Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

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  • Step 1
    The iceberg appears
    Above the surface of the water appears the text “Visible aspects: easy to observe”
    Below the water´s surface appears the text “Invisible aspects: suspected, imagined o intuited”.
    This invisible part is the largest part of the iceberg.
  • Step 2
    1. Above the surface, the following cultural features appear:
    Fine arts
    Literature
    Holiday customs
    Gestures
    Cooking
    Eating habits
    Music
    Literature
    Styles of dress
    ...
  • Step 3
    1. Below the surface, the following cultural features appear:
    Conception of beauty
    Conception of justice
    Religious beliefs
    Importance of time
    General world view
    Work ethic
    ...
  • Foto con icebergs
  • 1. The three gears appear simultaneously, with their respective texts
    2. Rotate in the direction of the arrows, with static text in the center
  • A road (purple lines) appears on the screen and later a bycicle at the beginning of the road
  • The sign “Honeymoon stage” is the first sign wich appears. The bycicle starts to move through the road until the next sign.
    The second sign is “Culture shock stage”. The bycicle continues moving to the third sign.
    The third one is “Adaptation stage”. The bycicle is moving.
    “Recovery stage” sign appears. The bycicle is moving.
    “Reverse culture shock stage” appears. The bycicle arrive to the finish and dissappears.
  • Chapter 1

    1. 1. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media Technologies CHAPTER 1 Culture and Cultural Identity
    2. 2. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT There are many opinions about the definition of culture. They all share the idea that it is the “software” which people use in daily life.
    3. 3. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT Culture can be described as the language, norms, values and beliefs that any particular group of people share. There are two interrelated aspects of culture:
    4. 4. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT Material culture refers to all of the physical objects, resources and spaces that people use to define their culture (cities, schools, temples, technology,…) Non – material culture includes ideas associated with these objects, resources and spaces (traditions, symbols, language, values, rules,…)
    5. 5. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesNOTE THIS The word culture is often used as a synonym for nation and society, but they aren't the same thing. Nation ≠ Society ≠ Culture A nation is a territory with designated borders A society is a population in which people interact and share common interests A culture is the shared way of living of people
    6. 6. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT One of the most well-known culture models is the iceberg model, which focus our attention on the hidden aspects of culture.
    7. 7. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesADD ANIMATION Visible aspects: easy to observe Invisible aspects: suspected, imagined or intuited
    8. 8. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesADD ANIMATION
    9. 9. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesADD ANIMATION Conception of beauty Conception of justice Religious beliefs Importance of time General world view Work ethic ...
    10. 10. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesNOTE THIS The invisible aspects of culture influence or cause the visible ones. Religious beliefs, for example, are clearly manifested in certain holiday customs or styles of dress.
    11. 11. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesEXTRA INFORMATION There are many theoretical models which explain the concept of culture. You can see more information on the following links: - Geert Hofstede’s model of cultural dimensions. - Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner's Seven Dimensions of Culture. - Edward Hall’s behavioural components of culture. - Jacques Demorgon´s model of cultural dimensions.
    12. 12. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT Like icebergs, each person´s identity is made up of multiple elements and is unique. Identifying and understanding the lower part of one´s own iceberg is vital to understanding who you are and why you behave the way you do.
    13. 13. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT By becoming aware of these important aspects in your life, you can analyse how they influence your relations with other people and why we see and perceive the world differently to each other.
    14. 14. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT But where do our values, beliefs or customs come from? They have been created throughout our lives in a process called socialisation. Socialisation is a lifelong process during which we learn about social expectations and how to interact with other people. During socialisation, we learn about our own culture, including behavioral norms and values that teach us how to fit in with our social groups.
    15. 15. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT We were born into different cultural groups or agents of socialisation. Some examples are: Me Ethnic or traditional groups Friends and peers Religions Generational groups Work and interest groups Mass media
    16. 16. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT Through socialisation, we acquire a personal identity and learn to value our connections with others. This process continues for an entire lifetime. As we acquire a personal identity, we also acquire a social identity.
