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Word Of Mouth Presentation

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Our word of mouth/advocacy research for Guardian News & Media. …

Our word of mouth/advocacy research for Guardian News & Media.

Our brief was to examine the dynamics of word of mouth, how it compares across different product categories, and ultimately to create a powerful sales case for The Guardian (print and online).

Published in: Economy & Finance, Business

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  • 1. Word Exposure Engagement of mouth
  • 2. The hypothesis Engaged Connected Influential
  • 3. Engagement Evidence that A definition and Proof that higher the Guardian and quantitative media engagement = Observer are highly measure of media higher advertising engaging and engagement for engagement / deliver ‘engageable’ national newspapers effectiveness audiences for advertisers
  • 4. Connected Influential Word of mouth
  • 5. • A framework for identifying influencers • Establishing GNM role in the process • Adding to industry understanding
  • 6. Consumers rely on others opinions Header Text “Individuals are in a state of information anxiety so they turn to their friends and say ‘tell me what I should do’” Steve Barton, Head of WOM UK Source:
  • 7. How we’ve proved this Nationall y rep telephon resentative e survey arch D esk rese Network audit Expert in terviews
  • 8. Theme identification Desk research
  • 9. Influential people are connected to both people and information
  • 10. Influential people are connected to both people and information Influential people: • Greater access to new information • More receptive to new information • Greater ability to share information • And in a more persuasive manner
  • 11. Theme exploration Expert interviews Steve Ba d rton eenwoo Presiden Je ssica Gr ontagious t, WOMU K itor, C De puty ed isholm, Fraser Ch Royal Mail edia Pro positions, Head of M r, Wildfire er, Directo Ivan Palm earch fell ow an saray, Res Ayodele M Digita Anna Raff l PearsoMarketin erty n / Pe g Direc nguin t Grouor, p
  • 12. Influential people • The importance of Weak Ties in the flow of information WEAK TIES • The ability to contextualise and make ideas relevant BRIDGING CAPITAL • The willingness to modify ones’ opinions STATUS BARGAIN
  • 13. Social networks Strong Ties Weak Ties
  • 14. ‘Strong Ties help us get by, Weak Ties help us to get on’ Ayodele Mansaray, Strong and Weak Ties Social Researcher Social glue Social oil Weak Ties Strong Ties Colleague, friend of a friend, extended family, Close friends and family person met through hobby, activity or online
  • 15. Weak Ties The foundation of word of mouth ‘Diversity can give amplification.’ Ayodele Mansaray, Social Researcher ‘… if you target Weak Ties you get the power of amplification.’ Ivan Palmer, Wildfire
  • 16. Influential people • The importance of Weak Ties in the flow of information WEAK TIES • The ability to contextualise and make ideas relevant BRIDGING CAPITAL • The willingness to modify ones’ opinions STATUS BARGAIN
  • 17. Influencers possess Bridging Capital ‘They help you see why it’s important that you watch this movie, or buy that type of health insurance…’ • Contextualise Steve Barton, WOM UK • Package • Make relevant ‘We partnered with Mercury Music for a Penguin Classics campaign because it seems like a beautiful arrangement. So you get Razorlight selecting The Great Gatsby as their favourite read.’ Anna Rafferty, Pearson / Penguin Group
  • 18. Bridging Capital Social Capital + Cultural Capital • Size and diversity of Social network Capital • Ability to spread messages Bridging Capital Cultural • Accumulated knowledge Capital • Ability to influence others
  • 19. Influential people • The importance of Weak Ties in the flow of information WEAK TIES • The ability to contextualise and make ideas relevant BRIDGING CAPITAL • The willingness to modify ones’ opinions STATUS BARGAIN
  • 20. Status Bargain A willingness to modify opinion is key Status Bargain A modification of opinion on the ‘It’s the person who is able to assimilate basis that it will be improved and more information and see how different the individual will benefit from points of view can fit together.’ the increased understanding. Ivan Palmer, Wildfire ‘If a person is able to take on a new recommendation, that’s the person you feel has actually thought about what they are saying, rather than someone who says, ‘I only like books by Dan Brown.’ Anna Rafferty, Pearson / Penguin Group
  • 21. The core of influence Weak Ties Status Bridging Bargain Capital
