In this next section I’m going to go over the different stages of registering and managing CrossRef DOIs. The obvious first step is to join CrossRef, next you’ll need to publish your content, Deposit DOIs, query for DOIs, link them in your references, and maintain them.
The order I’m presenting these steps in isn’t necessarily the order you need to do things in and don’t view it as a recommended workflow, do whatever works best for your organization.
1. The DOI consists of two parts: a prefix and a suffix.In this example, the is prefix 10.1006 , everything after the forward slash is the suffix. 2. When you first join CrossRef as a member, you are given a DOI prefix. Prefixes are always 10. something, currently they’re all 4 or 5 digit numbers.Each member has a prefix, some have several. 3. + 4 5. You are assigned a prefix, but need to come up with the suffix on your own. 6. A DOI suffix is a unique string of letters and numbers – you can pretty much do whatever you want (with a few limitations) but it’s usually best to come up with a consistent pattern that makes sense (to you,, it doesn’t need to be derivable by anyone else), and it should be easily created and documented
First step – join CrossRef. When you first join CrossRef, you are assigned a DOI prefix. I want to stress that the prefix does not identify the current owner of the DOI, it’s really just a way to manage access control by registrant.We get a lot of questions about DOI suffixes –* Keep it simple. here are some examples. They’re all fairly simple and presumably follow a pattern, but the pattern doesn’t need to be decipherable. They can be meaningful only to you, or a random string of numbers, or follow a recognizable pattern – it’s up to you To the end user, a DOI is a DOI – the prefix/suffix combination have no meaning, it’s a string of letters and numbers. 2. We do have a few restrictions – the DOI suffix is limited to the characters you see here. The actual DOI specification (created and maintained by the International DOI Foundation) is more flexible but we’ve implemented a limited character set because of past problems – DOIs with spaces, for example, need to be URL encoded, and not everyone knows to do that.
The next step is to publish your item online – your journal article, book, report, etc. will need what we call a ‘DOI response page’ which is the page the DOI resolves to. Usually this is the same as the article landing page. The response page must include the DOI, bibliographic information about the item, and a means to access full text. In a perfect world, DOIs would be published and deposited with CrossRef spontaneously, but realistically we ask you to keep the gap between publication and deposit within 24 hours. As I mentioned before, we’ve updated our DOI display guidelines in recent months (early August) – DOIs must now be displayed as a URL (with the http://dx.doi.org prefix) instead of with doi: as was previously recommended.
DOIs are required on the DOI response page but we also recommend you include them whenever a persistent link is needed – in your tables of contents, abstracts, citation downloads, metadata feeds, etc. etc. – they’re not just for reference linking.
The next step is to publish your item online – your journal article, book, report, etc. will need what we call a ‘DOI response page’ which is the page the DOI resolves to. Usually this is the same as the article landing page. Here’s a good example of a DOI on a response page - the DOI is displayed as a URL, and otherbiblographic info is easy to identify.In a perfect world, DOIs would be published and deposited with CrossRef spontaneously, but realistically we ask you to keep the gap between publication and deposit within 24 hours.We also recommend you include them whenever a persistent link is needed – in your tables of contents, abstracts, citation downloads, metadata feeds, etc. etc. – they’re not just for reference linking.
The next steps are the most complex and involve sending and receiving data from CrossRef. You deposit your DOIs and metadata with us, which enables inbound linking, meaning you (and others) are able to use DOIs to link to your content. You also look up DOIs for other publishers and include them in your references as outbound links. I’m going to cover depositing first but Querying and outbound linking can happen at whatever point in your workflow makes sense to you.Regarding the deposit process: Journal article example: has journal title, title abbreviation, article info, DOI, and URL
We call the process of sending in metadata to the CR system ‘depositing’. We sometimes use the terms ‘deposit’ and ‘register’ interchangeably but they’re slightly different - when a publisher ‘deposits’ a DOI, the metadata is added to the CrossRef database, making the DOI retrievable. The DOI is also registered with the Handle resolver, meaning the DOI and URL only – no citation metadata is recorded by the Handle resolver. Immediately after the submission is processed, the system sends you a submission log. This is very important - data is often messy, and we try to keep the messy stuff out of our database, so there are many reasons your submission might fail.
. Once the DOI has been registered, it is resolvable and queryable, meaning it can be used for linking and can be retrieved from our system by end users, CrossRef Metadata Services subscribers, library link resolvers, and of course other members.
