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CrossRef: Improving Scholarly Communications

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A presentation to the First Congress of the Asia Pacific Association of Medical Editors, Seoul, 28th August 2011.

A presentation to the First Congress of the Asia Pacific Association of Medical Editors, Seoul, 28th August 2011.

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  • 1. Improving Scholarly Communication The First Congress of Asia Paci c Association of Medical Journal Editors 28th August 2011 Kirsty Meddings, CrossRef kmeddings@crossref.orgFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 2. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 3. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 4. Photo: `R4cH3L on FlickrFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 5. Computer scientist Diomidis Spinellis “examined 4,224 URLs in 2,471 computer science articles… and discovered that nearly half of the references could not be accessed within four years of the publication date. Links become inaccessible as time passes…” Diomidis Spinellis. 2003. The decay and failures of web references. Commun. ACM 46, 1 (January 2003), 71-77. DOI=10.1145/602421.602422 http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/602421.602422Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 6. Established 1999 AAAS • Academic Press • American Institute of Physics • Association of Computing Machinery • Blackwell • Elsevier • IEEE • Kluwer Academic • Nature Publishing Group • Oxford University Press • Springer • WileyFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 7. Easy, reliable navigation to scholarly content using DOIsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 8. What is a DOI?Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 9. What is a DOI? DigitalFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 10. What is a DOI? Digital ObjectFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 11. What is a DOI? Digital Object Identi erFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 12. A DOI is alphanumeric 9Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 13. A DOI uniquely identifies content 10Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 14. A DOI provides a persistent and stable link to contentFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 15. DOI Components As me er O mb d T sig mb me ne ne er sig dB As YFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 16. 10.1098/rstl.1665.0001 http://rstl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/1/1-22/rstl.1665.0001Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1665.0001 DOI Directory Pre x SuffixFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1665.0001 DOI Directory Pre x SuffixFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1665.0001 DOI Directory Pre x SuffixFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1665.0001 DOI Directory Pre x SuffixFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 21. User clicks on CrossRef DOI reference link in Journal A Tani, N., N. Tomaru, M. Araki, AND K. Ohba. 1996. Genetic diversity and differentiation in populations of Japanese stone pine (Pinus pumila) in Japan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 1454–1462.[CrossRef] http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x26-162Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 22. User clicks on CrossRef DOI reference link in Journal A Tani, N., N. Tomaru, M. Araki, AND K. Ohba. 1996. Genetic diversity and differentiation in populations of Japanese stone pine (Pinus pumila) in Japan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 1454–1462.[CrossRef] http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x26-162 DOI directory returns URLFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 23. User clicks on User accesses CrossRef DOI cited article in reference link in Journal B Journal A Tani, N., N. Tomaru, M. Araki, AND K. Ohba. 1996. Genetic diversity and differentiation in populations of Japanese stone pine (Pinus pumila) in Japan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 1454–1462.[CrossRef] http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/x26-162 DOI directory returns URLFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 24. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 25. Blog PostsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 26. BooksFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 27. Enables persistent linking by assigning DOI pre xes to its members maintaining a database of DOIs, associated metadata and URLsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 28. DOI = NISO Standard CrossRef = DOI Registration AgencyFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 29. DOI = NISO Standard CrossRef = DOI Registration AgencyFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 30. DOI = NISO Standard CrossRef = DOI Registration AgencyFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 31. provides an organizational foundation for widespread linking Membership association for cooperative development of a digital linking infrastructure Business model neutral Commercial, societies, non-pro ts, university presses, OA publishers. 66% non-pro t One agreement with CrossRef is a linking agreement with all other CrossRef participantsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 32. Oxford, UK Boston, USA 5 Staff 14 Staff -16 person international Board of Directors -Working Groups & CommitteesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 33. "CrossRefs goal is to be a trusted collaborative organization with broad community connections; authoritative and innovative in support of a persistent, sustainable infrastructure for scholarly communication."Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 34. Why do publishers join?Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 35. Why do publishers join? To get persistent IDs and links for their contentFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 36. Why do publishers join? To get persistent IDs and links for their content To drive more traffic to their contentFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 37. Why do publishers join? To get persistent IDs and links for their content To drive more traffic to their content To turn their references into hyperlinksFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 38. Why do publishers join? To get persistent IDs and links for their content To drive more traffic to their content To turn their references into hyperlinks To add Cited-by links (what cites this article?)Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 39. Why do publishers join? To get persistent IDs and links for their content To drive more traffic to their content To turn their references into hyperlinks To add Cited-by links (what cites this article?) To participate in new collaborative servicesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 40. 3,542 publishers and societies 48,200,000 content items with DOIs 24,870 journals 166,000 books 21,200 conference proceedingsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 41. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 42. Content Growth Total CrossRef DOIs 47,000,000 37,600,000 28,200,000 18,800,000 9,400,000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 0 2008 2009 2010 2011Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 43. Linking 5 centuries of content Century # of DOIs deposited 17th 1,686 18th 4,200 19th 651,584 20th 20,804,031 21st 13,914,241Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 44. Linking 5 centuries of content Century # of DOIs deposited 17th 1,686 18th 4,200 19th 651,584 20th 20,804,031 21st 13,914,241 1665Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 45. 45 - 55,000,000Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 46. CrossRef Member Obligations 1.Deposit all current journal articlesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 47. CrossRef Member Obligations 1.Deposit all current journal articlesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 48. CrossRef Member Obligations 1.Deposit all current journal articlesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 49. CrossRef Member Obligations 2. Update metadata and especially URLsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 50. CrossRef Member Obligations 3. Implement outbound reference linkingFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 51. CrossRef Member Obligations 4. Do not publicize CrossRef DOIs until links are liveFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 52. CrossRef Member Obligations 4. Resolve DOI con ictsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 53. CrossRef Member Obligations 6. Make plans for long term archivingFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 54. How to ensure long-term persistence? • Technical: two data centers, backups, disaster recovery plan • IP and trademarks: ownership of IP of system software and a strong brand • Sustainable org: good governance, sound business model (surpluses) and Cash Reserve FundFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 55. Creating DOIs for contentFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 56. Creating DOIs for content DOI suffixes should be: Short Easily documented Readily implemented Opaque/DumbFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 57. Creating DOIs for content DOI suffixes should be: Short Easily documented Readily implemented Opaque/Dumb 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(19980420)58:2/33.0.CO;2-NFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 58. Creating DOIs for content DOI suffixes should be: 10.1002/smj.376 Short Easily documented Readily implemented Opaque/Dumb 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(19980420)58:2/33.0.CO;2-NFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 59. New DOI display Guidelines Announced 2nd August 2011 change doi:10.5555/12345678 to http://dx.doi.org10.5555/12345678Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 60. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 61. Bene tsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 62. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 63. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 64. Content Negotiation for DOIs All CrossRef Metadata available in machine- readable format In accordance with linked data principles No change for people following DOI links Machines following DOI links can ask to receive XML metadata instead of the HTML pageFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 65. Fees: Annual Membership Annual Publishing Revenue Annual Fee < $1 million $275 $1 million-$5 million $550 $5 million-$10 million $1,650 $10 million-$25 million $3,900 $25 million-$50 million $8,300 $50 million-$100 million $14,000 $100 million-$200 million $22,000 $200 million-$500 million $33,000 >$500 million $50,000Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 66. One-Time Deposit Fees Deposit Type Per-DOI Fee Current records (2008-2010) $1.00 Book chapters and reference $0.25 entries ≤ 250 per title Book chapters and reference $0.15 entries > 250 per title Backfiles $0.15 Components, data records $.06 Journal Titles freeFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 67. What is CrossRef Cited-by Linking? A way to answer the question: “Who’s Citing You?” • An optional reference linking service of CrossRef • Additional navigation for your publication web site • Demonstration to your readers the relevance of your contentFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 68. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 69. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 70. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 71. Cited-by RulesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 72. Cited-by Rules • Participation is optionalFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 73. Cited-by Rules • Participation is optional • Members must deposit references from their current material in order to retrieve Cited-by links.Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 74. Cited-by Rules • Participation is optional • Members must deposit references from their current material in order to retrieve Cited-by links. • Members (or Affiliates acting on their behalf ) can retrieve Cited-by links to display in Members’ primary content.Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 75. Cited-by Rules • Participation is optional • Members must deposit references from their current material in order to retrieve Cited-by links. • Members (or Affiliates acting on their behalf ) can retrieve Cited-by links to display in Members’ primary content. • Cited-by Linking is not available for secondary publishers.Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 76. • 225 publishers participating • 8.7 million articles with references deposited • 138 million Cited-by links • 17.4 million articles with at least one Cited-by linkFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 77. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 78. ServicesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 79. Services • Cross-publisher reference linkingFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 80. Services • Cross-publisher reference linking • Cross-publisher cited-by linkingFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 81. Services • Cross-publisher reference linking • Cross-publisher cited-by linking • Cross-publisher plagiarism screeningFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 82. Services • Cross-publisher reference linking • Cross-publisher cited-by linking • Cross-publisher plagiarism screening • Cross-publisher content validationFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 83. Cross-Publisher Plagiarism ScreeningFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 84. 243 publishers 29.9 million content items indexed 57,000 titles 20,000+ manuscripts checked each monthFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 85. Friday, 2 September 2011 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Au g- 10 Se p- 10 O ct -1 0 N ov -1 0 D ec -1 0 Ja n- 11 Fe b- 11 M ar -1 1 Ap r- 1 1 M ay -1 1 Ju n- 11 Ju l-1 1 Documents Checked
  • 86. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 87. Industry Problems • The scholarly pre-publication process is largely invisible • The common belief that the publisher’s job is done on publication of the “ nal” version • A proliferation of versions of content online that are not stewarded • Readers don’t know which copy to “trust”Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 88. erratum corrigendum updates enhancements withdrawals retractions new editionsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 89. What is CrossMark?Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 90. What is CrossMark? A logo that identi es a publisher- maintained copy of a piece of contentFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 91. What is CrossMark? A logo that identi es a publisher- maintained copy of a piece of content Clicking the logo tells youFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 92. What is CrossMark? A logo that identi es a publisher- maintained copy of a piece of content Clicking the logo tells you Whether there have been any updatesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 93. What is CrossMark? A logo that identi es a publisher- maintained copy of a piece of content Clicking the logo tells you Whether there have been any updates If this copy is being maintained by the publisherFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 94. What is CrossMark? A logo that identi es a publisher- maintained copy of a piece of content Clicking the logo tells you Whether there have been any updates If this copy is being maintained by the publisher Where the publisher-maintained version isFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 95. What is CrossMark? A logo that identi es a publisher- maintained copy of a piece of content Clicking the logo tells you Whether there have been any updates If this copy is being maintained by the publisher Where the publisher-maintained version is Other important publication record informationFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 96. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 97. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 98. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 99. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 100. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 101. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 102. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 103. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 104. Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 105. What kind of Publication Record information could be available?Friday, 2 September 2011
  • 106. What kind of Publication Record information could be available? Funding disclosures Con ict of interest statements Publication history (submission, revision and accepted dates) Location of data deposits or registries Peer review process used CrossCheck plagiarism screening License typesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 107. www.crossref.org/crossmarkFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 108. ConclusionsFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 109. Conclusions • CrossRef provides infrastructure to enable publishers to enhance their content and servicesFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 110. Conclusions • CrossRef provides infrastructure to enable publishers to enhance their content and services • CrossRef services drive traffic to publishers contentFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 111. Conclusions • CrossRef provides infrastructure to enable publishers to enhance their content and services • CrossRef services drive traffic to publishers content • CrossRef services enable publishers to highlight the value they add to contentFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 112. Final Thought • No publisher is an island - collaboration and connection are the keysFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 113. Thank You Kirsty Meddings Product Manager kmeddings@crossref.orgFriday, 2 September 2011
  • 114. Friday, 2 September 2011