CrossRef DOIs for Books


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Carol Anne Meyer presents a webinar on assigning CrossRef DOIs to scholarly book content. This webinar is also will explain how DOIs make it easier for your readers to find your books. It was held on June 26, 2014 and begins 10 seconds into the recording.

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  • What is it? Digital Object Identifier, alphanumeric string that uniquely identifies an item and where it lives online DOIs can be used to identify things online, basically anything that you can link to (html pages, images, audio, raw data, programs, etc.) Once a DOI has been assigned to an item, the DOI URL (if properly maintained) can remain a consistent locator for the item.
  • Why are DOIs important? They solve the problem of ‘link rot’ i.e. broken links. (image) Broken links are a big problem with online content – titles move from publisher to publisher, publishers upgrade their sites regularly, which usually involves changing URLs.
  • A CrossRef DOI reliably identifies content. If you follow a DOI to an article, for example, you’re assure that the page you view is the publisher maintained version of an article. This is very important, because research articles are corrected, retracted, enhanced regularly.
  • CrossRef DOIs for Books

    1. 1. CrossRef DOIs for Book Publishers Carol Anne Meyer, CrossRef @meyercarol @CrossRefNews Webinar 26 June 2014
    2. 2. Today’s Agenda • What are DOIs? • IDF, Registration Agencies, and CrossRef • Best Practices for CrossRef book DOIs • Linking to and from books • Assigning CrossRef DOIs to books • Finding book DOIs • ISSNs and ISBNs for books & series • Multiple Resolution
    3. 3. What is a DOI? Digital Object Identifier Source: pasukaru76 from Flickr
    4. 4. It is alphanumeric
    5. 5. It uniquely identifies content It is unique
    6. 6. It has two parts
    7. 7. 10.1632/074069503X85526 10.5664/sleep.1000 10.3183/NPPRJ-1986-01-03-p004-013 10.3103/S0005105507050032 10.4260/BJFT20094508 Allowed characters: "a-z", "A-Z", "0-9" and "-._;()/” Creating a DOI Suffix: Keep it short and simple More info: Establishing a Suffix Pattern
    8. 8. To a reader, it looks like a link
    9. 9. The DOI is also an ISO standard
    10. 10.
    11. 11. DOI-enabled linking
    12. 12. It prevents this
    13. 13. It is a digital identifier of a digital or physical object
    14. 14. It serves as a stable link to content’s digital location
    15. 15. Some DOIs are not CrossRef DOIs • Other Registration Agencies have assigned DOIs to books for supply chain purposes, i.e. the ISBN-A (assigned by mEDRA) • More information is available here:
    16. 16. So, what is the relationship between an RA and the IDF?
    17. 17. 18 International DOI Foundation (IDF) • Oversees central DOI System • Promotes DOI as a standard • Provides organizational infrastructure that ensures persistence and interoperability
    18. 18. IDF Registration Agencies (RAs) CrossRef ISTIC DataCite DOI OPOCE mEDRA EIDR Japan Link Center (JaLC) Bowker Airiti CNKI Publications Office of the European Union (OP)
    19. 19. CrossRef is the largest RA, but others are growing CrossRef, 72.26% ISTIC, 21.39% DataCite, 2.36% DOI, 1.26% OPOCE, 1.06% mEDRA, 0.67% EIDR, 0.53% Japan Link Center (JaLC), 0.42% % of Total DOIs by Registration Agency
    20. 20. Handle-DOI-CrossRef relationship Handle general-purpose naming service Requires customized solution DOI organizational structure for persistence CrossRef programmatic linking and discovery service Easy for publisher to automate
    21. 21. • DOIs for scholarly content • Develops and maintains the DOI standard • Develops and maintains the Handle system upon which the DOI executes CrossRef/DOI Community
    22. 22. What Does CrossRef Do? • Provides technology infrastructure for linking Registers DOIs with the Handle System Provides discoverability services for those DOIs • Provides business infrastructure for linking One agreement with CrossRef is a linking agreement with all CrossRef publishers
    23. 23. 24 Cross-publisher means… No need for bilateral negotiations between publishers, or between a third-party and individual publishers Photo: Alexandra Lee
