Basic Concepts<br />CJS 380 Crime Science:Principles, Strategies and Practice of<br />Crime Prevention and Reduction<br />J.A. Gilmer<br />
Crime Mapping Pioneers<br />Pioneers in the Study <br />of Crime and Place<br />André-Michel Guerry(1802–1866) & Adriano Balbi(1782 –1848)<br />Essay on the Moral Statistics of France (1832)<br />
Pioneers in the Study of Crime and Place<br />AdolpheQuetelet(1796-1874)<br />Belgian mathematician and astronomer<br />Applied statistical analysis to understanding crime relative to place (areas) and demographics<br />Crime concentrated in areas of wealthy/educated & committed by poor/unemployed<br />Propensity to commit crime<br />Inequality as criminogenic factor<br />Also developed “Body Mass Index” (BMI) still used today<br />
‘Space’ and ‘Place’ in Crime Science<br />“Space” – areas such as neighborhoods, census tracts, or larger territories<br />Boundaries may be political or administrative, such as police precincts or districts, cities, etc.<br />Often recognized from internal or cognitive frame of reference – a ‘mental map’<br />Defined by “sum of all places” within (Bourbon St)<br />“Place” – smaller than a ‘space’ – house, business, street corner, etc.<br />
Time and Temporal Analysis<br />Time – how humans parse the continuity of being<br /> Time of day, Day of week, Monthly, Quarterly, etc. <br />Temporal Analysis: study of crime in relation to time (and geography)<br />Moments – when and where a crime occurred<br />Exact timevs.Time span crimes <br />Relative accuracy of occurrence as identified by victim<br />Techniques for resolving: mid-point analysis, weighted method<br />Duration – “how long event/process continued in specific space”<br />Distance as Time – representation of physical space in temporal dimension -- “time to crime” <br />
Crime<br />Crime : Law ≈ Deviance : Norms (True or False)<br />Penal Code vs. Code of Student Conduct<br />Code of Hammurabi (Just Deserts??)<br />“If a man puts out the eye of an equal, his eye shall be put out.”<br />Substantive (Penal) and Procedural Law<br />Penal Law applies to all members of the State<br />Criminal Procedural Law regulates CJ actors<br />
Counting Crime, Officially<br />Calls for Service <br />CAD systems – massive amounts of data with accurate temporal & geographic detail<br />Citizen-initiated – CFS not always a crime “incident”<br />Better measure of police activity than crime<br />A biased measure of actual victimization <br />Incident Data<br />Based on reports from first-responding officers<br />Subject to officer discretion<br />No report, no crime????<br />
Official Crime Statistics<br />FBI Uniform Crime Reports (Summary UCR)<br />Oldest and most widely implemented<br />Classifies crime by seriousness into two parts<br />Part I: Murder/manslaughter, Forcible rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assault, Burglary, Larceny/Theft, MV Theft, Arson<br />Part II: Simple assault, possession/sale drugs, weapons possession, possession/sale stolen property, forgery and fraud, vandalism, disorderly conduct, etc.<br />NYS Crime Data<br />http://criminaljustice.state.ny.us/crimnet/ojsa/stats.htm<br />
Limitations of UCR Crime Data<br />Accuracy – ‘crimes reported to police’ <br />no report, no crime??? <br />Consistency – legal differences across states<br />Reliability – can be manipulated by police <br />Truncation – “hierarchy rule” reports only most-serious crime in a multi-crime event<br />Completeness – due to submission deadlines<br />
NIBRS – the “new” UCR<br />Incident-based reporting (IBR)<br />Details at incident-level provided on<br />Crime Incidents and Arrests<br />Victims and Offenders<br />Able to handle multiple crimes per incident<br />Links victim(s) and offender(s) at incident level<br />Expensive for agencies to implement <br />Not widely used – in NYS < 240 LEAs of ~600<br />Many larger agencies (NYPD, Buffalo, Rochester) opted to stay with summary UCR reporting<br />
Counting Crime, Unofficially<br />Local Surveys<br />Issues with sample bias, accuracy, validity and reliability<br />Expensive to do correctly<br />National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)<br />National sampling methodology of 50,000 households twice a year of persons over 12 years of age<br />Redesign will produce subnational estimates<br />Self Report Surveys<br />Specific to project (no national estimates)<br />Sampling bias (representativeness) often a weakness<br />
Criminal Victimization in US<br />Of 20 million crimes in 2009:<br />78% (15.6 million) property crimes<br />22% (4.3 million) crimes of violence<br />1% (133,000) personal thefts <br />Serious Violent Crime Trend<br />Serious violent crime includes rape, robbery, aggravated assault, and homicide.<br />http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=9<br />
Qualitative Techniques<br />In-depth interviews<br />Easy to administer (voice recorder)<br />Rich source of detailed information on topic<br />Difficult to analyze and compare across studies<br />Participant Observation<br />Immersion in real-world setting<br />Good for “understanding”<br />Ethical issues (depending on level of participation)<br />Impossible to replicate<br />
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