  • 22. Identifying influencers Ahead in Adoption Not the classic early adopters but ahead of the mainstream Connected The range and frequency of contact is important Traveller Getting out there, accumulating knowledge and experience Information Hungry Constantly seeking out and exchanging information Vocal Keen to discuss thoughts and exchange experiences Exposed to Media Voracious consumers of mass media
  • 23. Identifying influencers ‘All of these are strong indicators’ Ivan Palmer, Wildfire Ahead in Adoption Not the classic early adopters but ahead of the mainstream Connected The range and frequency of contact is important Traveller Getting out there, accumulating knowledge and experience Information Hungry Constantly seeking out and exchanging information Vocal Keen to discuss thoughts and exchange experiences Exposed to Media Voracious consumers of mass media
  • 24. How we’ve proved this arch D esk rese Expert in terviews
  • 25. How we’ve proved this Nationall y rep telephon resentative e survey arch D esk rese Network audit Expert in terviews
  • 26. Testing our thinking Network audit GNM Non-GNM
  • 27. Testing our thinking Network audit GNM Non-GNM
  • 28. Testing our thinking Network audit 350 INTERVIEWS GNM Non-GNM 10 NETWORKS
  • 29. Testing ACTIVE A measure of influence A CONTACT SELF 3 GNM A 4 Non-GNM 2 C 3 4 T 2 4 I 4 3 V 5 2 E 3
  • 30. Quantification of concepts Nationally representative survey • BMRB • Composition of personal network • TGI re contact • Frequency and method of contact • 1,359 20 minute telephone interviews • The sharing of information and • 1,159 nationally representative experiences • 200 GNM boost – weighted back to • Sources of advice and support main sample • Levels of digital interaction • Fused to TGI
  • 31. The core of influence Weak Ties Status Bridging Bargain Capital
  • 32. Weak Ties are vital They enhance the transfer of information
  • 33. Weak Ties are vital They enhance the transfer of information Darryl Perry 35, film producer, London GNM consumer • Music and film • Important to pass on recommendations and advice • Lots of Weak Ties • A cosmopolitan social network • People he doesn’t know so well provide new and useful ideas Weak Ties; ACTIVE (Connected; Traveller)
  • 34. Weak Ties are vital They enhance the transfer of information ‘My friend Bjorn and I are pretty well connected through Darryl Perry the work we do with 35, film producer, London magazines, and organisations GNM consumer like the ICA.’ • Music and film • Important to pass on ‘Darryl is a bit of tastemaker, recommendations and advice he’s always coming up with • Lots of Weak Ties things you haven’t heard of, • A cosmopolitan social network and generally, he’s pretty spot on. I’d usually trust him when • People he doesn’t know so well it comes to a tip on a film to provide new and useful ideas watch or CD to buy.’ Weak Ties; ACTIVE (Connected; Traveller)
  • 35. Weak Ties are vital They enhance the transfer of information Amy Thomas 21, student, Newcastle GNM consumer • Highlighted by many, particularly Weak Ties, as a reliable source of information • Vague contacts agreed she was experienced and trustworthy Weak Ties; ACTIVE (Connected; Information Hungry)
  • 36. Weak Ties are vital They enhance the transfer of information ‘People trust me because they know I’m always trying to find out about stuff. I’ve got two young kids, and I found that when I became a mum I started needing to do more research Amy Thomas into things.’ 21, student, Newcastle GNM consumer ‘Amy is well worth listening to. • Highlighted by many, If you hear about something particularly Weak Ties, as a that she thinks is good it’s reliable source of information probably worth your while to • Vague contacts agreed she was give it a try. She’s very smart experienced and trustworthy when it comes to a bargain.’ Weak Ties; ACTIVE (Connected; Information Hungry)
  • 37. Weak Ties are vital They enhance the transfer of information Becky Chapman 29, charity worker, Brighton GNM consumer • Influential within her network • Fashion, shopping, music and travel Weak Ties; ACTIVE (Connected; Traveller; Vocal)
  • 38. Weak Ties are vital They enhance the transfer of information Text ‘I’m going to Ethiopia with Becky Chapman work in a couple of weeks, so 29, charity worker, Brighton I’ve been reading up on that. GNM consumer It’s a really interesting place, and I’ve been speaking to a • Influential within her network few of my friends about it.’ • Fashion, shopping, music and travel Weak Ties; ACTIVE (Connected; Traveller; Vocal) ‘I need to get some new clothes and I’ll take Becky ‘It’s important to me that I show shopping with me instead Becky something I’ve bought, of my girlfriend. It’s easier, even after the purchase, as I like quicker, she knows which shops to get her approval.’ to go into and what suits me.’
