Robots Machines that load and unloadstock, assemble parts, transferobjects, or perform other tasks. Best used in high-productionprocesses requiring repeatedroutines where they prevent.other hazards to employees. A robot is a mechanical orvirtual agent which can performtasks on its own. Industrial robots areprogrammable mechanicaldevices designed to movematerial, parts, tool and other.
ABILITIES OF ROBOTSCOOPERATE MANIPULATEMOVETRANSPORTWORK ASSIST
ROBOT AND CONVENTIONAL MACHINERY THREE MAJOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ROBOTS ANDCONVENTIONAL MACHINERY CAN BE IDENTIFIED THAT ARECONCERN OF SAFETY PERSONNEL. SPEED OF MOVEMENT. PREDICTABILITY OF MOVEMENT. HAZARD ZONES. IN CONVENTIONAL MACHINERY HAZARD ZONES MAY BEDIFFICULT TO RECOGNIZE, BUT ARE FIXED WITH TIME. ALSO THE MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONVENTIONALMACHINERY AND ROBOT IS THAT A ROBOT CAN BE : PROGRAMMED TO DO DIFFERENT JOBS. REACT TO CHANGES IN THE PROCESS, EVEN MAKINGDECISIONS FROM A LIMITED NUMBER OF CHOICES.
ROBOTIC OPERATIONS:Entrapment of a worker between a robot and asolid surface. Impact with a moving robot arm. Ejection of materials or parts by the robot whilein operation.Prevent it with “work envelope”Main Hazards:
SOURCES OF HAZARDS Human Errors Control Errors Unauthorized Access Mechanical Failures Environmental Sources Power Systems Improper Installation
Human Errors Inherent prior programming, interfacing activated peripheralequipment, or connecting live input-output sensors to themicroprocessor or a peripheral can cause dangerous, unpredictedmovement or action by the robot from human error. The incorrect activation of the "teach pendant" or control panel is afrequent human error.
Control Errors Intrinsic faults within the control system of the robot, errors insoftware, electromagnetic interference, and radio frequencyinterference are control errors. In addition, these errors can occur due to faults in the hydraulic,pneumatic, or electrical subcontrols associated with the robot orrobot system.
Unauthorized AccessEntry into a robots safeguarded areais hazardous because the personinvolved may not be familiar withthe safeguards in place or theiractivation status.
Environmental SourcesElectromagnetic or radio-frequency interference(transient signals) should be considered to exert anundesirable influence on robotic operation andincrease the potential for injury to any personworking in the area. Solutions to environmental hazards should bedocumented prior to equipment start-up.
Power SystemsPneumatic, hydraulic, or electrical power sources thathave malfunctioning control or transmission elements inthe robot power system can disrupt electrical signals tothe control and/or power-supply lines. Fire risks areincreased by electrical overloads or by use of flammablehydraulic oil. Electrical shock and release of storedenergy from accumulating devices also can behazardous to personnel.
Improper InstallationThe design, requirements, and layout ofequipment, utilities, and facilities of arobot or robot system, if inadequatelydone, can lead to inherent hazards.
Mechanical Failures Operating programs may notaccount for cumulative mechanicalpart failure, and faulty or unexpectedoperation may occur.
• ROBOT SAFEGUARD: TO ERECT A PHYSICAL BARRIER AROUND THEENTIRE PERIMETER OF A ROBOT’S WORKENVELOPE. A GUARD CONTAINING A SENSING DEVICE THATAUTOMATICALLY SHUTS DOWN THE ROBOT IF ANYPERSON OR OBJECT ENTERS ITS WORK ENVELOPECAN BE EFFECTIVE. TO PUT SENSITIZED DOORS OR GATES IN THEPERIMETER BARRIER THAT AUTOMATICALLYSHUT DOWN THE ROBOT’S MOVEMENT WHENTHEY ARE OPENED.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OFROBOT HAZARDADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGESSAVINGSQUALITYPRODUCTIONSAFETYEXPERTISEROIEXPENSESAFETY
ADVANTAGES OF ROBOT HAZARDQuality:Industrial robots have the capacity to dramaticallyimprove product quality. Applications are performedwith precision and high repeatability every time. Thislevel of consistency can be hard to achieve any otherway.Production:With robots, throughput speeds increase, which directlyimpacts production. Because robots have the ability towork at a constant speed without pausing for breaks,sleep, vacations, they have the potential to producemore than a human worker.
ADVANTAGES…Safety:Robots increase workplace safety. Workers are moved tosupervisory roles, so they no longer have to performdangerous applications in hazardous settings.Savings:Greater worker safety leads to financial savings. Thereare fewer healthcare and insurance concerns foremployers. Robots also offer untiring performancewhich saves valuable time. Their movements are alwaysexact, so less material is wasted.
DISADVANTAGES OF ROBOTHAZARDExpense:The initial investment of robots is significant, especiallywhen business owners are limiting their purchasesto new robotic equipment. The cost ofautomation should be calculated in light of a businessgreater financial budget. Regular maintenance needs canhave a financial toll as well.ROI:Incorporating industrial robots doesnot guarantee results. Without planning, companies canhave difficulty achieving their goals.
DISADVANTAGES…Expertise:Employees will require training in programming andinteracting with the new robotic equipment.This normally takestime and financial output.Safety:Robots may protect workers from some hazards, but inthe meantime, their very presence can create othersafety problems. These new dangers must be taken intoconsideration
SUMMARY The way to prevent from hazards in needed toovercome the safety in workplace. The development of machines within this fieldis such a new area that in order to gain acceptance,safety standards must be through applied in anattempt to address all possible risks and hazards.Robots are machines, and as such must besafeguarded in ways similar to those presented forany hazardous remotely controlled machine.