The Origin of Human Factors A Program Initially Designed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) The Focus is on the Employees who Build and Maintain All Aircraft Engines and Aircraft The Tools & Techniques have been Modified for the Needs of ALL Businesses
The Objective To characterize the impact of environmental (external and internal) and individual factors on human performance To understand the Chain of Events that cause defects or errors in daily business operations These events can lead to the endangerment of the employee and / or the customer of the product or service To create awareness and to examine the human role in the workplace
Human Factors DefinitionHuman factors entails a multidisciplinary effort to generate information about human capabilities and limitations. This information is applied to equipment, systems, facilities, procedures, and job training, for continual and effective human performance.
Human FactorsWhat characterizes an effective employee?
Human Factors Attributes Dependable Doesn’t like to ask for Willing to put in effort help and hours Tends to be self- High Integrity sufficient Modest Like to think things out on his/her own Distrust of words Doesn’t share thoughts Prefers to be allowed too frequently to make his / her own decisions
Human Factors – The DirtyDozen It has been determined by researching mistakes caused by people, that one or more of 12 common denominators (clues) are usually present. These are referred to as “The Dirty Dozen” root causes.
Human Factors – The Dirty Dozen Daily Pressures Communication Awareness Lack of communication Complacency Lack of knowledgeKnowledge Distraction Distractions Stress Fatigue Lack of teamwork Fatigue Resources Norms Lack of resourcesPressure Teamwork Pressure Lack of assertiveness Stress Lack of awareness Complacency Assertiveness Norms
Human Factors Communication: Written Verbal ond Tone of Voice esp le r nt Body Language P eop fere o dif of ion ! t es nicat typ mu com Not always in a positive way!
Human FactorsDoes this sound familiar? “What you heard and what I said are two different things.” “And what you think I said is definitely not what I meant.”
Human Factors To Improve communication: Learn to listen Ask questions Paraphrase Make eye contact Use positive body language Approved process/worksheets Discuss open items on paperwork NEVER ASSUME ANYTHING!!
Human Factors Complacency: A conscious or unconscious relaxation of one’s usual standards in making decisions and taking actions.
Human Factors Improving Complacency: Train yourself to expect to find a problem Tasks are most likely included in the work instructions because of potential critical failure or past historical failures NEVER pass along work without insuring its correctness
Human Factors Lack of Knowledge Failure to provide adequate training Lack of confidence to ask questions Why do we always have trouble with this?
Human Factors Lack of Knowledge: Understand each step of what you are doing or... If you don’t have the knowledge, talk to someone who does Seek training on the type of work to be performed Always use current procedures and work instructions If it’s new- don’t be afraid to ask!
Human Factors Lack of Teamwork Failure to understand Roles No Teamwork Training You had the Not understanding the instructions in your hand, benefits of working in teams I thought you knew what to do!
Human Factors Improving Teamwork: Provide instructions for working in teams Discuss what, who and how a job is to be done Be sure that everyone understands and agrees
Human Factors Distraction: To draw one’s attention away To confuse by unclear instructions Excessive non-work related activities
Human Factors Improving Distraction: Know where you left off the uncompleted work When you return to the job, go back and review a few steps in the process Use check sheets to avoid errors If in doubt…make a write-up of the uncompleted tasks
Human Factors Fatigue: The result of intense physical or mental activity at a single task Causes: Temperature variations Excess Noise Strong lighting Long work hours
Fatigue: Definition “Fatigue denotes a state represented by a loss in efficiency and a general disinclination to work” (Grandjean, 1988. Human Factors Journal, 1994)
Human Factors Improving Fatigue: Be aware of the symptoms of fatigue and look for them in yourself and others Sleep and exercise regularly Ask others to check your work Avoid excessive overtime
Human Factors Resource Pressures: Making do with less Examples: Inexpensive / Inadequate Tools or equipment Outdated computers or software Unreliable Copiers Inadequate Lighting Outdated Manuals or Process Documentation
Human Factors Improving Resource Pressures: Make a list of required resources that will reduce work pressures Track the progress
Human Factors Pressure: To complete the work on- time (when expected) Most often, the pressure comes from within ourselves
Human Factors Reducing Work Pressure: Ensure the pressure isn’t self-induced Communicate your concerns upward Ask for help
Human Factors Lack of Assertiveness Listen, I need that report now, just send it!
Human Factors Improving Assertiveness: Record the incident in a personal log Refuse to compromise your standards! Clearly communicate the consequences Verbally and In writing
Human Factors Stress The non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it.
Human Factors Managing Stress Don’t make mountains out of mole hills Look rationally at a problem Break plans down into small steps Always be aware how stress personally affects your work Take a break to clear your mind Ask for advice or help from someone you can trust (ombudsman)
Human Factors Lack of awareness: Failure to realize consequences of actions
Human Factors Improving awareness: Think about all the functions required to complete the total task Will your work conflict with some other person or process? Ask others if they can see any problems with the work – both upstream and downstream
Human Factors NORMS: “Never mind the “right way”, it’s quicker the way I do it…!”
Human Factors Improving NORMS: Always follow the approved process If the process is not documented, then document the process by seeking collective input Be aware that “norms” do not make it right!
Human Factors Summary We have a choice.. Attitude is everything Use knowledge, awareness, resources to break the chain of events Be aware of poor work habits! Stay Aware!! Our Future Business Depends on It!!