  • 39. ACTIVE A key indicator of Weak Ties Ahead in Adoption Index 160 3+ (6) Weak Ties monthly 140 <3 (6) Weak Ties monthly 120 100 Exposed to Media Connected 80 60 40 20 Vocal Traveller Index 100 = average adult Information Hungry
  • 40. ACTIVE A key indicator of Weak Ties Ahead in Adoption Index 160 3+ (6) Weak Ties monthly 140 <3 (6) Weak Ties monthly 120 GNM 100 Exposed to Media Connected 80 60 40 20 Vocal Traveller Index 100 = average adult Information Hungry
  • 41. GNM readers have more Weak Ties Key for spreading word of mouth Average no. of Weak Tie groups (of 6) Above average range of Weak Ties - Index 3+ (6) Weak Tie groups monthly in contact with monthly GNM GNM 120 Qual news exc. GNM Qual news exc. GNM Non GNM Non GNM Average 3.2 2.9 2.9 2.9 102 96 Index = average adult
  • 42. Strong Ties help us get by Weak Ties help us to get on Strong vs Weak Ties - which help most? Strong Ties 96% Weak Ties 86% 76% 70% 60% 56% Emotional support Achieving goals Career advice Question: In terms of getting on in life, which, if any, of these groups of people do you feel have helped the most with …? Strong ties = Immediate family, close friends Weak ties = Extended family, other friends, colleagues, professionals in same field, people met through hobbies/interests, people not met face to face, eg online
  • 43. Face to face dominates Method of contact by tie strength Strong Ties 92% 90% 88% 86% Weak Ties 57% 55% 49% 49% 35% 27% 26% 19% Face to face Telephone Text (SMS) Email/instant Post / letter Social networks messenger or blogs Question: And which of the following best describes the type of contact you have with…?
  • 44. The Internet facilitates Weak Ties Method of contact by tie strength Strong Ties 92% 90% 88% 86% Weak Ties 57% 59% 55% 51% 49% 49% 35% 27% 26% 19% Face to face Telephone Text (SMS) Email/instant Post / letter Social networks Internet AT ALL messenger or blogs Question: And which of the following best describes the type of contact you have with…?
  • 45. We share more with Strong Ties Weak Ties ensure cross-network sharing Strong Ties Weak Ties Shared any experience past 6 months 93% 79% Shared any experience 3+ times past 6 months 59% 40% Question: Thinking about when you have experienced a good/bad service or product in the last 6 months, how many times, if any, have you shared that experience with…?
  • 46. We share more with Strong Ties Weak Ties ensure cross-network sharing Strong Ties Weak Ties Shared any experience past 6 months % Who have shared experiences 93% Positive Negative 79% 93% 85% Shared any experience 3+ times past 6 months Average no. of group types (of 4) 59% shared experiences with 40% Positive Negative 2.3 2.5 Question: Thinking about when you have experienced a good/bad service or product in the last 6 months, how many times, if any, have you shared that experience with…?
  • 47. Who influences purchase decisions? Sources of advice for new product/service purchase Strong Ties Strong Ties 77% Weak Ties Weak Ties 51% Question: Thinking about when you are considering purchasing a new product or service, which of the following would you go to for advice?
  • 48. Who influences purchase decisions? Sources of advice for new product/service purchase Strong Ties Strong Ties 77% Weak Ties Weak Ties 51% Someone you consider 78% knowledgeable in that field Close friends and family 77% Internet at all 61% Online review/rating sites 58% Other internet sources 38% Colleagues 34% A wider group of contacts 22% Extended friends and family 22% Question: Thinking about when you are considering purchasing a new product or service, which of the following would you go to for advice?
