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from the 15th to the 16th century



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    Renaissance Renaissance Presentation Transcript

    • Renaissance from the 15th to the 16th century
    • Historical context • Before the Renaissance: Middle Ages o o o o o o o o o X – XV century Theocentrism = God is the center Irrational faith Life with religious meaning Pessimism Culture in the clergy (Latin) Europe = Catholic Feudalism Social life - three estates : no exchange or possibility of moving between them
    • Renaissance - Overview • Cultural movement • The word „Renaissance‟ means „Rebirth‟ • Generally, from the 15th to the 16th century o depends on the country • Beginning in Florence (Italy) in the Late Middle Ages (14th century) o The Conquest of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks o Hellenistic culture influence • Later spreading to the rest of Europe
    • Italian city states 1494
    • Overview • Learning based on classical sources o Greco-Roman • Historians often argue this intellectual transformation was a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era • Influence in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
    • The beginning • While in Italy the Renaissance was developing in the rest of Europe the Gothic remains o to early 16th century • Italy coexist with the Roman Antiquity and can inspire on it. • Florence (1400s) o the starting point of the new style o the first works from here will be extended to the rest of Italy o the development of a rich bourgeoisie aid the deployment of the forces of the Renaissance. o the protection of the Medici
    • Florence Santa Maria del Fiore, known as The Duomo, whose dome was built by Filippo Brunelleschi
    • David (Michelangelo) The Pietà (Michelangelo)
    • Annunciation (Fra Angelico)
    • The Birth of Venus (Botticelli)
    • Characteristics • • • • • • Research of Classical Antiquity Humanism Positivism Modern spirit of individuality & Self-awareness Anthropocentric trend Realism in sculpture and painting o New ideal of beauty • • • • Scientific development New relationship with Nature Search for harmony, balance and serenity Rational attitude to the world, but without abandoning religious faith
    • Humanism • European intellectual, philosophical and cultural movement • Revived the ideas of Greek and Roman thinkers The purpose of humanism was to create a universal man whose person combined intellectual and physical excellence and who was capable of functioning honorably in virtually any situation Hause, S. & Maltby, W. (2001)
    • Humanism • In spite of formal allegiance to ascetic Christian doctrine • The return to favor of the pagan classics stimulated: o o o o o the philosophy of secularism the appreciation of worldly pleasures intensified the assertion of personal independence individual expression growing secular view of life • Honest doubt began to replace unreasoning faith o The importance of reasoning
    • Individualism • Individualistic conception at all levels of life • Potential of people to overcome o Man is conscious of his own worth and intelligence. • The human is the center • “The moral worth of the individual” • Belief in the human capacity to choose between good and evil, and act accordingly • Man is the protagonist of destination
    • Individualism • Freedom of individual expression • Works of art is signed o Role/ protagonism of the artist o Personal growth and dignity • Expansion of Trade – Capitalism o growth of prosperity and luxury
    • Spiritual movement • The Renaissance had a profound effect in the way people perceived the relationship between man and God Theocentrism  Anthropocentrism • Many of the period's foremost theologians were followers of the humanist method: o o o o o Erasmus Zwingli Thomas More Martin Luther John Calvin
    • Spiritual movement • Humanism and the Individualism played a direct role in sparking the Reformation • Churchmen such as Erasmus and Luther proposed reform to the Church, often based on humanist textual criticism of the New Testament
    • Renaissance periods 1. Quattrocento  Florence o o o o (15th century) Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 - 1458) Donatello (1382 - 1466) Fra Angelico (1387- 1455) Sandro Botticelli (1445 ‐ 1510) 2. Cinquecento  Rome (16th century) Popes: Julius II, Leo X, Clement VII and Paul III and Medici Family o o o o Donato Bramante (1444 –1514) Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475 -1564) Rafael Sanzio (1483 -1520) Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 ‐ 1519)
    • Humanist ideal Leonardo Da Vinci Italian Renaissance polymath: o o o o o o o o o o o o Painter Sculptor Architect Musician Mathematician Engineer Inventor Anatomist Geologist Cartographer Botanist Writer
    • Last Supper (Leonardo Da Vinci)
    • Vitruvian Man The Mona Lisa
    • The influence of the Renaissance in Germany • Architecture retained strong influences from medieval Gothic. • The artistic renaissance in Germany was not an attempted resurrection of classical art. It was an intense renewal of the Germanic spirit, motivated by the Protestant Reformation. • The most famous German Renaissance artist: Albrecht Dürer (1471 - 1528)
    • Albrecht Dürer self-portraits
    • The influence of the Renaissance in Germany • After the Reformation, the patronage of the German nobility focused primarily on architecture o Ability of architecture to show the power and prestige of the rulers • Most German princes preferred to keep the Gothic works. Only decorated with Renaissance ornamentation. • Habsburg emperors and the Fugger family were the most important patrons
    • Rosenkranzaltar (Albrecht Dürer)
    • Heidelberg Castle
    • Church of San Miguel in Munich
    • Author Cristina Domene Beviá