The Potential for Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Indiana
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The Potential for Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Indiana

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Part I: Generalities
Part II: CCS in Indiana
Part III: Future Work and Conclusions

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  • 1. OUTLINE PART I: GENERALITIES PART II: CCS IN INDIANA PART III: FUTURE WORK AND CONCLUSIONS
  • 2. • Carbon refers to CO2 or carbon dioxide. • Sequestration means removed or isolated from the atmosphere and stored away for a long time (thousands of years). • US DOE: “a family of methods for capturing and permanently isolating gases that otherwise could contribute to global climate change”. WHAT IS CARBON SEQUESTRATION?
  • 3. • Manmade CO2 emissions are changing the climate, therefore capturing and storing or sequestering CO2 away from the atmosphere will help mitigate the effects of these changes. • Power generation is changing: •Demand of energy will double by 2030 •Cost of fossil fuel is rising •Green House Gas (GHG) emissions (and concerns) are rising WHY SEQUESTER CO2?
  • 4. From IPCC, 2001 VARIATIONS OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE FOR…
  • 5. THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE
  • 6. Source: U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration COAL REMAINS A DOMINANT PART OF TOMORROW’S US ENERGY MIX
  • 7. Ocean Sequestration Carbon stored in oceans through direct injection or fertilization. Terrestrial Sequestration Carbon can be stored in soils and vegetation, which are our natural carbon sinks. Increasing carbon fixation through photosynthesis, slowing down or reducing decomposition of organic matter, and changing land use practices can enhance carbon uptake in these natural sinks. Geologic Sequestration The capture, injection and storage of CO2 into deeply buried saline water-filled reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields, or coal seams. TYPES OF SEQUESTRATION
  • 8. Rick Pardini, Core Energy Nov 16th Danilo Dragoni, IU Geography Sept 28th Maria Mastalerz, IGS Dec 7th This talk! Jared Ciferno, DOE-NETL* Oct 26th CCS TALKS @ THE IGS SEMINAR SERIES Faye Liu, IU Geology, Dec 14st Organic Shales
  • 9. Precipitated Carbonate Minerals ~800 mConfining Layer(s) Injection Well Supercritical CO2 Dissolved CO2 CO2 INJECTION AND TRAPPING MECHANISMS
  • 10. MASS PARTITIONING • Free phase, as a gas or supercritical fluid • Trapped in the capillaries • Dissolved in the pore fluids (brine or oil) • Solid mineral precipitate
  • 11. Source: Rempel et al., 2011 CO2 INJECTION AND TRAPPING MECHANISMS: A MORE REALISTIC REPRESENTATION
  • 12. PHASE DIAGRAM OF CO2
  • 13. Assuming geothermal and pressure gradients of 0.03 oC/m (1.64 oF/100 ft) and 9.8 MPa/Km (0.435 psi/ft) respectively Assuming geothermal and pressure gradients of 0.03 oC/m (1.64 oF/100 ft) and 9.8 MPa/Km (0.435 psi/ft) respectively PHASE DIAGRAM OF CO2
  • 14. EPA Rule: “an underground source of drinking water (USDW) is defined as an aquifer or a portion of an aquifer that…contains fewer than 10,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of total dissolved solids (TDS) EFFECT OF SALINITY ON SOLUBILITY From Zerai et al., 2006
  • 15. PART II: GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN INDIANA
  • 16. HOW MUCH IS EMITTED BY INDIANA? Source: Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada (2010), DOE-NETL
  • 17. VOLUME – HOW MUCH IN INDIANA? • Indiana produces ~ 250 million metric tonnes (MMT) of CO2/year (total emissions) • 155 MMT of CO2/year (point source emissions) • If half of the point sources CO2 emissions are to be captured and stored: • ~78 MMT/year reservoir capacity required. • Most are from coal-fired generation plants • e.g. Gibson Station emits ~20 MMT/3100 Mw/year • e.g. Edwardsport emits ~ 4.5 MMT/630 Mw/year • To date, the largest CCS projects store ~1 [MMT/year] • Sleipner and Snøhvit (Norway), Weyburn (Canada), and In Salah (Algeria) • If 10% (7.8 MMT/yr) of the emissions are to be stored, • Will require eight - 1 MMT/year projects
