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01 basic concepts



Crime Science CJS380

Crime Science CJS380



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    01 basic concepts 01 basic concepts Presentation Transcript

    • Basic Concepts
      CJS 380 Crime Science:Principles, Strategies and Practice of
      Crime Prevention and Reduction
      J.A. Gilmer
    • Crime Mapping Pioneers
      Pioneers in the Study
      of Crime and Place
      André-Michel Guerry(1802–1866) & Adriano Balbi(1782 –1848)
      Essay on the Moral Statistics of France (1832)
    • Pioneers in the Study of Crime and Place
      Belgian mathematician and astronomer
      Applied statistical analysis to understanding crime relative to place (areas) and demographics
      Crime concentrated in areas of wealthy/educated & committed by poor/unemployed
      Propensity to commit crime
      Inequality as criminogenic factor
      Also developed “Body Mass Index” (BMI) still used today
    • ‘Space’ and ‘Place’ in Crime Science
      “Space” – areas such as neighborhoods, census tracts, or larger territories
      Boundaries may be political or administrative, such as police precincts or districts, cities, etc.
      Often recognized from internal or cognitive frame of reference – a ‘mental map’
      Defined by “sum of all places” within (Bourbon St)
      “Place” – smaller than a ‘space’ – house, business, street corner, etc.
    • Albany’s Neighborhoods
    • Time and Temporal Analysis
      Time – how humans parse the continuity of being
      Time of day, Day of week, Monthly, Quarterly, etc.
      Temporal Analysis: study of crime in relation to time (and geography)
      Moments – when and where a crime occurred
      Exact timevs.Time span crimes
      Relative accuracy of occurrence as identified by victim
      Techniques for resolving: mid-point analysis, weighted method
      Duration – “how long event/process continued in specific space”
      Distance as Time – representation of physical space in temporal dimension -- “time to crime”
    • High Risk Places/Times
    • Crime
      Crime : Law ≈ Deviance : Norms (True or False)
      Penal Code vs. Code of Student Conduct
      Code of Hammurabi (Just Deserts??)
      “If a man puts out the eye of an equal, his eye shall be put out.”
      Substantive (Penal) and Procedural Law
      Penal Law applies to all members of the State
      Criminal Procedural Law regulates CJ actors
    • Counting Crime, Officially
      Calls for Service
      CAD systems – massive amounts of data with accurate temporal & geographic detail
      Citizen-initiated – CFS not always a crime “incident”
      Better measure of police activity than crime
      A biased measure of actual victimization
      Incident Data
      Based on reports from first-responding officers
      Subject to officer discretion
      No report, no crime????
    • Official Crime Statistics
      FBI Uniform Crime Reports (Summary UCR)
      Oldest and most widely implemented
      Classifies crime by seriousness into two parts
      Part I: Murder/manslaughter, Forcible rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assault, Burglary, Larceny/Theft, MV Theft, Arson
      Part II: Simple assault, possession/sale drugs, weapons possession, possession/sale stolen property, forgery and fraud, vandalism, disorderly conduct, etc.
      NYS Crime Data
    • Limitations of UCR Crime Data
      Accuracy – ‘crimes reported to police’
      no report, no crime???
      Consistency – legal differences across states
      Reliability – can be manipulated by police
      Truncation – “hierarchy rule” reports only most-serious crime in a multi-crime event
      Completeness – due to submission deadlines
    • NIBRS – the “new” UCR
      Incident-based reporting (IBR)
      Details at incident-level provided on
      Crime Incidents and Arrests
      Victims and Offenders
      Able to handle multiple crimes per incident
      Links victim(s) and offender(s) at incident level
      Expensive for agencies to implement
      Not widely used – in NYS < 240 LEAs of ~600
      Many larger agencies (NYPD, Buffalo, Rochester) opted to stay with summary UCR reporting
    • Counting Crime, Unofficially
      Local Surveys
      Issues with sample bias, accuracy, validity and reliability
      Expensive to do correctly
      National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
      National sampling methodology of 50,000 households twice a year of persons over 12 years of age
      Redesign will produce subnational estimates
      Self Report Surveys
      Specific to project (no national estimates)
      Sampling bias (representativeness) often a weakness
    • Criminal Victimization in US
      Of 20 million crimes in 2009:
      78% (15.6 million) property crimes
      22% (4.3 million) crimes of violence
      1% (133,000) personal thefts
      Serious Violent Crime Trend
      Serious violent crime includes rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and homicide.
    • Qualitative Techniques
      In-depth interviews
      Easy to administer (voice recorder)
      Rich source of detailed information on topic
      Difficult to analyze and compare across studies
      Participant Observation
      Immersion in real-world setting
      Good for “understanding”
      Ethical issues (depending on level of participation)
      Impossible to replicate