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Human factors

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  • 1. Understanding HumanFactors
  • 2. The Origin of Human Factors A Program Initially Designed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) The Focus is on the Employees who Build and Maintain All Aircraft Engines and Aircraft The Tools & Techniques have been Modified for the Needs of ALL Businesses
  • 3. The Objective To characterize the impact of environmental (external and internal) and individual factors on human performance To understand the Chain of Events that cause defects or errors in daily business operations These events can lead to the endangerment of the employee and / or the customer of the product or service To create awareness and to examine the human role in the workplace
  • 4. Human Factors DefinitionHuman factors entails a multidisciplinary effort to generate information about human capabilities and limitations. This information is applied to equipment, systems, facilities, procedures, and job training, for continual and effective human performance.
  • 5. Human FactorsWhat characterizes an effective employee?
  • 6. Human Factors Attributes Dependable  Doesn’t like to ask for  Willing to put in effort help and hours  Tends to be self-  High Integrity sufficient  Modest  Like to think things out on his/her own  Distrust of words  Doesn’t share thoughts  Prefers to be allowed too frequently to make his / her own decisions
  • 7. Human Factors – The DirtyDozen It has been determined by researching mistakes caused by people, that one or more of 12 common denominators (clues) are usually present. These are referred to as “The Dirty Dozen” root causes.
  • 8. Human Factors – The Dirty Dozen Daily Pressures Communication Awareness  Lack of communication  Complacency  Lack of knowledgeKnowledge Distraction  Distractions Stress Fatigue  Lack of teamwork  Fatigue Resources Norms  Lack of resourcesPressure Teamwork  Pressure  Lack of assertiveness  Stress  Lack of awareness Complacency Assertiveness  Norms
  • 9. Human Factors Communication:  Written  Verbal ond  Tone of Voice esp le r nt  Body Language P eop fere o dif of ion ! t es nicat typ mu com Not always in a positive way!
  • 10. Human FactorsDoes this sound familiar? “What you heard and what I said are two different things.” “And what you think I said is definitely not what I meant.”
  • 11. Human Factors To Improve communication:  Learn to listen  Ask questions  Paraphrase  Make eye contact  Use positive body language  Approved process/worksheets  Discuss open items on paperwork  NEVER ASSUME ANYTHING!!
  • 12. Human Factors Complacency:  A conscious or unconscious relaxation of one’s usual standards in making decisions and taking actions.
  • 13. Human Factors Improving Complacency:  Train yourself to expect to find a problem  Tasks are most likely included in the work instructions because of potential critical failure or past historical failures  NEVER pass along work without insuring its correctness
  • 14. Human Factors Lack of Knowledge  Failure to provide adequate training  Lack of confidence to ask questions Why do we always have trouble with this?
  • 15. Human Factors Lack of Knowledge:  Understand each step of what you are doing or...  If you don’t have the knowledge, talk to someone who does  Seek training on the type of work to be performed  Always use current procedures and work instructions  If it’s new- don’t be afraid to ask!
  • 16. Human Factors Lack of Teamwork  Failure to understand Roles  No Teamwork Training You had the  Not understanding the instructions in your hand, benefits of working in teams I thought you knew what to do!
  • 17. Human Factors Improving Teamwork:  Provide instructions for working in teams  Discuss what, who and how a job is to be done  Be sure that everyone understands and agrees
  • 18. Human Factors Distraction:  To draw one’s attention away  To confuse by unclear instructions  Excessive non-work related activities
  • 19. Human Factors Improving Distraction:  Know where you left off the uncompleted work  When you return to the job, go back and review a few steps in the process  Use check sheets to avoid errors  If in doubt…make a write-up of the uncompleted tasks
  • 20. Human Factors Fatigue:  The result of intense physical or mental activity at a single task  Causes:  Temperature variations  Excess Noise  Strong lighting  Long work hours
  • 21. Fatigue: Definition “Fatigue denotes a state represented by a loss in efficiency and a general disinclination to work” (Grandjean, 1988. Human Factors Journal, 1994)
  • 22. Human Factors Improving Fatigue:  Be aware of the symptoms of fatigue and look for them in yourself and others  Sleep and exercise regularly  Ask others to check your work  Avoid excessive overtime
  • 23. Human Factors Resource Pressures:  Making do with less  Examples:  Inexpensive / Inadequate Tools or equipment  Outdated computers or software  Unreliable Copiers  Inadequate Lighting  Outdated Manuals or Process Documentation
  • 24. Human Factors Improving Resource Pressures:  Make a list of required resources that will reduce work pressures  Track the progress
  • 25. Human Factors Pressure:  To complete the work on- time (when expected)  Most often, the pressure comes from within ourselves
  • 26. Human Factors Reducing Work Pressure:  Ensure the pressure isn’t self-induced  Communicate your concerns upward  Ask for help
  • 27. Human Factors Lack of Assertiveness Listen, I need that report now, just send it!
  • 28. Human Factors Improving Assertiveness:  Record the incident in a personal log  Refuse to compromise your standards!  Clearly communicate the consequences  Verbally and  In writing
  • 29. Human Factors Stress  The non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it.
  • 30. Human Factors Managing Stress  Don’t make mountains out of mole hills  Look rationally at a problem  Break plans down into small steps  Always be aware how stress personally affects your work  Take a break to clear your mind  Ask for advice or help from someone you can trust (ombudsman)
  • 31. Human Factors Lack of awareness:  Failure to realize consequences of actions
  • 32. Human Factors Improving awareness:  Think about all the functions required to complete the total task  Will your work conflict with some other person or process?  Ask others if they can see any problems with the work – both upstream and downstream
  • 33. Human Factors NORMS:  “Never mind the “right way”, it’s quicker the way I do it…!”
  • 34. Human Factors Improving NORMS:  Always follow the approved process  If the process is not documented, then document the process by seeking collective input  Be aware that “norms” do not make it right!
  • 35. Human Factors Summary We have a choice.. Attitude is everything Use knowledge, awareness, resources to break the chain of events Be aware of poor work habits! Stay Aware!! Our Future Business Depends on It!!