  • 18. GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION – A DECADE OF PROGRESS US Department of Energy and the RCSPs From Validation Phase (20+ projects under Regional Partnerships) to Development Phase (multiple commercial-scale injection/storage) Development Phase 2008-2018 Source: Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada (2010), DOE-NETL
  • 19. GEOLOGIC BACKGROUND A B
  • 20. Measured Depth = 2500 ft ILLUSTRATIVE CROSS SECTION (A-A’)
  • 21. Mount Simon Sandstone Maquoketa Shale Knox Supergroup Trenton Limestone Eau Claire Formation St. Peter SS CAMBRO-ORDOVICIAN ROCKS IN INDIANA
  • 22. MOUNT SIMON SANDSTONE: MEASURED DEPTH Source: http://igs.indiana.edu/Sequestration/CO2Storage.cfm
  • 23. MOUNT SIMON SANDSTONE: THICKNESS Source: http://igs.indiana.edu/Sequestration/CO2Storage.cfm
  • 24. • Base of the sealing interval ≥2500 ft Sufficient lithostatic pressure to ensure CO2 remains in a supercritical state at ≥1070 psi and 88°F • Sufficient sealing strata overlying the storage zone to mitigate the possibility of leakage to shallower intervals and the surface • Porous and permeable storage zone Greater porosity and permeability at shallower depths will allow us to decrease the injection pressure (and therefore costs) • Remote from geologic features that might compromise the integrity of the storage reservoir Faults and fractured intervals CO2 INJECTION: MINIMUM CRITERIA
  • 25. ∅(d) = 16.36 ∗ e−0.00012∗d r2 =0.41 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Depth(feet) Porosity (%) Geophysical Logs Core Analysis 2,500 ft. burial Interpolated 7% 7,000 Medina et al., 2011 DEPTH VERSUS POROSITY
  • 26. y = 0.7583e0.283x r² = 0.25 0.0010 0.0100 0.1000 1.0000 10.0000 100.0000 1000.0000 10000.0000 0 5 10 15 20 25 Permeability(miliDarcys) Porosity (%) Medina et al., 2011 PERMEABILITY – POROSITY RELATIONSHIP
  • 27. From Wilkens (Personal Communication, 2010) DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR THE MOUNT SIMON SANDSTONE
  • 28. GEOLOGIC HETEROGENEITIES Source: Ochoa (2010) (left) and Patterson (2011) (right)
  • 29. Capacity = (ρCO2 · t · a · φ · E) / 2200 ρCO2: density of supercritical CO2 (47.92 lbs/ft3) t: Reservoir Thickness (ft.) a: Reservoir Area (ft.2) φ: Porosity as a percent E: CO2 storage efficiency factor that reflects a fraction of the total pore volume that is filled by CO2 (0.01-0.05) New NETL capacity calculations: “1-5 % of available pore space present is useable” conversion factor for pounds to metric tonnes Source: Carbon Sequestration ATLAS of the United States and Canada (DOE, 2010) STORAGE CAPACITY IN INDIANA: VOLUMETRIC CALCULATIONS
  • 30. STORAGE CAPACITY OF THE MOUNT SIMON SANDSTONE Source: Medina, 2011 (http://igs.indiana.edu/Sequestration/CO2Storage.cfm)
  • 31. STORAGE CAPACITY (YEARS OF PRESENT EMISSIONS)
  • 32. PART III: MOVING FORWARD AND CONCLUSIONS
  • 33. • The project is designed to build a geologic model for Mt. Simon Sandstone along the Arches province and develop advanced reservoir simulations to determine the infrastructure necessary to implement large- scale CO2 storage. Arches Province ARCHES PROVINCE SIMULATION PROJECT
  • 34. • Geocellular model will be the basis of the numerical simulations. • Geologic cross sections, stratigraphy, structure maps, deep well injection data, geotechnical test data, geophysical data, geostatistics, mineralogy, geomechanical information, reservoir test data, and other geologic data. GEOCELLULAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT
