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four noble truths & 8fold path

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  • Importance of the Dates of the Buddha
  • The Buddha cautions the monks against pursuing either of two extremes: worldly sensual pleasures or painful self-mortification. The Buddha refers to the path that avoids these extremes as the "Middle Way" (majjhimā patipadā).
    "There are these two extremes that are not to be indulged in by one who has gone forth. Which two? That which is devoted to sensual pleasure with reference to sensual objects: base, vulgar, common, ignoble, unprofitable; and that which is devoted to self-affliction: painful, ignoble, unprofitable. Avoiding both of these extremes, the middle way realized by the Tathagata — producing vision, producing knowledge — leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding.”
  • "And what is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that — producing vision, producing knowledge — leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding? Precisely this Noble Eightfold Path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is the middle way realized by the Tathagata that — producing vision, producing knowledge — leads to calm, to direct knowledge, to self-awakening, to Unbinding.”
    Four true things or realities that the Buddha understood on the night of his Awakening
    Buddha – physician – four truths to a medical diagnosis
    Truth of dukkha is like a disease
    Truth of the origin of the cause is like its cause
    The truth of the cession of dukkha is like the disease being cured
    The truth of the path leading to the cessation of dukkha is like the medicine that brings about the disease’s cure
  • "in brief" the five aggregates-of-clinging (pancupādānakkhandhā).
    Skandhas/Khandas – Five aggregates
    "form" or "matter" (Skt., Pāli rūpa, Tib. gzugs):external and internal matter. Externally, rupa is the physical world. Internally, rupa includes the material body and the physical sense organs
    "sensation" or "feeling" (Skt., Pāli vedanā, Tib. tshor-ba):sensing an object as either pleasant or unpleasant or neutral
    "perception", "conception", "apperception", "cognition", or "discrimination" (Skt. samjñā, Pāli saññā, Tib. 'du-shes):registers whether an object is recognized or not (for instance, the sound of a bell or the shape of a tree).
    "mental formations", "volition", or "compositional factors" (Skt. samskāra, Pāli saṅkhāra, Tib. 'du-byed) :all types of mental habits, thoughts, ideas, opinions, compulsions, and decisions triggered by an object.
    "consciousness" (Skt. vijñāna, Pāli viññāṇa, Tib. rnam-par-shes-pa):
    (a) In the Nikayas: cognizance.
    (b) In the Abhidhamma: a series of rapidly changing interconnected discrete acts of cognizance.
    (c) In Mahayana sources: the base that supports all experience.
     
     
  • Three poisons
    ‘Unprovoked is my release’ is an unclear translation. The text reads simply, “My liberation is certain.”
  • "defilement" or "poison."kilesa (Pali; Sanskrit: kleśa or klesha)
  • Three poisons – antidotes
    Desirelessness
    Friendliness
    Compassion
    ‘Unprovoked is my release’ is an unclear translation. The text reads simply, “My liberation is certain.”
  • Greed (rāga, lobha)
    Aversion or Hatred (dveṣa/dosa)
    Delusion (moha, avidyā/avijjā)
    Nirvana indicates the process or event of the extinction of the three fires; no longer arise in the mind
  • Maha-satipatthana Sutta ‘The Great Frames of Reference’
  • And what is right view? Knowledge with reference to stress (dukkha), knowledge with reference to the origination of stress (or suffering), knowledge with reference to the cessation of stress (or suffering), knowledge with reference to the way of practice leading to the cessation of stress (or suffering): This is called right view.
    · Moral law of karma: Every action (by way of body, speech and mind) will have karmic results. Wholesome and unwholesome actions will produce results and effects that correspond with the nature of that action. It is the right view about the moral process of the world.
    · The three characteristics: everything that arises will cease (impermanence). Mental and body phenomena are impermanent, source of suffering and not-self.
    · Suffering: Birth, aging, sickness, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, distress and despair are suffering. Not being able to obtain what one wants is also suffering. The arising of craving is the root cause of the arising of suffering and the cessation of craving is the root cause of the cessation of the suffering.
  • Desirelessness
    Friendliness
    Compassion
    Greed (rāga, lobha)
    Aversion or Hatred (dveṣa/dosa)
    Delusion (moha, avidyā/avijjā)
    These combine and interact and manifest in different ways and result in dukkha
    Cultivate instead their opposite:
    Generosity
    Friendliness
    Wisdom
  • 8 precepts
    I undertake to abstain from eating at the wrong time (the right time is eating once, after sunrise, before noon).
    I undertake to abstain from singing, dancing, playing music, attending entertainment performances, wearing perfume, and using cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories).
    I undertake to abstain from luxurious places for sitting or sleeping.
    10 precepts (may refer to the precepts (training rules) for novice monks and nuns)
    6. Refrain from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon).
    7. Refrain from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances).
    8. Refrain from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garland (decorative accessories).
    9. Refrain from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on luxurious, soft beds.
    10. Refrain from accepting money.
    “In doing so, he gives freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings. In giving freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, freedom from oppression to limitless numbers of beings, he gains a share in limitless freedom from danger, freedom from animosity, and freedom from oppression.”
