Our Herbal Roots - Presentation by Brigitte Zettl


Published on

Our relationship with roots goes back a long way! This presentation is an overview of Missouri's herbs and roots, identification, wildcrafting ethics, usage and storage.

These slides were part of a class by Brigitte Zettl. We are certainly pleased to share the slides, but we want to emphasize that the slides were only visual reminders for the in-depth verbal information given in the class.

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Top picture from Naples Dioscurides a 7th Century Greek Herbal
    Lower illustration from Hortus Sanitatus 1497
    Referenced in the book of Genesis as a means to remove sterility
    Used in the days of Pliny as a surgical anesthetic
    Was said to utter such shrieks and groans upon being dug that anyone who heard would die (dog’s tail)
  • Digitalis vs. Comfrey…a deadly mistake
  • Criteria - available, useful, mostly safe
  • Our Herbal Roots - Presentation by Brigitte Zettl

    1. 1. OUR HERBAL ROOTS Presentation By: Brigitte Zettl
    2. 2. Our Herbal Roots?   - Our relationship with roots goes back a long way! Consider Mandragora autumnalis: Top picture from a 7th century Greek Herbal Bottom picture from Hortus Sanitatus - 1497 Mandrake is even referred to in Genesis
    3. 3. When to Harvest Roots?  Roots, Rhizomes, Tubers, & Bulbs should be harvested in autumn after the aerial parts have begun to die down  It is a good idea to observe the plant throughout the growing season before harvesting Spading Fork
    4. 4. Proper Identification Foxglove In the 80s a scandal occurred and some died when a wildcrafter mistook Foxglove for Comfrey Comfrey
    5. 5. Wildcrafting Ethics     Especially important when harvesting roots! 1 in 20 rule for natives Leave a portion of root so the plant can return! With ‘To Watch’ or U.P.S. listed plants it is better to grow them yourself!
    6. 6. How to Clean & Store Roots? Wash with water and a brush  Chop into smaller pieces  Spread on a screen so pieces are not overlapping  Keep in a shady, dry place with good airflow  Burdock Drying
    7. 7. Storage & Use Keep fully dried roots in an airtight glass container  Use or extract within one year to maintain potency 
    8. 8. What Phytochemicals are Commonly Found in Roots? Polysaccharides Mucilages Sterols Triterpenes Alkaloids o An example is the polysaccharide inulin which is found in burdock, echinacea and dandelion root Inulin Molecule
    9. 9. Extracting Root Compounds General rule for roots is 30-45% ethanol unless it is volatile oil you are targeting  For mucilage stick to cold water or 25% ethanol 
    10. 10. Tinctures Making is Easy! You need at least 30% alcohol for your extraction to stay good without refrigeration  Everclear is about 100% alcohol so it is easy to mix with water and get the correct percentage. Let’s do an example: o You plan to do a 1:5 ratio extraction in 40% alcohol (as suggested by Tilgner’s chart - see recommended reading at the end) o Your container holds just over 10 ounces of liquid so you need 4 ounces of Everclear, and 6 ounces of water for 40% alcohol o 10 ounces is = to about 300 mL so you will need 60 grams of herb (60:300 = 1:5) o Then just mix all the ingredients, seal the lid of the jar and shake daily for 10-14 days until straining and pressing the tincture out through cheesecloth. 
    11. 11. Using Your Tincture o o   It is important to check out a good Herb/Drug interaction book if you are already taking medication so you can make sure the combination of this herb and your drug is safe! Just like certain foods, herbs can conflict with pharmaceuticals. When you are ready to use your tincture you will want to look at a reliable source to find out how many grams of herb are recommended per dose, and how many times a day you will need to take your dose Once you know the recommended grams of herb per dose for your ailment, you just need to multiply that number by your mL ratio on your tincture. For example: It is recommended that you take 3 grams of herb per dose, your tincture has 1 gram herb/5 mL liquid. 5 mL x 3 grams = 15 mL per dose
    12. 12. Missouri’s Herbal Roots Criteria = Available - Useful - Mostly Safe
    13. 13. Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa) Family: Ranunculaceae Habitat: Rich upland woods and hillsides Description: Alternate leaves are thrice divided and sharply toothed. White flowers bloom in a terminal raceme from May-September. 3-8’ tall in flower. Stamen tufts conspicuous.
    14. 14. Black Cohosh (a.k.a. Cimicifuga racemosa) Properties: Antispasmodic, sedative, diaphoretic, digestive stimulant, expectorant, peripheral vasodilator, hypotensive, female reproductive tract tonic, anti-inflammatory
