1 Hf Research Journey

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  • Looking at the tier from another angle, students go from broad searches to narrow searches.
  • History Helpers covers every aspect of doing research and completing a final project. Students will find everything from analysis sheets to recommended websites.
  • J-Store or History Cooperative will be available at college libraries or Newberry Library. The CPL or America: History and Life will take students to scholarly articles, AHL doesn’t begin til 1954.
  • Websites that are based on actual primary sources and contain essays by historians are highly recommended.
  • Students can also find PRIMARY SOURCES through journal articles. Look at citation and ask students to discuss why this article might be considered a primary source.
  • Many Special Collections will list the collections available. At UIC, they even organize it for History Fair students by topic! Other places, students will need to look at the list and see if anything sounds right, or call the archives and describe their topic.
  • Sample of a Finding Aid. Using the “real stuff” can take your students’ projects—and enthusiasm—to new heights!
  • This is not an example of the best annotated bibliography. How could it be improved? Check out the bibliographies in our “Gallery.”
  • 1 Hf Research Journey

    1. 1. The History Fair Research Journey
    2. 2. Doing History Fair is like being a detective <ul><li>Untangling a mystery (History Fair historical question and thesis) through research </li></ul><ul><li>Finding evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Building a case </li></ul>DN-0078953, Chicago Daily News negatives collection, Chicago Historical Society
    3. 3. Each stage of the research journey calls for different sources that move from the general to the specific, from secondary sources to primary sources. STAGE 3: IN DEPTH Secondary Sources Specialized, narrow-focused books and journals by experts, historians Primary Sources Actual papers and records in archives and special collections, more online digitized primary sources, interviews with participants, witnesses <ul><li>STAGE 2: ON TOPIC </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago History books and magazine articles, general history books on topic </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Found in books, magazines, digitized special collections or online databases and portals </li></ul>STAGE 1: General Secondary Sources Encyclopedia Textbook General history books One or two primary sources Make History Here!
    4. 4. Stage 1– Basic Knowledge <ul><li>TYPES OF SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>General and Specialized Encyclopedia (includes Wikipedia) </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook </li></ul><ul><li>General history books </li></ul><ul><li>One or two primary sources </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the key people? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key events? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does it fit on a larger timeline? </li></ul><ul><li>What information sparks my curiosity and helps me narrow my topic? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Stage 2 – On Narrowed Topic <ul><li>TYPES OF SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago and Illinois history books and magazine articles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General history books on topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular history magazines and periodicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Museum exhibits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available from books, magazines, digitized special collections or online databases and portals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>What is the context? </li></ul><ul><li>Why and how did these events happen? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the causes and effects? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the various motivations, perspectives, and concerns of the people involved? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this story fit into the big picture? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Stage 3 – In-depth <ul><li>TYPES OF SOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized, narrow-focused books and journals by experts, historians </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with experts and historians </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Special collections and archives, more online collections </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews with participants, witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>What key arguments do historians make? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think matters about this topic? What story are you going to tell? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the core issues? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does this topic matter--what is the big picture? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the long-term historical significance of this topic? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Key Sources for Research <ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AVOID websites as secondary sources unless credible authors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary & Primary Sources from books, journal and magazine articles, and special collections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical collections at libraries and archives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Witnesses, participants = primary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experts, scholars, second-hand = secondary </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. ON-LINE DATABASES PORTALS & INVISIBLE INTERNET WEBSITES “ The Internet”
    9. 9. Online Databases <ul><li>Examples of databases: </li></ul><ul><li>America History Online (Facts on File) </li></ul><ul><li>J-Stor </li></ul><ul><li>History Cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>America: History & Life </li></ul><ul><li>First Search </li></ul><ul><li>History Database </li></ul><ul><li>ABC-CLIO </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary sources for basic information, background, and overview. </li></ul><ul><li>Some will contain primary source materials </li></ul><ul><li>Some will give citations—then need to see to get the journal (often on microfiche) </li></ul><ul><li>Some will have full-text, scanned versions of articles </li></ul>
    10. 10. Portals lead to the websites that contain primary sources…
    11. 12. Google, Yahoo are NOT sources – they are S earch Engines (It might help to think of them as library card catalogs… that get you to the sources you need.)
