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04 building communities
 

04 building communities

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    04 building communities 04 building communities Presentation Transcript

    • Building Communities
      CJS 380 Crime Science:Principles, Strategies and Practice of
      Crime Prevention and Reduction©
      J.A. Gilmer
    • Approaches to Community Level Crime Prevention and Reduction
      Build/Strengthen Communities
      Renew the economic base
      Cultivate cohesion and collective efficacy
      Harden Targets
      Increase risks and reduce rewards
      Design against crime
      Enhance Enforcement
      Problem-orientation
      Anticipatory policing (predictive & hotspot)
      2
    • Chicago Area Project – CAP
      Founded 1934 as 1st modern JD prevention project
      Focus on neighborhood
      Indigenous community leaders & ‘detached workers’
      Positive adult role models
      Structured vocational and recreational activities
      Problem-solving techniques
      Failed to reduce rates of JD
      Succeeded as community-based strategy
      3
      http://www.chicagoareaproject.org/programs/dept
      RAND Study (1983)
      “Chicago Area Project Revisited”
      click on for article
      In Weis, Crutchfield & Bridges (2001) Juvenile Delinquency: Readings
    • The role of Redevelopment and Renewal
      BUILDING COMMUNITY
      4
    • Community Renewal Programs
      “…$11 billion to eligible businesses of all sizes in Empowerment Zones and Renewal Communities. These incentives encourage businesses to open, expand, and to hire local residents. The incentives include employment credits, a 0% tax on capital gains, increased tax deductions on equipment, accelerated real property depreciation, and other incentives.”
      US Dept of Housing and Urban Development
      5
      www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/economicdevelopment/programs/rc
    • Enterprise Zones/Renewal Communities
      Focus on economic development, social services and community improvement
      Help individuals and neighborhoods through incentivized, targeted demand-side policies
      Investment incentives: tax credits (property, franchise, sales, investment taxes and employer taxes)
      Labor incentives: tax credit for job creation, hiring the disadvantaged, providing training
      Finance incentives: investment fund, federal bond program
      6
    • Do EZ/RCs Work?
      Job relocation vs. job development
      Mixed results from research in US
      Analysis of New Job Creation
      Crime reduction “promising” if part of design
      7
    • How Does Unemployment Affect Crime?
      The central argumentis simple enough …. Crime and unemployment are most strongly linked at the community level, at least in urban areas. Persistently very high unemployment rates will generate high crime; that high crime will drive out capital and make jobs increasingly remote. That produces a downward spiral to a low employment/high crime equilibrium which is very stable and highly resistant to small increases in employment or reductions in crime….
      The most important mediating factor… may be the motivations of community residents. For example, the isolation of high poverty neighborhoods from the legitimate job market may be critical in accounting for the lack of motivation among youth in these neighborhoods. …(Y)outh have difficulty finding employment when they live in impoverished neighborhoods without well-developed job connections. That is exacerbated by geographic isolation from jobs and the possibility of racial discrimination. The perceived returns to continuing in school or in acquiring human capital in other ways is low. This leads to low high school graduation rates and high attrition in training programs, maintaining the under investment in human capital of the previous generation in high poverty neighborhoods.
      8
      Source: Bushway, S and P. Reuter “Labor Markets and Crime Risk Factors.”
      In Sherman, et. al (1997) Preventing Crime: What Work, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising
    • EZ/RC Map of Schenectady Renewal Community
      9
      The Schenectady RC is composed of three census tracts in the center of the City. Through its Course of Action, the Schenectady RC will focus on certain key strategies: Reduction of Tax Rates and Fees applying within the RC; Improving Local Services such as establishing a new holistic health center; expansion of Head Start classes and pre-employment training for local youth; and Crime Reduction Strategies such as a Community Policing Program and a Zero Tolerance program for Identified troubled neighborhoods.
      http://egis.hud.gov/ezrclocator/
    • Police, Community AND THE CO-PRODUCTION OF PUBLIC SAFETY
      BUILDING COMMUNITY
      10
    • Community Policing and Reducing Crime
      Developed out of a reaction in the 1960s/70s to the “professional model” and a national crisis of legitimacy in police-community relations
      Discretion to “solve problems” vs. impartial neutrality
      11
    • Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment
      Increased police presence not effective in reducing crime
      No impact on crime volume
      No decrease in fear of crime
      Faster response time does not reduce crime
      No difference in response-related arrests after 9 min
      Random patrols do not reduce crime
      12
      George Kelling
      Link to Kansas City Preventive Patrol Summary Report
    • “Broken Windows” Theory
      Crime and disorder linked in neighborhoods
