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CrossRef Overview and Initiatives, Copenhagen, June 2013


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  • So at the end of 1999 a group of publishers got together and decided to collaborate to solve the problem and CrossRef was set up as a strategic org - CrossRef is a non-profit membership association of publishers with all members being equal. We were founded to provide services to publishers that are best achieved collaboratively - or doing those things that publishers can ’t do on their own. We are run by and for publishers and we include all types of publishers.
  • What do I mean by this?
  • CrossRef was founded eleven years ago to solve the problem of broken links. The web is all about links, but links break. This is annoying if you ’ re browsing the web and want to follow an interesting link, but in the context of scholarly publishing it becomes more than annoying - if you can ’ t follow a citation from one paper to another you ’ re being hampered in your research. CItation linking is one of the greatest benefits of online publishing, but it really does need to be reliable
  • When a researcher is looking for high quality scholarly content you don ’t want to retrieve the 404 - page not found error. Having this happen undermines trust in the scholarly system and in scholarly publishers.
  • And it works like this: publishers use CrossRef DOIs to link to content, usually from the references at the end of articles. Users click on those DOI-based links and are referred via the CrossRef database to the cited article at it ’ s correct location on the web. If content moves the publisher only has to update the CrossRef database once, and all of the publishers that are linking to their content using CrossRef DOIs will be redirected to the content in its new location.
  • Best way is to give an example. DOI takes me to the article homepage. Book Chapter etc. Lord of the Mines. I’ll come back to DOIs in a moment. This DOI will always can take me
  • For a bit more background, this is the CrossRef mission statement. We ’ re a not-for profit membership association here to support the scholarly communications industry. As you can see our mission is about more than just reference linking, even though linking is still the main thing that we do for publishers. And as such we have developed other services to meet the needs of our membership - originality screening being one of them. I’ll run you through some other initiatives in this presentation, including a very new one.
  • 1. A DOI link consists of two parts: the DOI resolver URL, and the DOI itself.   2. When combined, the DOI is ‘made actionable’, that is, made into a link.   3. When you click on the link, you’re taken to the current URL of the item. The URL for the DOI in this example has been updated 5 times since it was initially deposited in June 2004.   4. We updated our DOI display guidelines in early August – we now ask that DOIs be represented as a link with the prefix
  • Registration of content with CrossRef - reference matching and use of DOIs for linking. Hop between different publisher systems.
  • Multiple resolution--the DOI gives the user a choice of which links to follow.
  • A few numbers for you to give some idea of how CrossRef has grown in the ten years since its launch... Books are the fastest growing at the moment - most publishers have assigned DOIs to their journals and journal archives, but more and more are now starting to assign them to their books, and to register their book metadata with CrossRef. Publishers are also registering components - 274,000 so far. rts, standards, dissertations, and supplementary materials, but we do have some flexibility so if you want to assign DOIs to a content type not listed here, please ask. DATA>
  • In March 2013 there were over 90 million clicks on CrossRef DOI links, so 90 million citations resolved to content.
  • Basically it should be on the article homepage
  • This is your introduction to XML! In brief, XML offers a widely adopted standard way of representing text and data in a format that can be processed without much human or machine intelligence. Information formated in XML can be exchanged across platforms, languages, and applications, and can be used with a wide range of development tools and utilities. You can see it’s fairly self-explanatory.
  • We call the process of sending in metadata to the CR system ‘depositing’. We sometimes use the terms ‘deposit’ and ‘register’ interchangeably but they’re slightly different - when a publisher ‘deposits’ a DOI, the metadata is added to the CrossRef database, making the DOI retrievable. The DOI is also registered with the Handle resolver, meaning the DOI and URL only – no citation metadata is recorded by the Handle resolver. Immediately after the submission is processed, the system sends you a submission log. This is very important - data is often messy, and we try to keep the messy stuff out of our database, so there are many reasons your submission might fail.
  • Submission methods vary from very robust complicated systems to one guy cutting and pasting stuff from Word into our web deposit form (which converts the data to XML). Most deposits are made via machine interfaces. Data is sent to us via HTTP POST – we do have a simple java-based tool that can be used for uploads, it’s available in our help documentation. Many publishers prefer to create their own tools. We do not currently accept FTP deposits.
  • Basic web-deposit form.
  • We’re also working on a reference extraction tool that will strip references from PDFs. Explain how it works. Helps with XML aspect of things.
  • Clearest way is to give examples.
