BISG DOI Overview


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  • Once upon a time, the American Association of Publishers, which was instrumental in creating an application of DOIs for reference linking in scholarly publishing, published guidelines that suggested ISBNs be used as the suffix for book DOIs. They withdrew that. CrossRef no longer recommends this practice. We prefer shorter DOIs that readers are not tempted to try to derive. Besides, the proliferation of DOIs for multiple electronic formats means it isn’t clear which ISBN to use. However, the ISO standard suggests using existing identifiers as the suffix so they do not compete with each other. The ISBN working group should look at this issue.
  • For example, a journal article has the same DOI whether it is printed or available online.
  • Will accept either the DOI: or the URL format
  • Many scholarly publishers have digitized their backfiles (back list in book lingo) or are are in the process of doing so. The oldest journal article from 1665 has a CrossRef DOI and is available online.
  • Could the DOI become a works identifier for multiple ebook formats? There is nothing innately hierarchical about the DOI, although as we saw with titles and chapters, it can represent hierarchies. Maybe the DOI could resolve to a page similar to the one Overdrive provides to library patrons, asking the reader which version they want to access. Currently actively working with scholarly ebook aggregators/hosts like JSTOR, Project MUSE, CUP and OUP. Have talked to others like ebrary, but haven’t made much headway there yet.
  • Question? Is there any overlap between the BISG Identifiers Committee and the BIG? Myself, Bill Kasdorf, APEX, Todd Carpenter, NISOTaylor & Francis, Springer, university presses and others are active.
  • CrossRef is an organization that relies on trust, collaboration, and networking effects. The more publishers that participate and follow the rules, the better the outcome for all participants.
  • BISG DOI Overview

    1. 1. DOIs for Book Publishers Carol Anne Meyer, CrossRef @meyercarol @CrossRefNews BISG Identifiers Committee 1 October 2013
    2. 2. Today’s Agenda • What are DOIs? • IDF, Registration Agencies, and CrossRef • Best Practices for CrossRef book DOIs • Linking to and from books • Assigning CrossRef DOIs to books • Finding book DOIs • ISSNs and ISBNs for books & series • What’s next?
    3. 3. What is a DOI? Digital Object Identifier Source: pasukaru76 from Flickr
    4. 4. It is alphanumeric
    5. 5. It uniquely identifies content It is unique
    6. 6. It has two parts
    7. 7. Creating a DOI Suffix: Keep it short and simple
    8. 8. To a reader, it looks like a link
    9. 9. The DOI is also an ISO standard
    10. 10.
    11. 11. DOI-enabled linking
    12. 12. It prevents this
    13. 13. It is a digital identifier of a digital or physical object
    14. 14. It serves as a stable link to content’s digital location
    15. 15. Some DOIs are not CrossRef DOIs • Other Registration Agencies have assigned DOIs to books for supply chain purposes, i.e. the ISBN-A (assigned by mEDRA) • More information is available here:
    16. 16. So, what is the relationship between an RA and the IDF?
