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06 analysis of crime
 

06 analysis of crime

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    06 analysis of crime 06 analysis of crime Presentation Transcript

    • ANALYSIS OF CRIME
      CJS 380 Crime Science:Principles, Strategies and Practice of
      Crime Prevention and Reduction©
      J.A. Gilmer
    • What is Crime Analysis
      “Crime analysis is the systematic study of crime and disorder problems as well as other police-related issues—including sociodemographic, spatial, and temporal factors—to assist the police in (1) criminal apprehension, (2) crime and disorder reduction, (3) crime prevention, and (4) evaluation.”
      Rachel Boba
      Boba, Rachel (2009) Crime Analysis with Crime Mapping, 2nd Ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. 3.
    • Components of Crime Analysis
      Qualitative data and methods
      Non-numerical data to discover underlying meanings and patterns (e.g., field research, content analysis)
      Quantitative data and methods
      Statistical analysis of numerical or categorical data
      Sociodemographic information
      Personal characteristics of individuals or groups (gender, race/ethnicity, income, age, education, etc.)
      Spatial information
      Crime locations relative to features of the environment
      Temporal information
      Long-term (annual, seasonal), short-term (monthly, weekly, daily) patterns
    • Development of Crime Analysis
      Vollmer’s vision – professionalize policing
      Police deployment
      Used pin maps for calls for service in police beats
      MO (modus operandi) analysis
      Tool in offender identification and apprehension
      August Vollmer
      (1876-1955)
      Chief of Police, Berkeley, CA, 1905-1932
    • Other Factors in Development of CA
      Crime analysis unit to systematically review all daily reports (O.W. Wilson – Vollmer’s protégé)
      Response time effectiveness challenged
      (Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment)
      Detective units highly unproductive
      (RAND, 1975. The Criminal Investigation Process.)
      Routinely identify habitual offenders
      (Integrated Criminal Apprehension Program)
      Rise and development of computer-aided technology
    • Professionalizing Crime Analysis
      1980 – IALEIA
      1989—SCCA (Society of Certified Crime Analysts)
      Now part or IALEIA
      1990—IACA
      Int’l Assoc of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts
      Law Enforcement Analytic Standards
      Int’l Assoc of Crime Analysts
      IACA Certification
    • Challenges of Crime Analysis
      Computerized data for police record-keeping is not always easily accessed for analytic purposes
      Usually limited to the specific jurisdiction
      ‘Turf’ issues hinder sharing across jurisdictions
      Inter-jurisdictional sharing issues
      Software compatibility
      Differential reporting/recording of incidents
      Limited to information the PD already collects
      Non-routine data collection (surveys, interviews etc.) are difficult to obtain permission/resources to conduct
    • Types of Crime Analysis
      Administrative—Analytic reports for executives, legislators, public
      Investigative—part of a criminal investigation, e.g., offender or geographic profiling
      Tactical—daily summaries/compilations (incidents, arrests, FIRs, CFS, etc.) to determine a crime pattern or series
      Strategic—longer-term (months) analysis of crime problem area or pattern
    • ‘Hot Spots’ and ‘Burning Times’
      Hot Spots
      Crime concentration/cluster
      Distinct geographic location
      address, corner, ‘place’
      Less than a ‘high crime area’
      Hot spot underlying causes
      Crime Generators: numbers of people interacting in one place
      Crime Attractors: locations known for crime opportunity
      Crime Enablers: little or no regulation of behavior
      Burning Times
      Repeated moments of high crime in a temporal cycle
      Not analyzed as often as hot spots
      Affected by ‘routine activities’ (daily, weekly)
    • 3 X 3 Hotspot Matrix – Concepts
      Temporal
      Spatial
      Diffused –various time of day or day of week
      Focused—occurring at various but regular times throughout period
      Acute—occurring at regular frequency in narrow window
      Dispersed—fairly evenly spread
      Clustered—most incidents occurring at a few places
      Hotpoint—single location that triggers most incidents
      Jerry Ratcliffe
      “…the aim of this work is to enable operational police officers to include spatial and temporal factors in their thinking. Although there may be some disagreement between officers as to the exact nature of a crime hotspot, chances are that the discussion will still generate positive thinking about the best operational tactic to employ to combat the particular hotspot problem.” Ratcliffe, J.H. (2004) “The Hotspot Matrix: A Framework for
      the Spatio-Temporal Targeting of Crime Reduction”. Police Practice and Research5(1):5–23
    • Hotspot Matrix and Crime Reduction
      Jerry Ratcliffe. The Hotspot Matrix as a framework for the spatio-temporal targeting of crime reduction. Paper from the 11th International Symposium on Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis, 20th June 2003, held in Cincinnati, OH. Used by permission.
    • Hotspot Matrix and Crime Reduction
      Jerry Ratcliffe. The Hotspot Matrix as a framework for the spatio-temporal targeting of crime reduction. Paper from the 11th International Symposium on Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis, 20th June 2003, held in Cincinnati, OH. Used by permission.
    • Hotspot Matrix and Crime Reduction
      Jerry Ratcliffe. The Hotspot Matrix as a framework for the spatio-temporal targeting of crime reduction. Paper from the 11th International Symposium on Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis, 20th June 2003, held in Cincinnati, OH. Used by permission.
    • Hotspot Matrix and Crime Reduction
      Jerry Ratcliffe. The Hotspot Matrix as a framework for the spatio-temporal targeting of crime reduction. Paper from the 11th International Symposium on Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis, 20th June 2003, held in Cincinnati, OH. Used by permission.
    • Strategic Crime Analysis
      Use more ‘immediate’ data from tactical crime analysis to identify/analyze problems to generate more innovative solutions (responses)
      Community problems may include both criminal activity and quality of life issues
      Crime analysis – the most important element of the problem-solving process.
      “Crime analysis often focuses on generating reports on overall reported crime or searching for patterns to solve individual crimes. For problem-solving to be effective, analysis must be a more mainstream police activity than is traditionally the case. Although there is no one specific method or structure to best accomplish this, the analysis function must be central to the problem-solving process.”
      Bynum, T. S. (2001). Using Analysis for Problem Solving: A Guidebook for Law Enforcement. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
    • Study Points
      What are the components of crime analysis?
      How can crime analysis be used to further the goals of policing?
      What are the different types of crime analysis and when is each appropriate?
      What is Ratcliffe’s Hotspot Matrix and how can/should it be used?
      How does strategic crime analysis fit with community policing?