    17. 17. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT Understanding the process of socialisation makes you realise that there are a variety of different identities. So you become aware of diversity: not everybody is the same. Difference is normal!! It´s ok to be different
    18. 18. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesNOTE THIS Socialisation is a process and the way we perceive the world and how we behave varies over time. The reason is that perceptions, behaviour and values do change over time.
    19. 19. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media Technologies CHAPTER 2 Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination
    20. 20. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT Identities are defined in groups, but neither people nor groups are isolated. Identities are also acquired through comparison with other people, groups or cultures. Stereotypes emerge from this social perception and the socialisation processes. Prejudice and discrimination are installed based on them.
    21. 21. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT It would be good to understand what is the relationship between stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination in order to identify how they function and avoid their negative effects in interaction with other groups and cultures. Let’s start by defining each of these concepts.
    22. 22. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT Stereotypes are the result of assigning identical characteristics to any person of a group, regardless of the real variations that exist between members of that group. It belongs to the realm of thought .
    23. 23. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT From an early age, we learn to assign those identical characteristics, through the family, the media, etc.. Stereotyping is not necessarily a bad thing; it is often only a way of simplifying our view of the world, and we all do it.
    24. 24. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesNOTE THIS Stereotypes are potentially dangerous when we cannot see individual differences within a group of people. Stereotypes sometimes serve to rationalize (justify) the hostility felt by a person towards certain groups.
    25. 25. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT A prejudice is a negative and hostile attitude towards a person, identified as belonging to a group, by the mere fact of belonging to that group. It belongs to the field of emotion. Prejudice guides our emotions in a negative way and prevents us from neutrally reflecting on individuals or groups. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BO6PQHGXnIk
    26. 26. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesNOTE THIS Prejudices are generally cultural , or in other words, they have also been acquired either through the media or the education we have received. (Nobody is born racist)
    27. 27. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT Discrimination is negative behaviour when treating people, motivated by their belonging to a social group or category. It belongs to the field of behaviour
    28. 28. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT The most common forms of discrimination are race, religion, nationality, ideology, political or trade union, gender, economic status, social status or physical characteristics (health conditions) (age) (physical characteristics) (pregnancy) (sexual preferences) (disability) (national origin) (ethnic origin) (gender)
    29. 29. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLEARNING CONTENT Relationship between stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination: As we have seen, a stereotype is equivalent to a belief or opinion, prejudice to a negative attitude towards a group and discrimination to negative treatment of people by the mere fact of belonging to a group. Although stereotypes do not always generate prejudice and prejudices do not always lead to discrimination, the fact is that it is most likely to go that way if we are not aware of the danger of not seeing people and only seeing our stereotypes.