    17. 17. 18 International DOI Foundation (IDF) • Oversees central DOI System • Promotes DOI as a standard • Provides organizational infrastructure that ensures persistence and interoperability
    18. 18. IDF Registration Agencies (RAs) CrossRef ISTIC DataCite DOI OPOCE mEDRA EIDR Japan Link Center (JaLC) Bowker Airiti CNKI Publications Office of the European Union (OP)
    19. 19. CrossRef is the largest RA, but others are growing Registration Agency, 0 CrossRef, 72.26% ISTIC, 21.39% DataCite, 2.36% DOI, 1.26% OPOCE, 1.06% mEDRA, 0.67% EIDR, 0.53% Japan Link Center (JaLC), 0.42% % of Total DOIs by Registration Agency
    20. 20. Handle-DOI-CrossRef relationship Handle general-purpose naming service Requires customized solution DOI organizational structure for persistence CrossRef programmatic linking and discovery service Easy for publisher to automate
    21. 21. • DOIs for scholarly content • Develops and maintains the DOI standard • Develops and maintains the Handle system upon which the DOI executes CrossRef/DOI Community
    22. 22. What Does CrossRef Do? • Provides technology infrastructure for linking Registers DOIs with the Handle System Provides discoverability services for those DOIs • Provides business infrastructure for linking One agreement with CrossRef is a linking agreement with all CrossRef publishers
    23. 23. 24 Cross-publisher means… No need for bilateral negotiations between publishers, or between a third-party and individual publishers Photo: Alexandra Lee
    24. 24. Members need to make long-term archiving arrangements CLOCKSS: Koninklijke Bibliotheek / National Library of the Netherlands: Portico:
    25. 25. Why do publishers join CrossRef?  To get persistent identifiers for their content  To drive more traffic to their content  To turn references into hyperlinks  To pull in cited-by links (who cites this?) to get more traffic  Participate in other collaborative services (CrossCheck, CrossMark)
    26. 26. It’s all about discoverability
    27. 27. provides different services than other RAs • Reference linking • Cited-by linking • CrossRef Metadata Service feeds to Affiliates • CrossCheck plagiarism screening • CrossMark update identification service Powered by iThenticate
    28. 28. Where do people discover CrossRef DOIs? • Scholarly References • Abstracting & Indexing services • Reference management tools • Search engines • Aggregated reference products • Online library catalogs (i.e. WorldCat)
    29. 29. Why publishers assign CrossRef DOIs to books • Persistent linking---books interlink with journal articles and other scholarly content • Inbound links drive traffic; • Outbound links add value and utility to readers • CrossRef Book DOIs can resolve to information on purchasing -- for both print and online books • Access/authentication remain under publisher control
    30. 30. • Links deliver reader to front door • Access control up to publisher or distributor is “business-model neutral” Photo: Tawheed Manzoor
    31. 31. The Numbers • 214 publishers deposit book content at CrossRef • 414,600 book titles • 7,031,461 total book DOIs (Includes chapters and reference entries)
    32. 32. 33 membership • Represents 76 countries
    33. 33. CrossRef Book DOI deposits have been growing rapidly 0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 Book DOIs
    34. 34. 7 million book DOIs out of 63 million CrossRef DOIs 85% 9% 5% 1% Distribution of CrossRef DOIs by Content Type Journals Books Conference Proceedings Components
    35. 35. Largest CrossRef Book Publishers • Springer-Verlag • Smithsonian Institution (Biodiversity Heritage Library) • Cambridge University Press • Elsevier • Wiley Blackwell • Nature Publishing Group • Oxford University Press (OUP) • CRC Press • World Bank • Walter de Gruyter • American Psychological Association (APA) • World Scientific • Brill Academic Publishers • IGI Global • ASTM International • American Chemical Society (ACS) • Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishing • MBLWHOI Library • Emerald (MCB UP ) • Woodhead Publishing • Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas • American Mathematical Society (AMS). • American Geophysical Union (AGU) • Sage Publications • Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics • Netbiblo See for complete list
    36. 36. Title level response page
    37. 37. Book chapter response page
    38. 38. Combined title & chapter response page
    39. 39. Title response page for print & e-books
    40. 40. Entry in reference works
    41. 41. Best Practices Book DOIs t_practices_for_books.html
    42. 42. Best Practices Assigning, linking and CrossRef DOI use • Deposit DOIs at the title and chapter/entry level. • Add outbound links from references in books. • Deposit references from books with CrossRef to enable CrossRef Cited-by Linking.
    43. 43. The future is now: Cited-by Linking for books
    44. 44. Best Practices Updates and Versions • Major version – updates affect interpretation. Publisher notifies readers that content has changed. – new editions – errata – corrigenda • Minor version – unlikely to affect interpretation. No publisher notification.
    45. 45. Best Practices Updates and Versions • Assign new CrossRef DOIs to new major versions or editions of books, chapters and entries. Older versions remain available online with links to the latest version. • Do not assign new CrossRef DOIs to minor new versions of books, chapters and entries. • Use Multiple Resolution to associate one CrossRef DOI with multiple URLs, i.e. for electronic formats or multiple hosting platforms.
