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Your Browsing Behavior for a ! Big Mac: Economics of Personal Information Online
 

Your Browsing Behavior for a ! Big Mac: Economics of Personal Information Online

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    Your Browsing Behavior for a ! Big Mac: Economics of Personal Information Online Your Browsing Behavior for a ! Big Mac: Economics of Personal Information Online Presentation Transcript

    • Your Browsing Behavior for aBig Mac: Economics of PersonalInformation Online Juan Pablo Carrascal *Universitat Pompeu FabraChristopher Riederer *Columbia UniversityVijay ErramilliTelefónica ResearchMauro Cherubini **Telefónica ResearchRodrigo de OliveiraTelefónica Research*  Research  conducted  while  working  at  Telefónica  Research  **  The  author  is  currently  working  at  Google  Inc.
    • Introduction Collected Personal Identifiable Information (PII)is being economically exploited by internet basedcompanies in multiple ways!
    • Introduction But what do Internet users think about this?!!
    • Introduction For users to understand monetization of their PII,they should do a cost-benefit analysis!!
    • Introduction But general the monetary value of PII
is hard to measure!!!
    • Research Questions •  RQ1: What monetary value do users assign todifferent types of PII while being online?!•  RQ2: What are the perceptions of users vis-à-vistheir PII being monetized, improving existingservices and for personalized advertisements?!
    • Contributions •  We used a refined Experience Sampling Methodto extract online PII valuation!•  We found that users valuated their browsingbehavior information at around 7€ (~18 Reais)!•  Valuation of Offline PII was significantly higherthan Online PII, and valuation of PII related toSocial and Finance websites was significantlyhigher than Search and News!•  Even though users do not like the monetization oftheir PII, they would accept certain goods inexchange.!
    • Outline Challenges / Methodology!Procedure!Measures!Results!Implications for design!!!
    • Challenges Alice! Researcher!PII $?Alice!
    • Challenges Retrospective!recall!Validity of!PII valuation!Engagement during participation /!Burden of the probing!Honesty of!valuation!
    • Methodology A refined Experience Sampling Method (rESM)approach provides optimal recall!Retrospective!recall!Validity of!PII valuation!Engagement during participation /!Burden of the probing!Honesty of!valuation!
    • Methodology •  We improved the validity by capturing the web browsingcontext by means of a Firefox plugin popup!•  This plugin enables the use of pertinent questionsabout the actions, at the time they were performed,that we want to capture in the first place!Retrospective!recall!Validity of!PII valuation!Engagement during participation /!Burden of the probing!Honesty of!valuation!
    • Methodology •  To create engagement, we created an auction gamewhere participants could trade their PII!•  We reduced the burden by limiting frequency andoffering the possibility to skip the probe!Retrospective!recall!Validity of!PII valuation!Engagement during participation /!Burden of the probing!Honesty of!valuation!
    • Methodology To promote honesty of valuation, we used areverse second-price auction mechanism!!Bids! Payout!Winningbid!(lowest)!Retrospective!recall!Validity of!PII valuation!Engagement during participation /!Burden of the probing!Honesty of!valuation!
    • Outline Challenges / Methodology!Procedure!Measures!Results!Implications for design!
    • Participants Recruitment through popular Spanish web portals!Demographics:!–  168 participants, 18 to 58 years old
(mean = 31.83, s = 8.15)!–  Well balanced across education and income levels!–  Living in Spain (94% of Spanish nationality)!Requirements:!–  Firefox!–  Only person using Firefox
on their computer!–  Install the plugin!
    • Procedure From the userʼs perspective:!?A participant visits a website!The Plugin classifies!the visited website!The Plugin selectsquestions corresponding tothe category of the website!and prompts the user with aPop-up!The Plugin collectsparticipantʼs answers andsends them to the back-end!
    • Procedure From the back-end perspective:!After 20 bids are received… !… an auction is run!All participants of the auction(both those who sold their PIIand those who did not) arenotified of their results usingneutral language!All bids are received by theback-end!
    • Outline Challenges / Methodology!Procedure!Measures!Results!Implications for design!
    • Measures – Popup questions Auction questions!–  Context independent!–  Context dependent*!Online privacy perception questions!–  Context independent!–  Context dependent*!!* Customized according to the detected category!of the website!!
    • Measures - Auction questions examples … data about your financial transaction(s) !(FINANCE)!… photo(s) you uploaded to this website ! !(SOCIAL)!… keywords you used in your last search(es) !(SEARCH)!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !… and so on!… information about your age, gender, salary and address?! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !(related to offline PII)!… details about your presence on this website?
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !(related to third party trackers)!Context independent:!Context dependent:!“What is the minimum amount of money youwould accept in exchange of… “  
    • Measures - Exit questionnaire We asked some questions to clarify previouslyobtained results:!•  Reasons for highest/lowest bids!•  Knowledge of revenue/cost of online services!•  Trust of PII management!•  Further privacy perception questions!
    • Outline Challenges / Methodology!Procedure!Measures!Results!Implications for design!
    • Results RQ1: Users valuated their browsing behaviorinformation at around 7€ (18 reais)!RQ1: What monetary value do users assign to differenttypes of PII while being online?!
    • Results RQ1: Users value offline PII more!and online PII less (25€ vs. 7€)!
    • Results RQ1: Users tend to value online PII related toFinance (15.5€) and Social networking (12€) 
more than Search (2€) and News (2€).!
    • Results RQ1: Users do not distinguish between
quantity of PII, but type!!
    • Results RQ2: Users do not like monetization of their PII!!RQ2: What are the perceptions of users vis-à-vis their PIIbeing monetized, improving existing services and forpersonalized advertisements?!
    • Results 0%  5%  10%  15%  20%  25%  30%  35%  40%  Frequency  (%)  RQ2: But they would accept certain goods inexchange.!!
    • Results RQ2: Users mainly trust themselves to manage themonetization of their PII. In second place, they trustgovernment and in third place banks and telcos!!3 1 2
    • Results Most participants gave reasons of fair value orworthiness of the information for their highest/lowest bids instead of trying to game the system!
    • Outline Challenges / Methodology!Procedure!Measures!Results!Implications for design!
    • Implications for design There should be adequate incentives (economic orotherwise) for the adoption of privacy solutions!
    • Implications for design Online companies should be transparent inexplaining their need to monetize on PII!
    • Contributions •  We used a refined Experience Sampling Methodto extract online PII valuation!•  We found that users valuated their browsingbehavior information at around 7€ (~18 Reais)!•  Valuation of Offline PII was significantly higherthan Online PII, and valuation of PII related toSocial and Finance websites was significantlyhigher than Search and News!•  Even though users do not like the monetization oftheir PII, they would accept certain goods inexchange.!
    • Thank you.Questions? Juan Pablo Carrascal!jp.carrascal@upf.edu!Christopher Riederer!mani@cs.columbia.edu!Vijay Erramilli!vijay@tid.es!Mauro Cherubini!mauro.cherubini@acm.org!Rodrigo de Oliveira!oliveira@tid.es!