  • "And what is right effort? There is the case where a monk generates desire, endeavors, arouses persistence, upholds & exerts his intent for the sake of the non-arising of evil, unskillful qualities that have not yet arisen... for the sake of the abandoning of evil, unskillful qualities that have arisen... for the sake of the arising of skillful qualities that have not yet arisen... (and) for the maintenance, non-confusion, increase, plenitude, development, & culmination of skillful qualities that have arisen: This is called right effort.
  • And what, monks, is right mindfulness?
    (i) There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself—ardent, aware, and mindful—putting away greed and distress with reference to the world.
    (ii) He remains focused on feelings in and of themselves—ardent, aware, and mindful—putting away greed and distress with reference to the world.
    (iii) He remains focused on the mind in and of itself—ardent, aware, and mindful—putting away greed and distress with reference to the world.
    (iv) He remains focused on mental qualities in and of themselves—ardent, aware, and mindful—putting away greed and distress with reference to the world.
    This, monks, is called right mindfulness.
    "And what is right mindfulness? There is the case where a monk remains focused on the body in & of itself — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. He remains focused on feelings in & of themselves... the mind in & of itself... mental qualities in & of themselves — ardent, alert, & mindful — putting aside greed & distress with reference to the world. This is called right mindfulness.
  • first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation
    second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance.
    third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.'
    the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain
    The Blessed One said: "Now what, monks, is noble right concentration with its supports and requisite conditions? Any singleness of mind equipped with these seven factors — right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness — is called noble right concentration with its supports and requisite conditions.
    —Maha-cattarisaka Sutta
    "And what is right concentration? There is the case where a monk — quite withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities — enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. With the stilling of directed thoughts & evaluations, he enters & remains in the second jhana: rapture & pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought & evaluation — internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains equanimous, mindful, & alert, and senses pleasure with the body. He enters & remains in the third jhana, of which the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous & mindful, he has a pleasant abiding.' With the abandoning of pleasure & pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation & distress — he enters & remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain. This is called right concentration.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Class 6
    • 2.  ompare with the Triratna in Jainism 1. he Buddha 2. he Dharma or his Teaching 3. he Saṅgha or Community 
    • 3. 66-486 BCE traditional date) . 480-c. 400 BCE 3
    • 4.  on of a king  ṣatriya, son of a king  aw sickness, old age, death, then an ascetic  eft home at 29, leaving wife and newborn son  ought liberation for 6 years (2 meditation teachers then extreme asceticism like Mahāvīra)
    • 5. B uddha  Examples:  The Historical Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, later Śākyamuni  Dipaṃkara  Achieve Awakening through own efforts (caveats), teach  “Fully and Completely Awakened One” (samyak-sambuddha / sammā-sambuddha) A rhat (arahant) / śrāvaka-buddha / sāvaka-buddha  “Accomplished One (or “Hearer”)  “One Who Awakened as a Disciple”; need the Dharma of a Buddha  Ex. The Buddha’s immediate disciples, Sariputra, Maudgalyana, Ananda p ratyeka-buddha/ pacceka-buddha  “Solitary Buddha”  Achieves Enlightenment through own efforts but do not teach  Possibly an attempt to integrate other religious figures or traditions into Buddhism 5
    • 6. Turning the Wheel of the Teaching'  First Sermon  No narrative in the version in EB ther versions such as the ‘Turning the Wheel of Dharma’ from Lalitavistara  Narratively rich  Assumption – texts become more detailed
    • 7. ho to teach the Dharma to? wo previous teachers are dead eets another mendicant  Remarks on the appearance of the Buddha  Questions the Buddha then dismissively leaves him
    • 8. ive ascetics – Deer Park at Sarnath  Dismiss him at first b/c he abandoned austerities  Kauṇḍinya does not agree; he becomes an Arhat first  Involuntarily prepare a seat for him based on his majesty  Automatically they become monks instantaneously  Prepare a bath for him ives the Dharmacakrapravartana Sūtra  Miraculous signs manifest – earthquakes, devas attend
    • 9. t Sarnath (Benares) with the five ascetics that the Buddha previously practiced extreme austerities with hree Topics:  The Middle Way  The Four Noble Truths
    • 10. esult: One of the five ascetics, (Skt. Kauṇḍinya, Pali Kondañña), achieved Awakening and becomes a “Worthy One” or “One Who Has Awakened As a Disciple” (Skt. arhat, Pali arahant)
    • 11. WORLDLY SENSUAL PLEASURES PAINFUL SELF-MORTIFICATION