  • 49. The core of influence Weak Ties Status Bridging Bargain Capital
  • 50. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing
  • 51. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing Bruce Haggerty 44, small business owner, Glasgow GNM consumer • Well-connected • Knows a diverse range of people • Wide media palette • Adept at making obscure ideas interesting to others • Film and music Bridging Capital; ACTIVE (Information Hungry; Connected; Vocal; Exposed to Media)
  • 52. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing ‘I might not convince absolutely everybody, but I do like to discuss movies and music with people, particularly new stuff that I’m finding exciting. It’s good to be able Bruce Haggerty to switch people on to new things.’ 44, small business owner, Glasgow GNM consumer • Well-connected ‘He’s a sharp guy, if you’re going • Knows a diverse range of people somewhere on holiday he’s probably been there, or at least knows some essential fact • Wide media palette about the place. I don’t see that much of • Adept at making obscure ideas him, but it’s always interesting when I do.” interesting to others • Film and music Bridging Capital; ACTIVE (Information Hungry; Connected; Vocal; Exposed to Media)
  • 53. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing Maureen Pearson 55, social worker, London GNM consumer • Information hungry and exposed to media • Vocal, particularly on current affairs • Open to new experiences, especially travel Bridging Capital; ACTIVE (Traveller; Information Hungry; Vocal; Exposed to Media) Source:
  • 54. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing ‘Dave and I often cut out articles we’ve found in the Guardian for each other and leave them in the office for everyone else to see. People come up to me to find out what I think about the articles.’ Maureen Pearson 55, social worker, London ‘She’s always got something GNM consumer interesting to say about the • Information hungry and news or what’s going on in the exposed to media world. My friend told me she’s • Vocal, particularly on current affairs also got lots of new ideas when it comes to places to visit that • Open to new experiences, are out of the ordinary.’ especially travel Bridging Capital; ACTIVE (Traveller; Information Hungry; Vocal; Exposed to Media) Source:
  • 55. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing Walter Connors 23, management trainee, Leeds GNM consumer • Referenced by other influencers as a source of great recommendations • Increases the influence of others Bridging Capital; ACTIVE (Ahead in Adoption; Information Hungry)
  • 56. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing ‘I’m really interested in music and movies… and art too. I know a lot of people who do that kind Walter Connors of stuff for a living so I tend to 23, management trainee, Leeds be the one amongst my friends GNM consumer who says ‘hey, let’s check this or that out’.’ • Referenced by other influencers as a source of great recommendations • Increases the influence of others ‘Walter’s always off to see some Bridging Capital; ACTIVE (Ahead in Adoption; new band or watch some new Information Hungry) film. I’ve gone along with him a few times when it’s sounded like it might be good and he’s generally right.’
  • 57. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing John McClure 55, lecturer, Leeds GNM consumer • Music, science and technology • Uses the Guardian to find new ‘nuggets’ • Researches ‘nuggets’ online • A social hub; maintains links between all school friends Bridging Capital; ACTIVE (Ahead in Adoption; Connected; Information Hungry; Vocal)
  • 58. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing Text ‘I suppose I am the focal point of information, ‘John is particularly when it comes to music and extremely technology. They come to me for advice on reliable on technology, because they know I do my research!’ technology. I’d make a beeline to his door if John McClure I was thinking 55, lecturer, Leeds about buying GNM consumer a new digital • Music, science and technology camera, hi-fi or • Uses the Guardian to find new ‘nuggets’ what have you.’ • Researches ‘nuggets’ online • A social hub; maintains links between all school friends Bridging Capital; ACTIVE (Ahead in Adoption; Connected; Information Hungry; Vocal)
  • 59. Influencers possess Bridging Capital It facilitates information sharing
  • 60. GNM outperforms on ACTIVE Possess qualities indicative of influence Ahead in Adoption Average 145 Index GNM Qual news exc GNM 130 Non GNM Exposed to Media 115 Connected 100 85 Vocal Traveller Information Hungry Index 100 = average adult
