Mr. Hunter Ch. 3


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Mr. Hunter Ch. 3

  1. 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed) Chapter 3 The Nature and Nurture Of Behavior James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
  2. 2. Genes: Our BiologicalBlueprint Chromosomes  threadlike structures made of DNA that contain the genes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)  complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes  has two strands-forming a “double helix”--held together by bonds between pairs of nucleotides
  3. 3. Genes: Our BiologicalBlueprint Genes  biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes  a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein Genome  the complete instructions for making an organism  consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes
  4. 4. Genes: Their Locationand Composition Nucleus Chromosome Gene Cell DNA
  5. 5. Evolutionary Psychology  Natural Selection  the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations  Mutations  random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides  the source of all genetic diversity
  6. 6. Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary Psychology  the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using the principles of natural selection Gender  in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female
  7. 7. Evolutionary Psychology Men preferred attractive physical features suggesting youth and health Women preferred resources and social status
  8. 8. Behavior Genetics Behavior Genetics  study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior Environment  every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
  9. 9. Behavior Genetics Identical twins Fraternal twins  Identical Twins  develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms  Fraternal Twins  develop from separate eggs  genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal Same Same or environment sex only opposite sex
  10. 10. Behavior Genetics Temperament  a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity Heritability  the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes  may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
  11. 11. Behavior Genetics Interaction  the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity) Molecular Genetics  the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
  12. 12. EnvironmentalInfluence Two placental arrangements in identical twins
  13. 13. Environmental Influence  Experience affects brain developmentImpoverished Rat brain Enriched Rat brain environment cell environment cell
  14. 14. EnvironmentalInfluence A trained brain
  15. 15. EnvironmentalInfluence Culture  the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next Norm  an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
  16. 16. EnvironmentalInfluence Personal Space  the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies Memes  self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person
  17. 17. The Nature andNurture of Gender X Chromosome  the sex chromosome found in both men and women  females have two; males have one  an X chromosome from each parent produces a female child Y Chromosome  the sex chromosome found only in men  when paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child
  18. 18. The Nature andNurture of Gender Testosterone  the most important of the male sex hormones  both males and females have it  additional testosterone in males stimulates  growth of male sex organs in the fetus  development of male sex characteristics during puberty Role  a set of expectations (norms) about a social position  defining how those in the position ought to behave
  19. 19. The Nature andNurture of Gender  Gender Role  a set of expected behaviors for males and females  Gender Identity  one’s sense of being male or female  Gender-typing  the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
  20. 20. The Nature andNurture of Gender  Gender and Culture
  21. 21. The Nature andNurture of Gender
  22. 22. The Nature andNurture of Gender  Social Learning Theory  theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished  Gender Schema Theory  theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
  23. 23. The Nature andNurture of Gender  Two theories of gender typing