Submission methods vary from very robust complicated systems to one guy cutting and pasting stuff from Word into our web deposit form (which converts the data to XML). Most deposits are made via machine interfaces. Data is sent to us via HTTP POST – we do have a simple java-based tool that can be used for uploads, it’s available in our help documentation. Many publishers prefer to create their own tools. We do not currently accept FTP deposits.Our system has a very simple public interface at doi.crossref.org, and as I mentioned we have a web interface, Anna is going to talk about user friendly tools in a bit so I won’t go over that now.
Query CrossRef to retrieve DOI matches for outbound linking: meaning you need to search our database for DOI matches for your journal articles. Outbound linking is required for recent journal articles but we encourage publishers to link references for back issues and other content types as well, since it strengthens the linking network for everyone.XML / bulk querying: if you are, XML querying is the way to go – we have a number of methods you can use for querying. You can upload bulk XML queries, poll the system using XML queries, or do OpenURL queries.http://www.crossref.org/help/CrossRef_Help_CSH.htm#02_Getting_started/How_querying_works.htm
After you’ve retrieved your reference DOIs, you need to include them in the reference lists on your website. The DOI links can be represented in a few different ways, here’s one example – the ‘Article’ links are DOI links.
Here is another example of outbound linking - this publisher is including the full DOI url in their references, making it very easy to cut and paste etc. This is recommended in our DOI display guidelines. The complete guidelines are on our website.
The complete guidelines are on our website, there’s a link, I’ve included the different reference linking options here. 1. uses the complete DOI link in the referenceGhosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00225-9 2.—Use a ShortDOI as the permanent link - a ShortDOI is a shortcut DOI name - if you find yourself in possession of a long DOI that adds extra lines to your references or is otherwise difficult to represent, you can create a shortcut using the shortDOI service at http://shortdoi.org/ ExampleGhosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260, http://doi.org/bm6 3—Displays the CrossRef linking graphic next to the permanent DOI link.Linking graphics can be found on the member logo page. ExampleGhosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00225-9 4—Display the CrossRef linking graphic with the permanent URL behind it, so if you click on the graphic you resolve the DOILinking graphics can be found on the member logo page. ExampleGhosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260 5—Display the text “CrossRef” with a permanent DOI link behind the text ExampleGhosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260, CrossRef. 6—Display the words “Full Text” or “Article” or something similar with the permanent DOI link behind the text. ExampleGhosh, M.K., M.L. Harter. 2003. A viral mechanism for remodeling chromatin structure in G0 cells. Mol. Cell. 12:255–260, Article. So, once your DOIs have been included in your references, you’re done! Until the next issue. Or unless there are problems..
Let’s move on to maintaining DOIs and metadata – for the most part, if the metadata you send us is thorough and accurate, DOIs don’t need to be touched. There are some circumstances that require attention. Common changes are:Updating URLs: this is the most frequent change, for obvious reasons. If you make changes to your site or acquire DOIs from another publisher, DOIs can be updated easily by either:Redepositing your metadata with the new URLs – the metadata in our system will be overwrittenSending firstname.lastname@example.org a tab separated list of DOIs and their new URLs. These updates can usually be processed within 24 hours (excluding weekends). If you have a large number of DOIs to update (say over 100,000) contact us in advance and we can give you an estimate of the time involved.If you purchase a title from another publisher and the title has DOIs assigne,d you need to use and maintain the existing DOIs – don’t create your own DOIs. Usually all you need to do is redirect the DOIs to your content, if you need help, contact support – we can send you all DOIs and metadata for a title.Changing metadata: if you’ve discovered errors in your metadata or otherwise need to make an update, redeposit your metadata with the changes – any deposits already in the system will be overwritten, so make sure the redeposit is complete. For example, if you deposit your DOIs with an online publication date before the item has been published in print, you can update the metadata once the print info is available. There is no charge for updating your DOIs – we encourage you to update them as often as you like.