    46. 46. Notifying readers of new editions • CrossMark Update Identification Service
    47. 47. What kind of Publication Record information could be available? • License types • Funding disclosures (FundRef) • Conflict of interest statements • Publication history (submission, revision and accepted dates) • Location of data deposits or registries • Peer review process used • CrossCheck plagiarism screening • and more...
    48. 48. Multiple resolution
    49. 49. Best Practices: Citation Matching Book Title Queries (finding the DOI) • Minimum query: – book title – book author – book year • And as many as possible of these: – editor (where appropriate) – publisher
    50. 50. Displaying CrossRef DOIs in Book Citations • The DOI should appear at the end of the reference • The DOI should be encoded as a hyperlink Example: Corrigan, John. Religion and Emotion - Approaches and Interpretations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Oxford Scholarship Online. Oxford University Press. 2005. Note: This is a change from the previous format doi:10.1093/0195166248.001.0001
    51. 51. Style Manuals Provide the DOI, if one has been assigned to the content…. Section 6.32 Providing Publication Data for Electronic Sources Publication Manual of the APA, page 191.
    52. 52. Find Complete Best Practices Here
    53. 53. Assigning (depositing) CrossRef Book DOIs • Deposit metadata and URL(s). • Metadata required for book DOI registration is described in the schema, sections 6-8 and in the documentation at:
    54. 54. Book Title Level Metadata • Required data includes: – Type: edited book, reference, monograph, or other – Title – Publisher – Publication date – ISBN • Optional data includes: – series title, and series ISSN* – volume and edition numbers – Book DOI and URL * If you include a series title it must have an ISSN
    55. 55. ISSNs & ISBNs in CrossRef Schema • ISSNs are assignable to a series title and not book title. • ISSN is directly bound to series title and must be present in series • ISSN check digit will be verified upon deposit – invalid ISSNs will be rejected • Volume is mandatory if series_metadata is present and volume level title is NOT present • Titles and ISSNs/ISBNs in deposit must match titles associated with ISSNs/ISBNs in the system • New titles will create a title entry in the system – updates/additions to this title must remain consistent • Contact to change titles
    56. 56. Chapter Level Metadata • Required data includes: – Chapter title – DOI and URL • Optional data: – Contributors – Pagination – Component number
    57. 57. • Manual DOI registration for books • System builds XML deposit file Web Deposit Form
    58. 58. XML deposit Sample XML is available: • Monograph: • Series:
    59. 59. Simple-Text Query • A freely available, non-XML alternative for reference linking • A custom version of Inera’s eXtyles® refXpress parses unstructured references into granular, valid XML and returns any matching DOIs for those references
    60. 60. How much? CrossRef Deposit Fees for Books • Current Material – Titles: $1.00 – Chapters/entries < 250 per title: 25 cents – Chapters/entries > 250 per title: 15 cents – Chapters/entries > 10,000 items: 12 cents • Backfiles – All content types: 15 cents – More than 1 million records: 12 cents • No additional membership fee
    61. 61. Linking 5 centuries of content 1665
    62. 62. How much? • No charge for metadata or URL updates • No additional annual fee for CrossRef members • Annual fees based on publishing revenue • Annual fees range from $250-$50,000 • Theoretical conflict fee if more than one DOI assigned to same metadata and not resolved. • Fees have not risen for more than 5 years. • Additional fees for optional services like CrossMark.
    63. 63. What’s Next • Explore DOIs for mobile content • Improve and simplify multiple resolution • Best practices for common ebook format metadata • Can we accept ONIX in addition to XML?
    64. 64. Possible Multiple Resolution in the supply chain
    65. 65. Book Interest Group • Jennifer Kemp, Springer, Chair • 70 ish Members • Open to all book publisher members of CrossRef, and others • Includes major book hosting platforms
    66. 66. Book Interest Group • Teleconferences several times per year • Working groups on issues of importance to book publishers • 1st in-person meeting in mid-November in Cambridge, MA at CrossRef Annual Meeting
    67. 67.
    68. 68. Thank you!