  • 35. • Data evaluation process was developed to assign model parameters and integrate operational, geotechnical, geophysical, and geological information. Geological Model • Structure • Dep. Setting • Facies Geophysical Log Data • Porosity Logs • Gamma Logs Geotechnical Data • Permeability • Porosity • Mineralogy Injection Data ▪ Permeability ▪ Storage ▪ Pressure Geotechnical Data Log Data Geology Geostatistical Analysis Numerical Model 3D Grid of Critical Model Parameters GEOCELLULAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT
  • 36. • Geocellular model is being developed using Petrel Software. • Model includes permeability and porosity distribution for Mt. Simon and Eau Claire, corrected at Mt. Simon deep well injection sites. GEOCELLULAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT
  • 37.  Geophysical porosity logs from 176 wells that penetrate Eau Claire or deeper were compiled into a 3D database.  Database contains a total of ~960,000 data points from Knox, Eau Claire, Mt. Simon, and Precambrian interval. GEOCELLULAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT
  • 38. GEOCELLULAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT
  • 39. GEOCELLULAR MODEL DEVELOPMENT (CONT.)
  • 40. • Currently, numerical simulations are being developed based on the geocellular model and initial conditions. • Initial variable density flow simulations and scoping-level simulations are being run to assign model grid, boundary conditions, and solution parameters. • Basin-scale, multi-phase model will be developed based on initial model results. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS
  • 41. • There are 52 point sources in the area with emissions greater than 1,000,000 metric tons CO2 per year. These source have total emissions of 262,000,000 metric tons CO2 per year. • To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the Arches Province 25-50%, CO2 storage projects with total storage rates of 65-130 million metric tons CO2 per year would be necessary, suggesting regional storage fields. • MIT CO2 Pipeline Transport and Cost Model was used to determine potential CO2 storage field location in the Arches Province based on intersection of optimum pipeline routes to favorable sink locations. REGIONAL STORAGE FIELD SIMULATIONS Source: MIT pipeline transport and cost module (http://e40-hjh-server1.mit.edu/energylab/wikka.php?wakka=MIT)
  • 42. • Preliminary flow simulations have been completed to examine pressure buildup due to large scale injection in the Mt. Simon SS. • Model results help determine boundary conditions, grid spacing, and solution parameters. Delta Pressure- 7 X 2.0 million metric tons/y per well (14 Mt/yr total injection) PRELIMINARY VARIABLE DENSITY SIMULATIONS Source: Battelle, 2011 (Pers. Comm.)
  • 43. • The work will represent the “next step” in simulation of CO2 storage — the widespread application along a major, regional geologic structure in an area of the country with a dense concentration of large CO2 sources. • As such, it will help answer technical and infrastructure questions related to simulation methods and also contribute to research on monitoring options and risk assessment. ARCHES PROVINCE SIMULATION PROJECT Time Depth Time Depth
  • 44. 1. The last decade has seen tremendous progress in our knowledge of sequestration potential in the Midwest: The regional geologic and terrestrial frameworks are generally well understood, major sinks have been identified. 2. Studying the relationship of porosity, permeability, and depth helps us to understand the reservoir characteristics in terms of storage capacity and efficiency for CO2 sequestration. 3. Storage capacity estimations suggest that Indiana has a high geologic potential for the injection of CO2. CONCLUSIONS
  • 45. 4. The static models of storage capacity need to be validated with injection of CO2 into the targeted reservoirs, which will provide insight on the suitability for injection of bigger quantities of CO2. 5. Numerical simulations will help us understand the distribution of the CO2 plume within the injection interval. CONCLUSIONS (CONT.)
  • 46. QUESTIONS?