  • The first thing that I always say when I talk about CrossCheck is that although we call it a plagiarism detection service, it doesn ’ t actually detect plagiarism.
  • So to look at the process in a little more detail: you submit your manuscript to the iThenticate system, and it is by default checked against three databases of content. It is checked against web content - iThenticate indexes web pages in much the same way as a search engine, but with the added advantage that they keep an archive of web pages going back eight years. The manuscript is checked against the CrossCheck database, which contains the content from all of the participating CrossCheck publishers. And it ’ s also checked against a growing repository of online and offline content that iThenticate is gathering and indexing, including datbases from Gale and Ebsco, and sites such as PubMed and And as before, matches retrieved by comparison with these databases are pulled into a report for an editor to examine in more detail.
  • The progress of CrossCheck to date. Very comprehensive database - can see list of titles on our website.
  • And you get to this, which is the first of four different report manipulations available - this one is called the Similarity Report: Manuscript on left, matches on right from highest to lowest. Scroll up and down to compare. URLs (plus date) or citation depending on database. Links. Ability to exclude a match if you know it ’ s not relevant. Click on the left to see side by side report Show link to Document Viewer and touch on report view
  • You might have spotted in the previous examples that the technology isn ’ t just looking for word for word matches. The way that it breaks the text down allows it to spot passages of text with word substitutions, so it is looking for similar as well as identical text. In this example you can see that some of the words have been very subtly substituted or moved but the technology still picks them up. Ask publishers to let authors know they ’ re using it, messages in submission systems or on homepages.
  • So CrossMark. At its simplest it ’s a logo that publishers will apply to content that they publish. When a reader clicks on the logo they will quickly and easily be able to tell: The best way to explain it is to show some examples.
  • This is the killer example is an important one. This is a PDF that includes the CrossMark logo - a clickable logo. Providing the the user is online, when they click on the logo it will pop up a webpage...
  • with the CrossMark dialogue box giving the latest status. This is an example where CrossMark is at its most useful, alerting the user to the fact that the document they have locally on their machine has updates. This is going to be the most common scenario in which CrossMark really provides the reader with a valuable service, as it ’s alerting them to something that they would otherwise most probably have missed.
  • The second example is of a corrected article from another of our pilot publishers, the International Union of Crystallographers. Here, clicking on the logo brings up the same CrossMark dialog box...
  • ..but with information that alerts the reader to changes. Updates are available for this document. It says that there is a correction and gives a link to the correction.
  • You may have noticed in that previous example that there is an additional tab appearing in the dialogue box at the top here - the record tab.
  • This is where you can show additional metadata about the piece of content if you choose to do so. The publisher decides what to put here and can use these fields to define publication practices. You don ’t have to populate this tab at all if you prefer not to, and if you don’t supply an additional metadata the tab simply won’t show. The fields are defined and labelled by the publisher, and there can be as many or as few as you choose. This particular data from another of our pilot participants, the International Union of Crystallography, and you can see that they are sharing some really useful information on the copyright, review process and publication history.
  • Transcript

    • 1. CrossRef Overview and InitiativesRachael LammeyProduct ManagerDenmark on the Road to Best Practice in Scholarly PublishingJune 2013
    • 2. • Association of scholarly publishers– 1500 Members– Representing 4000 publishers• 1700 Library Affiliates who can query system for DOIs and metadata• DOI Registration Agency for Scholarly Publications (mostly in Englishlanguage)• Over 60 million DOIs assigned
    • 3. • Provides services publisherscannot accomplish alone - theyrequire collaboration• 16-member international boardof directors from membership• Many types of publishers:Commercial, societies, non-profits, university presses, OpenAccess publishers -66% non-profit• All subjects: STM, humanities,social science, professionalMore about CrossRef
    • 4. ?Why do publishers join? To get persistent identifiers for their content To drive more traffic to their content To turn references into hyperlinks To pull in cited-by links (who cites this?) Participate in other collaborative services(CrossCheck, CrossMark)
    • 5. Photo: `R4cH3L on Flickr
    • 6. User clicks onCrossRef DOIreference link inJournal AGuo W, Wang ZY, Wang YL, Zhang ZP, Gui JF. Isolation andcharacterization of six microsatellite markers in the large yellow croaker(Pseucosciaena crocea Richardson). Mol Ecol Notes, 2005, 5(2): 369–371.[CrossRef]DOIdirectoryreturns URLUser accessescited article inJournal B
    • 7.