    15. 15. Black Cohosh o o o o o o At least 10 clinical studies have found this plant to be effective in the treatment of menopause German gynecologists have prescribed it as medicine for the last 40 years It is particularly indicated for painful menstruation, hot flashes, and as a sedative American Indians used it for childbirth In the 19th century it was often prescribed for rheumatic pain by American doctors It is contraindicated during the first tri-mester of pregnancy
    16. 16. Burdock (Arctium lappa) Family: Asteraceae Habitat: Waste areas and shaded soil, pasture lands Description: Biennial grows 2-9’ tall. Globose flower heads with hook-tipped green bracts and purple tubular discflorets that bloom in terminal clusters from July to September. Leaves emerge as a basal rosette with very large heart-shaped leaves low on the stem.
    17. 17. Burdock Properties: Alterative, antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, diuretic, digestive stimulant, promotes blood and lymph circulation, liver tonic, choleretic, antimutagenic, mild laxative
    18. 18. Burdock o o o o o Clinical trials have shown root polysaccharides to exibit antitumor effects One of the main ingredients in Essiac Tea Traditionally used for chronic skin eruptions such as acne, psoriasis, eczema, boils, and sties By stimulating the natural flow of lymphatic fluid it supports excretion of toxins from cells Used by the early settlers and Indians as a tonic and compress.
    19. 19. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) Family: Boraginaceae Habitat: Waste grounds, often persistent in old garden sites Description: Square stem branched near top; black turnip like root. Alternate, ovate to lanceolate leaves feel roughly hairy to the touch. Higher leaves are narrower with winged clasps down stem. Bell flowers are cream, purple or pink in nodding cymes JuneAugust.
    20. 20. Comfrey Properties: o Used externally for contusions, sprains, dislocations, wounds, burns, ulcers, and any other inflammatory skin disorder o Not recommended for internal use due to Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid presence
    21. 21. Comfrey o o o Promotes cell proliferation due to the presence of allantoin Considered a very important organic gardening herb Known by early American settlers as ‘Knitbone’ and was used frequently to speed the healing of fractures and broken bones.
    22. 22. Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Family: Asteraceae Habitat: Open prairies and where they meet the forest edge, glades Description: 2-3 feet tall in flower. Leaves are oval and coarsely toothed. Bristle tips of flower discs are orange. Rays can be purple or white. Root is fibrous, not tap.
    23. 23. Echinacea Properties: Antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, adrenal stimulant, stimulates leukocytes, enhances phagocytosis
    24. 24. Echinacea o o o o Fibrous Root o 8 week double blind study found effective in preventing respiratory infections 10 week study found to prevent reoccurring bouts of Candidiasis Activates macrophages to cytotoxicity against tumor cells and microorganisms and increases Tlymphocytes Enhances the immune system’s resistance to infections Used by Plains Indians (poisinous bites, wound healing, cold and flu, cancer & toothaches)
    25. 25. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Family: Asteraceae Habitat: Waste places, compacted soil Description: 2-18” in height, flowering stalk with milky juice, leaves jagged cut with downward toothing. Yellow flower from May - September
    26. 26. Dandelion Properties: Bitter tonic, cholagogue, choleretic, mild laxative, diuretic, mineral rich (Potassium especially), antiplatelet aggregating action
    27. 27. Dandelion o o o o Used for arthritis, gout, high blood pressure,high cholesterol, edema, and abnormal blood sugar levels Taken as a long term tonic for liver revitalization, for loss of appetite, non-ulcer dyspepsia, eczema, and as a “blood purifier” Root best for fructose in Spring and Inulin in Fall Used by early American settlers for multiple ailments
    28. 28. American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Family: Arailiaceae Habitat: Found in rich woods in deep shade on North facing limestone slopes at higher elevations in MO Description: Grows 1-2’ in height. Leaves are palmately divided, into sharp toothed, oblong-lance shaped leaflets. Flowers are whitish in round umbels from June to July. Fruits are 2-seeded red berries that ripen and set seed in late summer/early autumn.
    29. 29. Ginseng Properties: Adaptogen, general tonic, antitumor, anitviral, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, antiinflammatory, anti-ulcer, analgesic, supports nervous system and endocrine, antifatigue, corrects erectile dysfunction, enhances endurance, blood sugar balancing, reduces bad cholesterol (LDL) and raises good cholesterol (HDL), minimizes cell damage from radiation, enhances metablolic activity in the brain (transfer of energy)
