A Methodical History of Language Teaching, BrownPresentation Transcript
A "Methodical" History of a Language Teaching Cristiane Ribeiro Guilherme Lourenço Lígia Ferreira
“ The first step toward developing a principled approach to language teaching will be to turn back the clock about a century to learn from the historical cycles and trends that have brought us to the present day.” “ This chapter focus on methods as the identifying characteristics of a century of “modern” language-teaching efforts.” “ You will encounter references to concepts, constructs, issues and models that are normally covered in a course in second language acquisition (SLA).”
Edward Anthony (1963) Approach “ A set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language, learning, and teaching” Method “… was described as an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon a selected approach.” Techniques “… were the specific activities manifested in the classroom that were consistent with a method and therefore were in harmony with an approach as well”
Jack Richards and Theodore Rodgers (1982) Method was an umbrella term for the specification and interrelation of theory and practice.” Approach “ Defines assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the nature of language and language learning” Design “ Specify the relationship of those theories to classroom materials and activities.” Procedure “ Techniques and practices that are derived from one’s approach and design.”
Changing Winds and Shifting Sands
“ Albert Marckwardt (1972) saw these “changing winds and shifting sands” as cyclical pattern in which a new method emerged about every quarter of a century. Each new method broke from the old but took with it some of the positive aspects of the previous practices .”
The Grammar Translation Method
“ 1. Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.
2. Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.
3. Long, elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given.
4. Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.
5. Reading of difficult classical texts in begun early.
6. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.
7. Often the drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue.
8. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.”
“ It does not virtually enhance a student’s communicative ability in the language.”
“… one can understand why Grammar Translation remains so popular. It requires few specialized skills on the part of teachers. Tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and can be objectively scored.”
Designer of Methods of The Spirited 1970s
Community Language Learnig - CLL
Charles Curran (1972) created a classic example of an affectively based method, what he called the Counseling-Learning;
“ The social dynamics of such a group were of primary importance”;
Methodology: “the group of clients (students), having first established in their native language an interpersonal relationship and trust, were seated in a circle with the counselor (teacher) on the outside of the circle.
As they talked the counselor translated the dialogue in the second language (English). The learner repeated that English sentence as accurately as possible.
Advantages and Disadvantages
“ The counselor allowes the learner to determine the type of conversation and to analyze the foreign language inductively”
The counselor teacher could become non directive;
Translation is a complex process, is often “easier said than done”
Georgi Lozaniv (1979) – bulgarian psychologist;
He believed that “the human brain could process great quantities of material if given the right conditions for learning – which are a state of relaxation and giving over of control to the teacher”
The “right conditions” may not be avaible wherever this method was taught, like the using of music and confortable chairs;
It replaces the understanding process in language learning by memorization techniques;
The Silent Way
Caleb Gattegno (1972);
“ Learning is facilitaded if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned”
“ Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects”
Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned.”
The Silent Way was too harsh a method and the teacher was too distant (they had to “get out of my way” while students worked out solutions) , to encourage a communicative atmosphere;
Learners need more guidance and overt correction than it permitted;
There aren’t any specialness in this method by using the rods and charts; it can look like any other language classroom;
Total Pysical Response - TPR
James Asher (1977);
“ The instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors”
Students did a deal of listening and acting. The teacher was very directive in orchestrating a perfomance;
Imperative mood was utilized to teach even into more advanced levels; introduced by humor to make the atmosphere confortable enough for the learning process.
The TPR “lost its distinctiveness as learners advanced in their competence;
In reading and writing activities, students were limited to spinning off the oral work in the classroom
Soon the learders’ needs for spontaneity and unreheased language must be met, not only the traced actions;
The Natural Approach
Stephen Krashen (1982, 1997)
The teacher should provide the basic “comprehensible input”, comunication skill for everydau language situations
Learners don’t to say during this “silent period” untill they feel ready to do so.
The teachers is the source of the learners’ input, stimulating variety of classroom activities- games, skits, commands and the like.
Three stages of The Natural Approach
The preproduction stage is the development os listening comprehension skills
The early production stage is usually marked with errors as the student struggles with the language.
The last stage is one of extending production into longer stretches of discourse involving more comple games, role plays, discussions and so forth. The objective in this is to promote fluency.
The heavy emphasis on comprehensible input and the silent period
What about the student whose speech never emerges?
And with all students on different timetable for this called emergence, how does the teacher manage a classroom efficiently?
How does one know which structures the learners are to be provided with?
Begun with the work of Council of Europe, and it’s used in UK in the 1970;
Attention to functions as the organizing elements of Enlish language curriculum; grammatical structures served as the organizers;
It focused on the pragmatic purposes to which we put the language;
It wasn’t a method but it was close to what they called na “approach”
It was specifically focused on curricular structure than a true approach at all – a language functions, it follows below:
Introducing self and other people
Exchanging personal information
Asking how to spell someone’s name
Apologizing and thanking
Identifying and discribing people
Asking for information
1) Taking into account the reading of "A "methodological" history of language teaching" could you consider the "Grammar translation Method" would fit one, or even a group of students nowadays. Justify your answer.
2) What are the pros and cons of each method presented in the text regarding effectivness in learning a second language?
3) If you would build a method, what features of the methods presented in the text would you take into account while building yours? Would you add any characteristic to it that is not presented in any of the methods in text? Justify your answer.
4) Based on the methods of learning second language explained before and weighing up our digital natives (21th century). How can we think about a method that meets this new generation wishes, and become it a real method whose learners are capable to learn effectively?