science 6th Units 1 & 2 by Inés Rubín


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science 6th Units 1 & 2 by Inés Rubín

  1. 1. UNIT 1 OUR HEALTH <ul><li>Health is a state of complete physical , mental and social wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>Illness is the oposite of health . Illnesses and diseases change the functions of our bodies . </li></ul>
  2. 2. HEALTHY HABITS <ul><li>-A balanced diet </li></ul><ul><li>- Keeping a meal routine </li></ul><ul><li>- Good hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>- Enough rest </li></ul><ul><li>- Breathing clean air </li></ul><ul><li>- Physical exercise </li></ul>
  3. 3. DISEASES <ul><li>Diseases classified into two groups : </li></ul><ul><li>- Infectious diseases : can be : </li></ul><ul><li>- Contagious </li></ul><ul><li>- Non contagious </li></ul><ul><li>- Non infectious diseases </li></ul>
  4. 4. PATHOGENS <ul><li>-Bronchitis : it affects respiratory system . Its symptons are coughing a high fever and general disconfort . </li></ul><ul><li>-Salmonellosis : affects the digestive system . It symptons are diarrhea , vomiting , abdominal pain, and fever . </li></ul><ul><li>- Bacterial meningitis : it affects the nervous system. </li></ul>
  5. 5. VIRUSES <ul><li>A virus is not a living thing , but it needs living cells to carry out its life processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses cause many diseases like the flu , herpes , some types of hepatitis and AIDS . </li></ul>
  6. 6. PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES <ul><li>Pathogenic microorganisms enter our bodies in three diferent ways : </li></ul><ul><li>-Through the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>- Through the digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>-Through wounds . </li></ul>
  7. 7. PREVENTING INFECTIOUS <ul><li>We can prevent infectious if we : </li></ul><ul><li>-Disinfect wounds . </li></ul><ul><li>-Wash your hands before eating . </li></ul><ul><li>-Avoid sharing and eating utensils . </li></ul><ul><li>- Avoid walking barefoot in swiming pools </li></ul>
  8. 8. VACCINES <ul><li>A vaccine is when a doctor introduces a pathogenic microorganism in your organism that causes a disease into a healthy body . This microorganism can be dead or inactive. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines help our bodies react against infections. </li></ul>
  9. 9. TREATMENT OF INFECTIONS <ul><li>-Infections caused by bacteria are treated with antibiotics . </li></ul><ul><li>-Infections caused by fungi are treated with antifungal medicines . </li></ul><ul><li>-Infections caused by viruses . We can only treat them with medications that help reduce symptons. </li></ul>
  10. 10. UNIT 2 SENSITIVITY AND COORDINATION <ul><li>A stimulus is anything that affects any of the body’s activities. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of stimuli : </li></ul><ul><li>- Internal . They come from inside our bodies </li></ul><ul><li>like the feelings of hunger or thirst . </li></ul><ul><li>- External . These come from outside the body ,like the smell of a cake . </li></ul>
  11. 11. STIMULI RECEPTORS <ul><li>- Internal receptors . They receive the internal stimuli our bodies produce . </li></ul><ul><li>- External receptors They receive external stimuli . They are in the sensory organs . </li></ul>
  12. 12. RESPONSES <ul><li>-Muscular responses . These are movements the muscles make in a response to a stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>- Glandular responses. These are when glands produce various subtances in a respon-se to a stimulus . </li></ul>
  13. 13. THE SENSES <ul><li>-SIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>When light reaches the eyeball, it goes through the cornea . Then it goes through the pupil then passes through the lens which focuses the image on the retina .The information gathered by the retina travels to the brain through the optic nerve. </li></ul>
  14. 14. HEARING <ul><li>The ear is the body’s organ for the sense of hearing .The ear has three parts. </li></ul><ul><li>-The outer ear. It is made up of the ear and the outer auditory canal . </li></ul><ul><li>-The middle ear . It is made up of the eardrum and a chain of small bones . </li></ul><ul><li>-The inner ear . It is made up of the cochlea and the auditory nerve . </li></ul>
  15. 15. TOUCH <ul><li>The body`s organ for the sense of touch is the skin . The skin is made up of three layers : </li></ul><ul><li>-Epidermis . It is the outer layer . </li></ul><ul><li>-Dermis . It is under de epidermis. </li></ul><ul><li>-Hypodermis . It is undr the dermis . </li></ul>
  16. 16. SMELL <ul><li>The organ for the sense of smell is the nose . Receptors of smell are in the pituitary . </li></ul>
  17. 17. TASTE <ul><li>The organ for the sense of taste is the tongue . Receptors for different flavours are in the taste buds , and this are salty , bitter sour and sweet . </li></ul>
  18. 18. THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>It has two parts : </li></ul><ul><li>-Brain . It is inside the skull . It has three main parts : the cerebrum , the cerebellum and the brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>-Spinal cord . It is a thick cord made up of many neurons that goes through the inside of the spine . It is protected by vertebrae </li></ul>
  19. 19. THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM <ul><li>It is made up of : </li></ul><ul><li>-Sensory nerves .They transmit information from the sensory organs and internal organs to the central nervous system . </li></ul><ul><li>-Motor nerves . They transmit responses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands of our bodies . </li></ul>
  20. 20. NEURONS <ul><li>Neurons are cells that belong to the nervous system . They are made up of three parts: of a cell body , dentrites and axons </li></ul>
  21. 21. VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS <ul><li>Nerves carry sensory information to the brain , which produces a response that moves through the motor nerves that transmit them to the muscles. </li></ul>
  22. 22. INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS <ul><li>The spinal cord controls the body´s reflexes which are involuntary </li></ul>