    24. 24. Members need to make long-term archiving arrangements CLOCKSS: Koninklijke Bibliotheek / National Library of the Netherlands: Portico:
    25. 25. Why do publishers join CrossRef?  To get persistent identifiers for their content  To drive more traffic to their content  To turn references into hyperlinks  To pull in cited-by links (who cites this?) to get more traffic  Participate in other collaborative services (CrossCheck, CrossMark)
    26. 26. It’s all about discoverability
    27. 27. CrossRef Metadata Services CrossRef Metadata Search Multiple Resolution CrossRef APIs Bibliographic Management Document Delivery Link Resolvers CrossCheck CrossMark Article Level Metrics PreScore Powered by iThenticate Reference Linking Cited-by Linking Linking Linked Data FundRef Text and Data Mining Threaded Publications NISO OA Indicator Journal Article Tag Set (JATS) Discovery and Delivery Evaluating Collaboration provides different services than other RAs
    28. 28. Where do people discover CrossRef DOIs? • Scholarly References • Abstracting & Indexing services • Reference management tools • Search engines • Aggregated reference products • Online library catalogs (i.e. WorldCat)
    29. 29. Why publishers assign CrossRef DOIs to books • Persistent linking---books interlink with journal articles and other scholarly content • Inbound links drive traffic; • Outbound links add value and utility to readers • CrossRef Book DOIs can resolve to information on purchasing -- for both print and online books • Access/authentication remain under publisher control
    30. 30. • Links deliver reader to front door • Access control up to publisher or distributor is “business-model neutral” Photo: Tawheed Manzoor
    31. 31. The Numbers • 274 publishers deposit book content at CrossRef • 527K book titles • 8.1 million total book DOIs (Includes chapters and reference entries)
    32. 32. 33 membership • Represents 81 countries
    33. 33. CrossRef Book DOI deposits have been growing rapidly 527,104 8,148,561 0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 CrossRef Book DOIs Book Titles Chapters & Reference Entries
    34. 34. Journals 79% Books 13% Conference Proceedings 6% Components 2% 8 million book DOIs out of 67 million CrossRef DOIs
    35. 35. Largest CrossRef Book Publishers • Springer • Smithsonian Institution (Biodiversity Heritage Library) • Cambridge University Press • Elsevier • Wiley Blackwell • Nature Publishing Group • Oxford University Press (OUP) • CRC Press • World Bank • Walter de Gruyter • American Psychological Association (APA) • World Scientific • Brill Academic Publishers • IGI Global • ASTM International • American Chemical Society (ACS) • Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishing • MBLWHOI Library • Emerald (MCB UP ) • Woodhead Publishing • Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas • American Mathematical Society (AMS). • American Geophysical Union (AGU) • Sage Publications • Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics • Netbiblo See for complete list
    36. 36. Title level response page
    37. 37. Book chapter response page
    38. 38. Combined title & chapter response page
    39. 39. Title response page for print & e-books
    40. 40. Entry in reference works
    41. 41. Best Practices Book DOIs t_practices_for_books.html
    42. 42. Best Practices Assigning, linking and CrossRef DOI use • Deposit DOIs at the title and chapter/entry level. • Add outbound links from references in books. • Deposit references from books with CrossRef to enable CrossRef Cited-by Linking.
    43. 43. Best Practices Updates and Versions • Major version – updates affect interpretation. Publisher notifies readers that content has changed. – new editions – errata – corrigenda • Minor version – unlikely to affect interpretation. No publisher notification.
    44. 44. Best Practices Updates and Versions • Assign new CrossRef DOIs to new major versions or editions of books, chapters and entries. Older versions remain available online with links to the latest version. • Do not assign new CrossRef DOIs to minor new versions of books, chapters and entries. • Use Multiple Resolution to associate one CrossRef DOI with multiple URLs, i.e. for electronic formats or multiple hosting platforms.