    12. 13. Deciphering a URL <ul><li>.edu = </li></ul><ul><li>.com= </li></ul><ul><li>.org= </li></ul><ul><li>.gov= </li></ul><ul><li>.net= </li></ul><ul><li>--which can be trusted (credible)??? </li></ul><ul><li>Who wrote the piece and why is she/he an expert? When was the site updated? Who “owns” the site? </li></ul>
    13. 14. Are you working for Google or is Google working for you? <ul><li>Getting 2,000,000 hits on your query? </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling up sites that give you the same old same old over and over again? </li></ul><ul><li>Not sure of the website’s credibility? </li></ul>
    14. 15. When you use Google: Command Google…. <ul><li>Group words together: “Juvenile Court History” </li></ul><ul><li>Use 2 commands together: “Juvenile Court History” + Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Specify type of website: “juvenile court history”:gov or “juvenile court history”:edu </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO: </li></ul><ul><li>Use the “Advanced Search” options. </li></ul><ul><li>Use metacrawlers and directories…. </li></ul><ul><li>Googlebooks and Google Scholar….. </li></ul>
    15. 16. WHAT’S UP WITH Wikipedia? It’s a beginning reference -- just like a general encyclopedia which means its only background information – not a valid History Fair secondary source. The citations, however, can be useful in finding real books and articles.
    16. 17. Secondary Sources are First!* *but you will find primary sources along the way, too!
    17. 18. A Superior Detective will… <ul><li>Keep track of your leads: What keywords, terms, or tags you used and star those especially helpful. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep organized and use active notetaking! Use your own words and ask questions as your take notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Get all bibliographic information at the same time. You may think you’ll remember…. </li></ul>Info or quotes Questions & ideas CITATION
    18. 19. Always start your History Fair research: Encyclopedia of Chicago <ul><li>Key, basic information </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline for context: social, political, cultural, economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Themes to help understand bigger picture: for example, Americanization, racism, contested space, political cultural </li></ul><ul><li>References to quality secondary sources </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sources, maps, graphs </li></ul>Available as a book at every public library or online @ www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org
    19. 20. Links to other entries Primary source Author Important secondary sources recommended by author Similar narrow topic can be very helpful in building knowledge
    20. 21. Chicago Public Library Harold Washington Library, Local & Regional Branches, & Online <ul><li>Books, magazines, journals, newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Online databases that contain secondary and some primary sources </li></ul><ul><li>Online primary sources </li></ul><ul><li>Special collections with one of a kind or rare materials for primary sources—Harsh Collection at Woodson & Sulzer regionals + downtown </li></ul>
    21. 22. Strategies to get the most out of CPL online <ul><li>Research the catalog at home or school computer so when you go to the library you can go right to the books or journals you need </li></ul><ul><li>Jot down call #s and the location in the library. </li></ul><ul><li>Many online databases are available at HOME with a valid CPL Library card or at neighborhood branches. </li></ul>
    22. 23. CPL has two “pathfinders” to support History Fair research
    23. 24. Shows the library, location, and call # -- an efficient way to find similar topics If not at your local branch, place a “hold” on book and it will be delivered to your local library Books are categorized a number of ways. Use subjects to find related titles
    24. 25. Another way to use the CPL catalog The “tags” or groups that appear on the side can lead more materials on the topic – choose what seems most relevant for your needs
    25. 26. www.chicagopubliclibrary.org Some material at CPL will qualify as primary sources.
    26. 27. BIG TIP <ul><li>“ Follow the Footnotes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE BEST SECONDAY SOURCES CAN LEAD TO: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OTHER KEY SECONDARY SOURCES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WHERE TO FIND PRIMARY SOURCES Such as special collections or newspaper and magazine dates… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AND WILL OFTEN CONTAIN PRIMARY SOURCES STUDENTS CAN USE! </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. PRIMARY SOURCES: A person’s “PAPERS” in Special Collections or newspaper articles written at that time SECONDARY SOURCES: Journal and newspaper articles, books, & dissertations
    28. 29. Why use history journals? <ul><li>Background information </li></ul><ul><li>Learn other historians’ interpretations – this is called “joining the conversation” </li></ul><ul><li>Often a work-in-progress of a longer book by the historian </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sources </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to more secondary and primary sources – “follow the footnotes” </li></ul>
    29. 30. History journals such as Chicago History or the Journal of American History contain both secondary & primary sources These kinds of journals are INDEXED in “America: History & Life” and J-Stor.
