BIOLOGY                       CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS                                        Fourth EditionNeil A. Campbell...
Spider Silk: Stronger than Steel• Life’s diversity results from the  variety of molecules in cells• A spider’s web-buildin...
• The capture strand contains a single coiled silk   fiber coated with a sticky fluid • The coiled   fiber   unwinds to   ...
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC COMPOUNDSAND THEIR POLYMERS• Life’s structural and functional diversity results  from a great vari...
3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the    properties of carbon• A carbon atom forms four covalent bonds        – I...
• Carbon skeletons vary in many ways                                                          Ethane             Propane  ...
3.2 Functional groups help determine the    properties of organic compounds• Functional groups are the groups of atoms tha...
Table 3.2Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules    from a small set of small molecules• Most of the large molecules in liv...
• Cells link monomers to form polymers by   dehydration synthesis                              1                    2     ...
• Polymers are broken down to monomers by the   reverse process, hydrolysis                                               ...
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Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids

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Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids and Nucleic Acids

  1. 1. BIOLOGY CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth EditionNeil A. Campbell • Jane B. Reece • Lawrence G. Mitchell • Martha R. Taylor CHAPTER 3 The Molecules of Cells Modules 3.1 – 3.3 From PowerPoint® Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. Spider Silk: Stronger than Steel• Life’s diversity results from the variety of molecules in cells• A spider’s web-building skill depends on its DNA molecules• DNA also determines the structure of silk proteins – These make a spiderweb strong and resilientCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. • The capture strand contains a single coiled silk fiber coated with a sticky fluid • The coiled fiber unwinds to capture prey and then recoils rapidly Coiled fiber Coating of of silk protein capture strandCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC COMPOUNDSAND THEIR POLYMERS• Life’s structural and functional diversity results from a great variety of molecules• A relatively small number of structural patterns underlies life’s molecular diversityCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. 3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon• A carbon atom forms four covalent bonds – It can join with other carbon atoms to make chains or rings Structural Ball-and-stick Space-filling formula model model Methane The 4 single bonds of carbon point to the corners of a tetrahedron. Figure 3.1, top partCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. • Carbon skeletons vary in many ways Ethane Propane Carbon skeletons vary in length. Butane Isobutane Skeletons may be unbranched or branched. 1-Butene 2-Butene Skeletons may have double bonds, which can vary in location. Cyclohexane Benzene Skeletons may be arranged in rings. Figure 3.1, bottom partCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. 3.2 Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds• Functional groups are the groups of atoms that participate in chemical reactions – Hydroxyl groups are characteristic of alcohols – The carboxyl group acts as an acidCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  8. 8. Table 3.2Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. 3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules• Most of the large molecules in living things are macromolecules called polymers – Polymers are long chains of smaller molecular units called monomers – A huge number of different polymers can be made from a small number of monomersCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. • Cells link monomers to form polymers by dehydration synthesis 1 2 3 Short polymer Unlinked monomer Removal of water molecule 1 2 3 4 Longer polymer Figure 3.3ACopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. • Polymers are broken down to monomers by the reverse process, hydrolysis 1 2 3 4 Addition of water molecule 1 2 3 Coating of capture strand Figure 3.3BCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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