BIOLOGY                       CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS                                        Fourth EditionNeil A. Campbell...
Cool “Fires” Attract Mates and Meals• Fireflies use light,  instead of chemical  signals, to send signals  to potential ma...
• The light comes from   a set of chemical   reactions, the   luciferin-luciferase   system • Fireflies make light   energ...
ENERGY AND THE CELL• Living cells are compartmentalized by  membranes• Membranes are sites where chemical reactions  can o...
5.1 Energy is the capacity to perform work• Energy is defined as the capacity to do work• All organisms require energy to ...
• Kinetic energy is   energy that is actually   doing work                                                                ...
5.2 Two laws govern energy conversion• First law of thermodynamics• Energy can be changed from one form to  another       ...
• Second law of thermodynamics • Energy changes are not 100% efficient         – Energy conversions increase disorder, or ...
5.3 Chemical reactions either store or release    energy• Cells carry out thousands of chemical reactions        – The sum...
• There are two types of chemical reactions:         – Endergonic reactions absorb energy and yield           products ric...
– Exergonic reactions release energy and yield           products that contain less potential energy than           their ...
5.4 ATP shuttles chemical energy within the cell• In cellular respiration, some energy is stored in  ATP molecules• ATP po...
• When the bond joining a phosphate group to   the rest of an ATP molecule is broken by   hydrolysis, the reaction supplie...
• How ATP powers cellular work              Potential energy of molecules                                              Rea...
• The ATP cycle                                                               Dehydration synthesis                       ...
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Cell Transport

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Cell Transport

  1. 1. BIOLOGY CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth EditionNeil A. Campbell • Jane B. Reece • Lawrence G. Mitchell • Martha R. Taylor CHAPTER 5 The Working Cell Modules 5.1 – 5.4 From PowerPoint® Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. Cool “Fires” Attract Mates and Meals• Fireflies use light, instead of chemical signals, to send signals to potential mates• Females can also use light flashes to attract males of other firefly species — as meals, not matesCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. • The light comes from a set of chemical reactions, the luciferin-luciferase system • Fireflies make light energy from chemical energy • Life is dependent on energy conversionsCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. ENERGY AND THE CELL• Living cells are compartmentalized by membranes• Membranes are sites where chemical reactions can occur in an orderly manner• Living cells process energy by means of enzyme-controlled chemical reactionsCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. 5.1 Energy is the capacity to perform work• Energy is defined as the capacity to do work• All organisms require energy to stay alive• Energy makes change possibleCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. • Kinetic energy is energy that is actually doing work Figure 5.1A • Potential energy is stored energy Figure 5.1BCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. 5.2 Two laws govern energy conversion• First law of thermodynamics• Energy can be changed from one form to another – However, energy cannot be created or destroyed Figure 5.2ACopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  8. 8. • Second law of thermodynamics • Energy changes are not 100% efficient – Energy conversions increase disorder, or entropy – Some energy is always lost as heat Figure 5.2BCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. 5.3 Chemical reactions either store or release energy• Cells carry out thousands of chemical reactions – The sum of these reactions constitutes cellular metabolismCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. • There are two types of chemical reactions: – Endergonic reactions absorb energy and yield products rich in potential energy Potential energy of molecules Products Amount of energy INPUT Reactants Figure 5.3ACopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. – Exergonic reactions release energy and yield products that contain less potential energy than their reactants Reactants Potential energy of molecules Amount of energy OUTPUT Products Figure 5.3BCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  12. 12. 5.4 ATP shuttles chemical energy within the cell• In cellular respiration, some energy is stored in ATP molecules• ATP powers nearly all forms of cellular work• ATP molecules are the key to energy couplingCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  13. 13. • When the bond joining a phosphate group to the rest of an ATP molecule is broken by hydrolysis, the reaction supplies energy for cellular work Adenine Phosphate groups Hydrolysis Energy Ribose Adenosine triphosphate Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Figure 5.4ACopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  14. 14. • How ATP powers cellular work Potential energy of molecules Reactants Products Protein Work Figure 5.4BCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  15. 15. • The ATP cycle Dehydration synthesis Hydrolysis Energy from Energy for exergonic endergonic reactions reactions Figure 5.4CCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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