    30. 31. J-STOR offers FULL TEXT quality secondary source articles by historians and other scholars dating from as far back as 1899 until the 1990s. Now available at all CPL branches (but not from home)!
    31. 33. History Fair Bibliographies at www.chicagohistory.org Use CHM bibliographies to find as many sources as possible through CPL, so when you go to the resource center at CHM, you are looking at sources you can’t get elsewhere!
    32. 34. Amazon.com can help find recent books that may be important for your research. Many new books will show Table of Contents or Index so you can figure out if you need to look at it. Also, “other books bought” and tags can take you to more sources to look for at the library. Do you think CPL will have this book?
    33. 35. Primary Sources All kinds of material from the time period that are the “voices from the past” and can be found wherever things have been saved. Depending on the topic, search online, at libraries-archives-special collections, organizations and businesses, and perhaps your even your own home!
    34. 36. Primary sources are the “stuff of history” that make history come alive and are the evidence for your argument.
    35. 37. Portals lead to the websites that contain primary sources… For example…
    36. 38. American Memory and other websites at the Library of Congress
    37. 40. Library Congress contains more than photographs!
    38. 41. The best websites are composed mostly of primary sources. In some cases, they are subject-based and organized.
    39. 43. Chicago History Museum sources that contain both primary and secondary sources. Ask to see the printed materials, and Special Collections—but only after you’ve done your background research!
    40. 44. J-STOR: available online AT any Chicago Library branch Why is this article a primary source? What might you gain from reading it?
    41. 46. Students in Special Collections?
    42. 47. YES!
    43. 48. Where to Find Special Collections History Fair website
    44. 49. Websites often list what RECORDS & PAPERS they hold offer a description of what a research may find. The librarians and archivists know their collections best, so call to talk about research before going.
    45. 50. Some websites even have “finding aids” so you can see exactly what is in the collection!
    46. 51. Chicago Historical Museum Research Center Students must make an appointment to use research center. The real treasures are in the Manuscripts & Papers, printed catalog, and photo archives. Check out “Archie” to begin your search into the special collections. A CHM librarian’s support is crucial.
    47. 52. Government Documents <ul><li>Municipal (city) Reference Library & Government Documents at CPL has city documents such as city council proceedings, laws, reports from city agencies, and proposals. Government Documents has laws, executive orders, congressional hearings, and other material from the state and U.S. government. </li></ul><ul><li>National Archives & Records Administration (NARA) has one of its six branches in Chicago & YOU can use any of the material such as court documents, immigration papers, reports and photos from local agencies, military records, and patents. </li></ul>
    48. 53. A word about INTERVIEWS <ul><li>Primary source = a witness or participant </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary source = an expert or scholar or someone telling you what someone else told them… </li></ul><ul><li>ALWAYS DO BASIC RESEARCH BEFORE YOU INTERVIEW! </li></ul>
    49. 54. Visit Historic Sites & Museums Going to the places where history happened or taking a close look at the &quot;real stuff&quot; in museums helps students visualize the history that they've been researching and is an exciting part of doing History Fair. The guides at historic sites and museums can offer many insights – still, they are secondary sources.
    50. 55. Write down the information for your source as you go along. The Annotated Bibliography <ul><li>An annotated bibliography is composed of the citation and a brief description of each article or book listed and how it was used. The description helps the reader evaluate the content and usefulness of each item to his/her research—and shows the judges the students’ historical journey. </li></ul><ul><li>(Attach to the Summary Statement Form.) </li></ul>
    51. 56. Bibliographic Information maybe either MLA or Turabian (CMS) style. The annotation summarizes the source and explains how it was used in project. Primary and Secondary Sources should be separated.
    52. 57. There are 3 parts to an annotated bibliography “ Battle for the World’s Fair Site.” Chicago Daily Tribune 23 September 1889, 4. In this article, the Chicago Tribune stated that Chicago would only have to worry about New York getting the World’s Fair, which I used to prove that because Washington did not have enough money, and St. Louis entered the competition late, they were not big competitors. Summary of the information used Explanation of how it was used for evidence The Citation
    53. 58. If you have access to the internet, use Easybib.com or Citationmaker.com Best style for projects is “CMS” which means “Chicago Manual of Style” otherwise known as “Turabian.” MLA is acceptable. (Remember to save on your own disk in a Word file!) Tips for Citations
    54. 59. When does the History Fair research journey end?

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