Once upon a time, the American Association of Publishers, which was instrumental in creating an application of DOIs for reference linking in scholarly publishing, published guidelines that suggested ISBNs be used as the suffix for book DOIs. They withdrew that. CrossRef no longer recommends this practice. We prefer shorter DOIs that readers are not tempted to try to derive. Besides, the proliferation of DOIs for multiple electronic formats means it isn’t clear which ISBN to use. However, the ISO standard suggests using existing identifiers as the suffix so they do not compete with each other. The ISBN working group should look at this issue.
For example, a journal article has the same DOI whether it is printed or available online.
Will accept either the DOI: or the http://dx.doi.org URL format
Many scholarly publishers have digitized their backfiles (back list in book lingo) or are are in the process of doing so. The oldest journal article from 1665 has a CrossRef DOI and is available online.
Could the DOI become a works identifier for multiple ebook formats? There is nothing innately hierarchical about the DOI, although as we saw with titles and chapters, it can represent hierarchies. Maybe the DOI could resolve to a page similar to the one Overdrive provides to library patrons, asking the reader which version they want to access. Currently actively working with scholarly ebook aggregators/hosts like JSTOR, Project MUSE, CUP and OUP. Have talked to others like ebrary, but haven’t made much headway there yet.
Question? Is there any overlap between the BISG Identifiers Committee and the BIG? Myself, Bill Kasdorf, APEX, Todd Carpenter, NISOTaylor & Francis, Springer, university presses and others are active.
CrossRef is an organization that relies on trust, collaboration, and networking effects. The more publishers that participate and follow the rules, the better the outcome for all participants.
BISG DOI Overview
DOIs for Book Publishers
Carol Anne Meyer, CrossRef
BISG Identifiers Committee
1 October 2013
• What are DOIs?
• IDF, Registration Agencies, and CrossRef
• Best Practices for CrossRef book DOIs
• Linking to and from books
• Assigning CrossRef DOIs to books
• Finding book DOIs
• ISSNs and ISBNs for books & series
• What’s next?
What is a DOI?
Source: pasukaru76 from Flickr
It is a digital identifier of a
digital or physical object
It serves as a stable link to
content’s digital location
Some DOIs are not CrossRef DOIs
• Other Registration Agencies have assigned
DOIs to books for supply chain purposes, i.e.
the ISBN-A (assigned by mEDRA)
• More information is available here:
So, what is the relationship between
an RA and the IDF?
International DOI Foundation
• Oversees central DOI System
• Promotes DOI as a standard
• Provides organizational infrastructure that
ensures persistence and interoperability
IDF Registration Agencies (RAs)
Japan Link Center
Publications Office of the
European Union (OP)
CrossRef is the largest RA, but others
Registration Agency, 0
mEDRA, 0.67% EIDR, 0.53%
Japan Link Center
% of Total DOIs by
general-purpose naming service
Requires customized solution
organizational structure for persistence
programmatic linking and discovery service
Easy for publisher to automate
• DOIs for scholarly content
• Develops and maintains
the DOI standard
• Develops and maintains the
Handle system upon which
the DOI executes
What Does CrossRef Do?
• Provides technology infrastructure for
Registers DOIs with the Handle System
Provides discoverability services for those DOIs
• Provides business infrastructure for linking
One agreement with CrossRef is a linking agreement
with all CrossRef publishers
No need for
Photo: Alexandra Lee
Members need to make long-term
Koninklijke Bibliotheek / National Library of the
Why do publishers join
To get persistent identifiers for
To drive more traffic to their
To turn references into
To pull in cited-by links (who
cites this?) to get more traffic
Participate in other
provides different services
than other RAs
• Reference linking
• Cited-by linking
• CrossRef Metadata
Service feeds to
• CrossMark update
Why publishers assign CrossRef DOIs to books
• Persistent linking---books interlink with journal articles and
other scholarly content
• Inbound links drive traffic;
• Outbound links add value and utility to readers
• CrossRef Book DOIs can resolve to information on
purchasing -- for both print and online books
• Access/authentication remain under publisher control
• Links deliver
reader to front
control up to
is “business-model neutral”
Photo: Tawheed Manzoor
• 214 publishers deposit book content at CrossRef
• 414,600 book titles
• 7,031,461 total book DOIs
(Includes chapters and reference entries)
CrossRef Book DOI deposits have been
7 million book DOIs
out of 63 million CrossRef DOIs
Distribution of CrossRef DOIs by Content
Largest CrossRef Book Publishers
• Smithsonian Institution (Biodiversity
• Cambridge University Press
• Wiley Blackwell
• Nature Publishing Group
• Oxford University Press (OUP)
• CRC Press
• World Bank
• Walter de Gruyter
• American Psychological Association (APA)
• World Scientific
• Brill Academic Publishers
• IGI Global
• ASTM International
• American Chemical Society (ACS)
• Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishing
• MBLWHOI Library
• Emerald (MCB UP )
• Woodhead Publishing
• Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas
• American Mathematical Society (AMS).