    45. 45. Notifying readers of new editions • CrossMark Publication Record Service – Identifies updates and new editions – Provides non- bibliographic information about rights, funding, peer review, etc.
    46. 46. What kind of CrossRef Publication Record information is available? • License types • Funding disclosures (FundRef) • Conflict of interest statements • Publication history (submission, revision and accepted dates) • Location of data deposits or registries • Peer review process used • CrossCheck plagiarism screening • and more...
    47. 47. Best Practices: Citation Matching Book Title Queries (finding the DOI) • Minimum query: – book title – book author – book year • And as many as possible of these: – editor (where appropriate) – publisher
    48. 48. Displaying CrossRef DOIs in Book Citations • The DOI should appear at the end of the reference • The DOI should be encoded as a hyperlink Example: Corrigan, John. Religion and Emotion - Approaches and Interpretations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Oxford Scholarship Online. Oxford University Press. 2005. Note: This is a change from the previous format doi:10.1093/0195166248.001.0001
    49. 49. Style Manuals Provide the DOI, if one has been assigned to the content…. Section 6.32 Providing Publication Data for Electronic Sources Publication Manual of the APA, page 191.
    50. 50. Assigning (depositing) CrossRef Book DOIs • Deposit metadata and URL(s). • Metadata required for book DOI registration is described in the schema, sections 6-8 and in the documentation at:
    51. 51. Book Title Level Metadata • Required data includes: – Type: edited book, reference, monograph, or other – Title – Publisher – Publication date – ISBN • Optional data includes: – series title, and series ISSN* – volume and edition numbers – Book DOI and URL * If you include a series title it must have an ISSN
    52. 52. ISSNs & ISBNs in CrossRef Schema • ISSNs are assignable to a series title and not book title. • ISSN is directly bound to series title and must be present in series • ISSN check digit will be verified upon deposit – invalid ISSNs will be rejected • Volume is mandatory if series_metadata is present and volume level title is NOT present • Titles and ISSNs/ISBNs in deposit must match titles associated with ISSNs/ISBNs in the system • New titles will create a title entry in the system – updates/additions to this title must remain consistent • Contact to change titles
    53. 53. Chapter Level Metadata • Required data includes: – Chapter title – DOI and URL • Optional data: – Contributors – Pagination – Component number
    54. 54. • Manual DOI registration for books • System builds XML deposit file Web Deposit Form
    55. 55. XML deposit Sample XML is available: • Monograph: • Series:
    56. 56. Simple-Text Query • A freely available, non-XML alternative for reference linking • A custom version of Inera’s eXtyles® refXpress parses unstructured references into granular, valid XML and returns any matching DOIs for those references
    57. 57. Find Complete Best Practices Here
    58. 58. How much? CrossRef Deposit Fees for Books • Current Material – Titles: $1.00 – Chapters/entries < 250 per title: 25 cents – Chapters/entries > 250 per title: 15 cents – Chapters/entries > 10,000 items: 12 cents • Backfiles – All content types: 15 cents – More than 1 million records: 12 cents • No additional membership fee
    59. 59. Linking 5 centuries of content 1665
    60. 60. How much? • No charge for metadata or URL updates • No additional annual fee for CrossRef members • Annual fees based on publishing revenue • Annual fees range from $275-$50,000 • Theoretical conflict fee if more than one DOI assigned to same metadata and not resolved. • Fees have not risen for more than 5 years. • Additional fees for optional services like CrossMark.
    61. 61. Multiple resolution
    62. 62. Possible Multiple Resolution in the supply chain
    63. 63. Book Interest Group • Jennifer Kemp, Springer, Chair • 70 ish Members • Open to all book publisher members of CrossRef, and others • Includes major book hosting platforms
    64. 64. Book Interest Group • Teleconferences several times per year • Working groups on issues of importance to book publishers
    65. 65. What’s Next • Explore DOIs for mobile content • Improve and simplify multiple resolution • Best practices for common ebook format metadata • Can we accept ONIX in addition to XML?
    66. 66. What’s in it for publishers? No publisher is an island Collaboration and connection is the key
    67. 67. Thank you!