    30. 30. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesADD ANIMATION
    31. 31. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media Technologies What can you do to combat prejudice? - Discover and acknowledge your own biases. Talk to other people to discover them. If you have ever been discriminated against, how did you feel? - Actively combat these prejudicial beliefs. What is the basis of your way of thinking? How many people belonging to the prejudged group do you know? - Develop empathy. This means being able to put yourself in another person’s shoes and know what they are feeling. LEARNING CONTENT
    32. 32. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media Technologies - Feeling good about yourself is important when accepting those who are different, as you will not have to use them to increase your self-esteem. - Accept that you will not understand everything or you're not going to share everything. Each group has its own customs. -Do not be silent when you hear a joke or prejudiced comment. Tell this person that you understand that the intention was not to hurt anyone but that jokes are harmful to many people. LEARNING CONTENT
    33. 33. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media Technologies - Value diversity in every way. - Ask yourself this question: how would you react if, being white, someone told you that he/she wants to know what the people of your race are like? You would probably say that this is an absurd question because there are millions of white people and each of them is different. Therefore, why don´t you think the same with respect to people of another race, religion, sexual orientation, etc..? Are they all the same but you are not? LEARNING CONTENT
    34. 34. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media Technologies CHAPTER 3 Cultural Adaptation and Integration
    35. 35. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content Adjusting to a new culture and environment is a natural and individual process and may be accompanied by a variety of reactions and feelings. This adjustment process is known as the U Curve of Cultural Adaptation and it is based on the following stages: Stress Insomnia Loneliness ANXIETY Homesickness Insecurity Frustration Sadness FEAR
    36. 36. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content It is usually experienced after arriving in a new culture.  Everything seems fascinating and you show curiosity and interest in discovering the new culture.  You can deal easily with problems and stress.  You tend to focus on similarities between your home culture and the new culture.  Most people feel energetic and HONEYMOON STAGE
    37. 37. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content  Perception of differences between your home culture and the new culture.  Conflicts occur with other people or internally – in terms of comparing one´s own values and behaviour with those of the new culture.  Feelings of being out of place, confusion, anxiety, homesickness, frustration, anger and loneliness. CULTURE SHOCK STAGE
    38. 38. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content  You solve your conflicts and regain a sense of appreciation of the new culture.  Better understanding of external and internal resources that help to manage demands and conflicts that may arise.  Mixture of feelings regarding the first two stages. RECOVERY STAGE
    39. 39. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content  You become comfortable with the new culture. Understanding of the similarities and differences between both cultures.  Appreciation of the aspects of both cultures that you wish to retain or include in your life.  It is characterised by a sense of confidence, maturity, flexibility and tolerance. ADAPTATION STAGE
    40. 40. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content  It is experienced when returning to own´s home culture.  Detection of changes in oneself and the home culture which may need a new adjustment process.  You feel your friends and family don´t understand what you experienced and how you have changed.  Feelings of sadness and lack of confidence, confusion. REVERSE CULTURE SHOCK STAGE
    41. 41. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesADD ANIMATION
    42. 42. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesADD ANIMATION REVERSE CULTURE SHOCK STAGE ADAPTATION STAGE RECOVERY STAGE CULTURE SHOCK STAGE HONEYMOON STAGE
    43. 43. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesNOTE THIS Not all people go through each stage and do not necessarily follow this order. The duration of culture shock will vary from person to person. Culture shock will be as big as the differences between own´s own culture and the new culture.
    44. 44. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content • If you experience culture shock, don´t be hard on yourself. • It is a normal process in the intercultural experience. • It means that you are aware of cultural differences and that you are beginning the process of adjusting to your new cultural environment. You are adapting your glasses!!
    45. 45. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content Here are some recommendations to make the cultural transition easier: • Try to actively learn the new culture through observing, listening and questioning. • Learn and practice the local language. • View yourself as an ambassador to show your home culture. • Don´t think of your cultural habits as “right” and other people´s as “wrong”.
    46. 46. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content • Try to previously identify the most shocking attitudes which you may face at some point. • Avoid quick judgments: Try to search for logical reasons behind what seems strange, confusing or threatening in the new context. • Be willing to try new things and new experiences: participate in cultural events, sports or the host social community.
    47. 47. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesLearning Content • Exercising regularly and getting enough sleep helps to keep your energy levels high. • Instead of thinking of things as problems, try to think of them as challenges. • Set small or short-term goals and evaluate achievements. • Stay in touch with friends and family to avoid feeling isolated. Seek help if you feel too much stress.
    48. 48. SIMS.U4.E1 Culture of Sharing and Online Reputation Handling (Management) SIMS.U1.E2 Social Media TechnologiesREFERENCES Bibliography “Developing Intercultural Awareness. A Cross-Cultural Training Handbook” Author: Knight, John M., Kohls, L. Robert ISBN 978-1-877864-13-1 Webgraphy http://www.nccccurricula.info/awareness/

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