• American Geophysical Union (AGU)
• Sage Publications
• Society for Industrial and Applied
See http://crossref.org/06members/51depositorB.html for complete list
Best Practices Book DOIs
Assigning, linking and CrossRef DOI use
• Deposit DOIs at the title and chapter/entry level.
• Add outbound links from references in books.
• Deposit references from books with CrossRef to
enable CrossRef Cited-by Linking.
Updates and Versions
• Major version – updates affect
interpretation. Publisher notifies readers
that content has changed.
– new editions
• Minor version – unlikely to affect
interpretation. No publisher notification.
Updates and Versions
• Assign new CrossRef DOIs to new major versions or
editions of books, chapters and entries.
Older versions remain available online with links to the
• Do not assign new CrossRef DOIs to minor new versions
of books, chapters and entries.
• Use Multiple Resolution to associate one CrossRef DOI
with multiple URLs, i.e. for electronic formats or multiple
Notifying readers of new editions
• CrossMark Update
What kind of Publication Record
information could be available?
• License types
• Funding disclosures (FundRef)
• Conflict of interest statements
• Publication history (submission, revision and accepted
• Location of data deposits or registries
• Peer review process used
• CrossCheck plagiarism screening
• and more...
Best Practices: Citation Matching
Book Title Queries (finding the DOI)
• Minimum query:
– book title
– book author
– book year
• And as many as possible of these:
– editor (where appropriate)
Displaying CrossRef DOIs in Book
• The DOI should appear at the end of the reference
• The DOI should be encoded as a hyperlink
Corrigan, John. Religion and Emotion - Approaches and Interpretations.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Oxford Scholarship Online.
Oxford University Press. 2005.
Note: This is a change from the previous format
Provide the DOI, if one has been assigned
to the content….
Providing Publication Data for Electronic Sources
Publication Manual of the APA, page 191.
Find Complete Best Practices Here
Assigning (depositing) CrossRef Book DOIs
• Deposit metadata and URL(s).
• Metadata required for book DOI registration is
described in the schema, sections 6-8
and in the documentation at:
Book Title Level Metadata
• Required data includes:
– Type: edited book, reference, monograph, or other
– Publication date
• Optional data includes:
– series title, and series ISSN*
– volume and edition numbers
– Book DOI and URL
* If you include a series title it must have an ISSN
ISSNs & ISBNs in CrossRef Schema
• ISSNs are assignable to a series title and not book title.
• ISSN is directly bound to series title and must be present in series
• ISSN check digit will be verified upon deposit – invalid ISSNs will be
• Volume is mandatory if series_metadata is present and volume level
title is NOT present
• Titles and ISSNs/ISBNs in deposit must match titles associated with
ISSNs/ISBNs in the system
• New titles will create a title entry in the system –
updates/additions to this title must remain consistent
• Contact email@example.com to change titles
Chapter Level Metadata
• Required data includes:
– Chapter title
– DOI and URL
• Optional data:
– Component number
• Manual DOI
• System builds
Web Deposit Form
Sample XML is available:
• A freely available, non-XML
alternative for reference linking
• A custom version of Inera’s
eXtyles® refXpress parses
unstructured references into
granular, valid XML and returns
any matching DOIs for those
How much? CrossRef Deposit Fees for Books
• Current Material
– Titles: $1.00
– Chapters/entries < 250 per title: 25 cents
– Chapters/entries > 250 per title: 15 cents
– Chapters/entries > 10,000 items: 12 cents
– All content types: 15 cents
– More than 1 million records: 12 cents
• No additional membership fee
• No charge for metadata or URL updates
• No additional annual fee for CrossRef members
• Annual fees based on publishing revenue
• Annual fees range from $250-$50,000
• Theoretical conflict fee if more than one DOI assigned to same
metadata and not resolved.
• Fees have not risen for more than 5 years.
• Additional fees for optional services like CrossMark.
• Explore DOIs for mobile content
• Improve and simplify multiple resolution
• Best practices for common ebook format
• Can we accept ONIX in addition to XML?
Possible Multiple Resolution in the supply chain
Book Interest Group
• Jennifer Kemp, Springer, Chair
• 70 ish Members
• Open to all book publisher members of
CrossRef, and others
• Includes major book hosting platforms
Book Interest Group
• Teleconferences several times per year
• Working groups on issues of importance to
• 1st in-person meeting in mid-November in
Cambridge, MA at CrossRef Annual Meeting