    • 8. "CrossRefs goal is to be a trustedcollaborative organization with broadcommunity connections; authoritative andinnovative in support of a persistent,sustainable infrastructure for scholarlycommunication."
    • 9. Services• Cross-publisherreference linking• Cross-publisherCited-by linking• Cross-publishermetadata feeds toCMS Affiliates• Cross-publisherplagiarism screening• Cross-publisherupdate service• Cross-publisherfunder identificationPowered byiThenticate
    • 10. + DOI = persistent URL
    • 11. 60,666,704 content items with DOIsJournalsBooksConference proceedings
    • 12. 90,000,000
    • 13. Prefix: Assigned to members Format is 10.XXXX (or 10.XXXXX) Identifies who initially created theDOI Prefix does not identify thecurrent owner of the DOISuffix: Unique within a prefix –a DOI can only beassigned to one item Consistent Logical Easily documented Readily implementedAssigning DOIs to your content
    • 14. Response page must include: bibliographic information about the item means to access full text the DOIDOI Display guidelines! DOIs should always be displayed as permanent URLs in theonline environment.YES: doi: 10.5555/imadoiPublish
    • 15. DOIs are required on the response page, recommended on other pages: Tables of contents Abstracts Full text HTML and PDF articles and other scholarly documents Citation downloads to reference management systems Metadata feeds to third parties “How to Cite This” instructions on content pages Social networking links Anywhere users are directed to a permanent, stable, or persistentlink to content.
    • 16. #1 Send us your depositDeposit Processxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoisubmissionsubmissionxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoisubmissionsubmission<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>…<timestamp>200706181120</timestamp>…<journal><journal_metadata><full_title>American Journal of Meetings</full_title><abbrev_title>Am J Meet</abbrev_title><issn media_type=print>4445-6767</issn></journal_metadata><journal_issue><publication_date media_type=print><month>5</month><day>5</day><year>2001</year></publication_date><journal_volume><volume>33</volume></journal_volume><issue>1</issue></journal_issue><journal_article publication_type=full_text><titles> <title>Lets have a meeting</title></titles><contributors><person_name sequence=first contributor_role=author><given_name>Bob</given_name><surname>Surname</surname></person_name><publication_date media_type=print><month>5</month> <day>9</day> <year>2001</year></publication_date><pages><first_page>100</first_page><last_page>200</last_page></pages><doi_data><doi>10.50505/test_200704082300</doi><resource></resource></doi_data>…
    • 17. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoisubmissionsubmissionSubmissionreportSubmissionreportxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoiCrossRefSystemCrossRefSystemDeposit Process
    • 18. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoisubmissionsubmissionSubmissionreportSubmissionreportxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoixxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxdoiCrossRefSystemCrossRefSystemThanks!Where ismy DOI?ResearcherPublisher who did not reviewtheir submission logCMS subscriberMember querying foroutbound linksDeposit Process
    • 19. DepositinterfacesThe vast majority oftransactions are made via amachine interfacePublic interface:Web deposit form: interface:http://doi.crossref.orgHTTP
    • 20. Web deposit
    • 21. PDF ReferenceExtraction
    • 22. CrossRef MetadataSearch
    • 23. CrossRef Cited-By LinkingWho’s Citing You?Discover how yourpublications are beingcited and incorporateDOI links to the citingcontent into your onlinepublication.
    • 24. • 283 Members• 305,917,275 Cited-By Links• 23,243,270 DOIs with Cited-By Links• 18,116,258 Documents withReferencesWho’s Citing You?
    • 25. Plagiarism Detection
    • 26. 473 publishersOver 37 million content items indexed86,760 titles80,000+ manuscripts checked each month
    • 27. A logo that identifies a publisher-maintained copyof a piece of contentClicking the logo tells youWhether there have been any updatesIf this instance is being maintained by thepublisherWhere the publisher-maintained version isOther important publication record informationWhat is CrossMark?
    • 28. • 60,000 CrossMark records450+ corrections• 6000 “hits” on 1500 uniquerecordsStatistics
    • 29. Where to find help: Help documentation: CrossRef support: email or visit Webinars: up to date: Announcements forum: via RSS or email CrossRef Quarterly: CrossRef newsletter CrossRef Blog CrossTech Blog Fees:
    • 30. Photo by Joi Ito
    • 31. 38membership• Represents 70+ countries• Linking five centuries ofcontent
    • 32. 49•Links deliver theuser to thepublisher’s a “business-model neutral”Photo: Tawheed Manzoor
    • 33. Rachael Lammeyrlammey@crossref.org