We have a number of reports that help you keep your DOIs and metadata going – some are emailed to your technical contacts, some can be pulled as-needed from our website. The resolution report is sent out monthly no matter what, the conflict and schematron reports are sent out if problems are detected. We also have some reports on our website – some give general information about CrossRef as a whole, like the status report, some
First is the resolution report. It is sent out monthly to the business contact we have on file. This report is comprised of statistics we extract from DOI resolution logs and contains data about how many times your DOIs have been clicked and your overall resolution failure rate (successes vs. failures) There’s a lot of interesting data here – it has a.) how many resolutions you have per month – and lists the previous 12 months as well, so you can compareb.) it also includes info on resolution attempts (that is, how many times someone tries to resolve one of your DOIs. c.) also has a list of your top ten DOIsd.) this is important – the report lists your overall resolution failure rate, as well as the overall failure percentage for all members. The resolution failure rate is the percentage of DOI resolution attempts that have failed. This rate often gives members a heads up about potential problems, whether it be someone creating bad links to your content, or you failing to deposit DOIs that have been published.e.) there is a .csv file attached to your report that lists all failed DOI resolution attempts. Some of these are garbage – users make errors, especially when they are cutting and pasting, but if you have a high failure rate you should look at these DOIs closely.
The next few reports are linked from the Members area of our website - The next report is the depositor report – these are generated for journals, books and conference proceedings, and they list all titles and DOIs for each publisher. The main page lists titles by publisher and the number of DOIs per title and is updated weekly.
There’s a detailed report for each title as well, which is updated somewhat dynamically – usually new deposits appear in the list within an hour. – it lists:DOIs deposited for the titleThe current owner of the DOI – I should mention that in our system, DOIs are owned by a prefix. If a title changes hands, the DOIs for the title change hands as well. The actual DOI prefix stays the same but the owning prefix in our system will be the new owner’s prefix. The depositor report also includes the timestamp for each DOI – the timestamp is a value used in deposits, it is incremented with every deposit.The date of the last update is included as well, this is only really used in troubleshooting – you usually won’t need to worry about this.
The conflict report is sent out monthly if you have conflicts. Conflicts happen when two DOIs are created with the same metadata. Only one DOI should be assigned for an item, so we try to give you a heads up if DOIs are duplicated. Conflicts are a problem for two reasons: 1. duplicate DOIs shouldn’t exist – they often happen when a publisher acquires a title from another publisher and assigns new DOIs instead of using existing DOIs, usually the existing DOIs are neglected and end up resolving to error pages, which is very very bad. 2. Many queries rely on finding one DOI for an item – if multiple DOIs are found, they won’t be
We also have something called the Schematron report – Schematron is a validation language. These reports are used to identify messy metadata We need to be flexible and accommodate variances in data, so our deposit schema can’t keep all of the questionable data out without blocking good data as well, so we do a post-deposit review of metadata and pick out items that we think might be incorrect. These reports are emailed out weekly on Saturday, and we send out an average of 45 reports a week.
1. Join CrossRef!
5. Outbound linking
6. Maintain DOIs and Metadata
Keep it simple:
"a-z", "A-Z", "0-9" and "-._;()/”
Creating a DOI Suffix
More info: Establishing a Suffix Pattern
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<doi_batch_diagnostic status="completed" sp="cr6.crossref.org">
<batch_id>12009_DOIs_unreg_2007-09-21</batch_id> <record_diagnostic status="Success">
<record_diagnostic status="Failure" msg_id="22">
<doi>all doi's of the current journal element</doi>
<msg>ISSN "15304086" has already been assigned to a different title/publisher/genre</msg>
<msg>Added with conflict</msg>
More info: Interpreting submission reports
Publisher who did not review
their submission log
Member querying for
The vast majority of
transactions are made via
a machine interface
Web deposit form:
HTTP POST or GET
OAI-PMH (for CMS
More info: How Querying Works
There is no charge for updating your DOIs – we
encourage you to update them as often as needed.
To make changes to your metadata, resubmit your entire deposit
Maintaining DOIs and Metadata
When a title is acquired, all existing DOIs must be redirected and
maintained. Do not create new DOIs.
Resolution Report (email)
DOI Error Report (email)
Reports and Tools
Resolution Report (emailed monthly)
More info: Resolution Report
Conflict reports (in Members Area)
More info: Conflict Report
compiled from reports submitted by end users
emailed nightly to technical contact
DOI Error report (emailed nightly as needed)
Reasons for DOI Error:
a DOI has been published but not deposited
the published DOI does not match the deposited DOI
the end user misinterpreted or mistyped a DOI (i.e.
confusing 1 for l or 0 for O)
More info: DOI Error Report
Where to find help:
Help documentation: http://help.crossref.org
CrossRef support: email email@example.com or visit
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CrossRef Quarterly: CrossRef newsletter