purpose statement, role of the researcher, participants, research methods as well as design, population and sampling procedures. Additionally data collection including instrumentation, data collection techniques as well as organization of the same are brought forth. 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