    30. 30. Ginseng o o o o o Most American ginseng harvested is shipped to Asia where it is considered a ‘Fountain of Youth’ herb The emperors of China took ginseng on a daily basis It was nearly harvested into extinction in the late 80’s and early 90’s The root has scars near the top that tell how old the plant is, roots over 5 years old have the highest amount of ginsenosides Contraindicated in pregnancy
    31. 31. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) Family: Ranunculaceae Habitat: Rich woods in deep shade on Northern facing slopes Description: 6-12” in height. Usually 2 leaves on a forked branch but sometimes just one. Leaves are rounded with 5-7 lobes with a double toothed margin.
    32. 32. Goldenseal Properties: Alterative, astringent, adrenolytic, styptic, bitter tonic, antimicrobial, peripheral vasoconstrictor
    33. 33. Goldenseal o o o o Clinically berberine has been shown effective against giardia, cholera, amebiasis, and other bacteria, yeast, and protozoa Contraindicated in pregnancy Cherokee mixed with bear grease as insect repellant Settlers adopeted native use of this plant for sore skin, eyes, & mouth and sniffed powder for sinus infections
    34. 34. Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium purpureaum ) Family: Asteraceae Habitat: Tall-grass prairie, wet open places Description: Grows up to 12’ tall. Stems are green and purple at the leaf nodes. Pale pinkpurple flowers borne in somewhat rounded cluster. Often mistaken for E. maculatum. E. purpureum has short petioles, 7 tufts in the flower cluster, and does not have spotted stems.
    35. 35. Joe Pye Weed Properties: Diuretic, emmenagogue, promotes excretion of solid materials in urine, reduces inflammation of the genitourinary tract, blood purifier for chronic rheumatic complaints
    36. 36. Joe Pye Weed o o o o o Eupatorium comes from Mithridates Eupator, King of Pontus, Greece, who is said to have used the species in medicine in the first century B.C. Joepye is said to come from an Indian of that name who cured typhus with it by enducing copious perspiration Could be found in Eclectic drug stores in 1859 Chippewa used as a wash for sore joints May contain Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
    37. 37. Milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa) Family: Asclepidaceae Habitat: Dry roadsides and prairies Description: Stem erect, hairy and without milky juice; leaves lance-shaped and velvety beneath; flowers have five petals that bend downward and are a showy orange (bloom MaySeptember)
    38. 38. Butterfly Milkweed Properties: o Anti-rheumatic, cardiotonic, diaphoretic, expectorant, antispasmodic o Specific for bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza
    39. 39. Butterfly Milkweed o o o o o Used by settlers to relieve inflammation of lungs and throat Listed as an official medicine in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia from 18201904 Omaha, Menomoni and other tribes used root to treat dysentery, pleurisy, and pnemonia. Cheyenne made a medicine for snow blindness from this plant Symbiotic partner with Monarch Butterflies
    40. 40. Rattlesnake Master (Eryngium yuccifolium) Family: Apiaceae Habitat: Prairies, dry rocky open woodlands Description: Leaves are alternate, linear, parallel-veined, with bristly margins and a bluish cast; Dense flowers produce tiny white petals in spherical clusters blooming September-November; Fruit is ovoid and scaly with two small segments.
    41. 41. Rattlesnake Master Properties: Used for erectile dysfunction, and female reproductive disorders
    42. 42. Rattlesnake Master o o o o Chewing the root is said to increase saliva flow American Indians used as a poultice for venomous bites and toothaches Was listed in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia from 18201873 and was recommended for “exhaustion from sexual depletion with loss of erectile power” Early settlers used for treating dropsy, laryngitis, bronchitis, gonorrhea and other irritations of urethra, vaginal, and uterine mucous membranes
    43. 43. A Few Left Out               Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) Hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens) Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa) Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) Yellow Dock (Rumex crispus) Sarsasparilla (Smilax racemosa) Sweet Cicely (Osmorhiza spp.) Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) Wild Geranium (Geranium maculata) May Apple (Podophyllum peltatum) Wild Ginger (Asaurum canadensis) Snakeroot (Arisaema spp.) Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) Chicory (Cichorium intybus)