  • 61. More likely to possess Bridging Capital The ability to contextualise is vital Bridging Capital - Index GNM Qual news exc GNM 134 Non GNM 129 115 115 114 106 97 93 94 Bridging Capital Social Capital Cultural Capital Index 100 = average adult
  • 62. The core of influence Weak Ties Status Bridging Bargain Capital
  • 63. Status Bargain The basis of credibility
  • 64. Status Bargain The basis of credibility Jamie Biggs 25, trainee solicitor, Manchester GNM consumer • Shares ideas • Feels it’s just as important to take information onboard • Driven by personal reputation • Willing to incorporate others opinions into his own Status Bargain
  • 65. Status Bargain The basis of credibility Text ‘It is important that my colleagues respect me for my mind so I’ve made an effort to raise interesting Jamie Biggs topics of conversation.’ 25, trainee solicitor, Manchester GNM consumer • Shares ideas • Feels it’s just as important to take ‘He’s good to talk to, and information onboard he’s a good listener. It always feels like a fairly • Driven by personal reputation mutual exchange.’ • Willing to incorporate others opinions into his own Status Bargain
  • 66. Status Bargain The basis of credibility Mark Claydon 26, IT manager, Birmingham GNM consumer • Keen to develop his understanding by taking on new ideas from other people and sources • A broad social circle Status Bargain; Weak Ties
  • 67. Status Bargain The basis of credibility ‘If I’m deciding which Mark Claydon film to go and see (and 26, IT manager, Birmingham probably even if I wasn’t) GNM consumer I would check out the • Keen to develop his Guardian online. Even if I understanding by taking disagree with what they’re on new ideas from other saying it’s nice to have a people and sources different point of view.’ • A broad social circle Status Bargain; Weak Ties ‘He’s going out with a medical student, so he knows lots of doctors, and consequently so do I. He also knows people from film, theatre and photography. I suppose if we all worked in the same area then less different information would arise.’
  • 68. A greater propensity to Status Bargain Able to make more informed recommendations Status Bargain - Index GNM Qual news exc GNM Non GNM 136 108 93 Index 100 = average adult Agree – ‘I like to read and hear about ideas that I disagree with’; Disagree – ‘I try to avoid getting into debates with others’; Disagree - ‘I am less likely to change my mind about things than other people’
  • 69. Status Bargain vs ACTIVE Ahead in adoption Status Bargain 115 Index Do not Status Bargain 110 105 Exposed to media 100 Connected 95 90 85 Vocal Traveller Information Index 100 = average adult hungry
  • 70. Status Bargain = Greater influence Opinions valued more by others 63% listen to those who listen to opinions of others ‘I trust people more if I know that they ‘Yes she is vocal, but she doesn’t just talk listen to what other people think, because – she listens to what other people have they are more discerning. to say. You always know that she’s really thought about it’ As opposed to following something Non-GNM consumer on GNM consumer because they think it’s cool and having a preconceived idea, they’re more likely to have integrity.’ GNM consumer
  • 71. The core of influence Weak Ties Status Bridging Bargain Capital
  • 72. Connected and influential Weak Ties Status Bridging Bargain Capital
  • 73. Guardian News & Media Driving and facilitating word of mouth ‘I’d be willing to bet that they ‘I think the role of the Guardian in [Guardian readers] probably dig a bit pushing word of mouth is probably deeper for information, that they’re quite important… it’s readers come more connected than the average from more diverse backgrounds and person. They’re probably greater they have more diverse networks – influencers.’ it’s not about sheer numbers.’ Steve Barton, WOM UK Jessica Greenwood, Contagious ‘I really like the Guardian. ‘The Guardian is all about being able to listen, Even if I don’t specifically agree to digest, take on another point of view and with what they’re saying it’s to change your side if you wish to, because important to have your thinking actually there is no shame in changing your challenged, and it feels like what mind. Things like Comment is Free really they’re [the Guardian] about.’ encourage this kind of consideration.’ GNM consumer Anna Rafferty, Penguin / Pearson Group
  • 74. Identifying influential people Influential people Who are they? What are they like? How to reach them All other TGI information Who communicate with and how? How connected and Your target audience influential?
  • 75. Influential people Engaged Connected Influential

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