      Unrepaired signs of physical disorder signal that “no one cares”
      Leads to deterioration of order in community
      Lack of informal social control allows crime to become more prevalent
      Difficult to reverse once urban decay begins
      13
      George Kelling
      James Q Wilson
      Wilson, J.Q and G. Kelling (1982) “Broken Windows: the Police and Neighborhood Safety” Atlantic Monthly.
    • Fear of Crime and Disorganization
      Forms of disorder both human and physical
      Social and physical incivilities inspire fear
      Feel more susceptible to victimization; police can’t help
      Fear reduces “spatial radius”
      Leaves pockets w/o guardianship
      Response requires police-community partnership
      14
      Wesley Skogan
    • How Fear of Crime Works to Change Neighborhoods
      …neighborhoods change only slowly unless ‘triggering’ events shift them from positions of relative stability into one of demographic and economic flux…. Once areas begin to decline ‘feedback’ processes can take command of neighborhood conditions. Problems such as crime, physical deterioration, and social disorder emerge. Resulting increases in fear of crime in turn undermine the capacity of the community to deal with its problems. Fear stimulates withdrawal from the community, weakens informal social control mechanisms, contributes to the declining mobilization capacity of the neighborhood, speeds changes in local business conditions, and stimulates further delinquency and disorder. These problems feed on themselves, spiraling neighborhoods deeper into decline…. (I)n the aggregate the effect of fear on the fabric of American society has been very consequential.” (pp. 203-04)
      15
      Skogan, Wesley, "Fear of Crime and Neighborhood Change," in Albert J. Reiss and Michael Tonry (eds), Communities and Crime. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986, 203-229.
    • Components of Community Policing
      Active partnership between police and citizens
      Solve community problems related to crime and quality of life
      Community input into setting police priorities
      Shift focus from handling call to solving problems
      Decentralized service delivery to establish geographic responsibility in community
      Proactive prevention of crime and disorder
      16
      See also: COPS Office. Community Policing Defined
    • Problem-Solving through SARA
      Scanning – identify and prioritize specific problems of crime or disorder in neighborhood
      Analysis – develop a systematic understanding of the underlying causes of identified problems
      Response – develop innovative solutions unique to neighborhood and implement for the long term reduction
      Assessment – evaluate outcomes of the response
      17
    • Status of Community Policing
      COPS Office established in 1994
      $11+ billion in programs over 13,000 departments
      18
      Lersch (2007) , p 151.
      Link to COPS History
    • A Comparison of Policing Strategies
      19
      Gary Cordner
      Cordner, G. and Biebel, E. P. “Problem-Oriented Policing in Practice Criminology and Public Policy 4(2): 155-190
    • Ten Things You Can Do to Undermine Community Policing
      OVERSELL IT
      DON’T BE SPECIFIC
      CREATE A SPECIAL UNIT OR GROUP
      CREATE A SOFT IMAGE
      LEAVE THE IMPRESSION THAT IT’S ONLY FOR MINORITY NEIGHBORHOODS
      DIVORCE COMMUNITY POLICING OFFICER FROM "REGULAR" POLICE WORK
      OBFUSCATE MEAN AND ENDS
      PRESENT COMMUNITY MEMBERS WITH PROBLEMS AND PLANS
      NEVER TRY TO UNDERSTAND WHY PROBLEMS OCCUR
      NEVER PUBLICIZE A SUCCESS
      20
      John Eck
      Eck, John, “Helpful Hints for the Tradition Bound Chief” PERF, June 1992
    • Issues in Implementing CP
      Wide variation – no conformity to “prototype”
      Idiosyncratic definitions of “problem-solving”
      ‘Drive around until suspect seen’…?
      Different models within single agency
      Difficult for police organizations to change ways of doing business
      Tough to replace the traditional “performance measures” of success (felony arrests)
      21
    • Zero Tolerance Policing
      a/k/a ‘Quality of Life’ Policing
      Reaction to community policing
      Aggressive enforcement against minor law violations
      Make arrest/issue citation with little discretion
      Use official social control & formal justice system to regain control of neighborhoods
      Reduces fear of crime and fosters community control
      22
    • Summary of Theory
      Social disorganizationreduces effectiveness of social norms (Shaw and McKay)
      Collective efficacy– social cohesion + willingness to intervene – insulates communities against social disorganization (Sampson, Raudenbush and Earls)
      Social bond increases conformity, especially at family level and routine interactions (Hirschi, Felson)
      23
    • Summary of Implication
      Improve neighborhood cohesion
      Enhance informal social control
      Renew sense of order by reducing visible signs of disorder (human and physical)
      Reduce fear of crime
      Improve quality of life for neighborhood residents
      24
    • Impediments to Community Building
      ‘Sense of community’ important
      May not be strong enough in communities most in need
      Participation varies across groups
      Class, marital status, residential stability, age
      Success depends on organizational support
      Strained police-community relations puts law enforcement partnership at disadvantage
      Addressing the ‘real’ problems?
      Poverty, mixed land use, residential instability
      25