    • 12. Four Noble Truths 1. The Nature of Suffering (Dukkha) 2. Suffering's Origin (Samudaya) 3. Suffering's Cessation (Nirodha) 4. The Way (Marga) Leading to the Cessation of Suffering
    • 13. Now, monks, what is the Noble Truth of suffering? Just this: Birth is suffering, old age is suffering, sickness is suffering, death is suffering. Involvement with what is unpleasant is suffering. Also, not getting what one wants and strives for is suffering. And form… feeling… perception… karmic constituents are suffering…”
    • 14. . The suffering of suffering (dukkha-dukkha) – the obvious sufferings of pain, illness, old age, death, bereavement . The suffering of alternation or change (viparinamadukkha) - the less obvious suffering caused by change (things are impermanent (Skt. anitya, Pali anicca)): hy is this painful? . violated expectations . the failure of happy moments to last
    • 15. And what is the [second] Noble Truth of the origination of suffering? It is the thirst for further existence, which comes along with pleasure and passion and brings passing enjoyment here and there.” raving – Skt. tṛṣṇā, Pali taṇhā; literally ‘thirst’
    • 16. 1. Sensual pleasures – impermanent, fleeting I. Tendency to increase II. Never satisfied or content with what it has III. Always looking for new objects to satisfy itself 2. Craving for becoming – for fame or even immortality; belief in an eternal soul 3.Craving for extermination – become depressed and long not to exist, wishing I had never been born or that death will be the final end
    • 17. elusion or ignorance (moha, avidyā/avijjā) – boar islike or hatred (dveṣa/dosa) – snake esire or greed (rāga, lobha) – rooster D D D
    • 18. Suffering is caused by karma and the kleśas (‘fire’ or ‘poisons’ but better ‘mental afflications’ or ‘negative mental states’) Karma is actually intention (cetanā) and its imprints Ignorance lies at the root of desire and dislike Ignorance is without beginning and the cause of the other two mental afflictions
    • 19. esire, hatred, and delusion: these combine and interact and manifest in different ways and result in dukkha ath to nirvana is by Cultivating their opposites:  Desire or greed --- Generosity  Dislike or hatred --- Friendliness or Lovingkindness  Delusion or ignorance --- Wisdom
    • 20. nd what is the [third] Noble Truth of the cessation of suffering? It is this: the destruction without remainder of this very thirst for further existence, which comes along with pleasure and passion, bringing enjoyment here and there. It is without passion. It is cessation, forsaking, abandoning, renunciation.”
    • 21.  And what is the Noble Truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering? Just this: the Eightfold Noble Path, consisting of right views, right intention, right effort, right action, right livelihood, right speech, right mindfulness, right meditation.”
    • 22. ased on the Maha-satipatthana Sutta ‘The Great Frames of Reference’ isdom (Skt: prajñā, Pāli: paññā) . Right view . Right intention thical Conduct (Skt: śīla, Pāli: sīla) . Right speech . Right action
    • 23. eeing the Four Noble Truths oral law of karma he three characteristics or marks (lakshanas) of existence or of all phenomena 1. Impermanent (anitya) 2. Suffering (duhkha) 3. No-Self (anatman)
    • 24. And what is right resolve? Being resolved on renunciation, on freedom from ill will, on harmlessness: This is called right resolve.”
    • 25. efraining from false speech efraining from divisive speech efraining from hurtful speech efraining from idle chatter or gossip
    • 26. efraining from harming living beings efraining from taking what is not given efraining from sexual misconduct
    • 27. ot based on wrong speech and action usiness in weapons usiness in human beings (slavery and prostitution)
    • 28. . To refrain from destroying living beings. . To refrain from stealing. . To refrain from sexual misconduct (adultery, rape, etc.).
    • 29.  acrifice – redefined by Buddhists  niversalist ethics – one’s worth and character is determined by one’s actions, not one’s varṇa (compare with The Place of the Brahmin in Tradition 41-43)  uddhism doesn’t reject the class system for lay people, but monks and nuns have the same status (classless,
    • 30. Bloodless Sacrifice he Buddha displays knowledge of one of his previous births were he advised a king to attend to his kingdom and offer aid to his subjects to reduce crime bloodless sacrifice was conducted with ghee (clarified butter), oil, butter, curds, honey, and molasses, instead of bulls, goats, sheep, chickens, pigs
    • 31.  Wherever regular family gifts are given to virtuous ascetics, these constitute a sacrifice more fruitful and profitable than that.”  If anyone provides shelter for the Sangha…”  …if anyone with a pure heart goes for refuge to the Buddha, the Dhamma and Sangha…”  …if anyone with a pure heart undertakes the precepts (five)…”  A disciple goes forth and practices the moralities…” and becomes an arahant
    • 32. he Buddha redefines what an outcaste or untouchable is based on behavior ote the following verses: (emphasizes nonviolence) 5 (generosity to religious mendicants)
    • 33. ne does not become an outcaste by birth, one does not become a brahmin by birth. It is by deed that one becomes and outcaste, it is by deed that one becomes a brahmin. O  esult: the Brahmin Aggika-Brāradvāja becomes a layperson, taking refuge in the Buddha, his Dhamma, and his Sangha
    • 34.  accāna (Katyāyana, the foremost in explaining Dharma among the Buddha’s monks)  It is just a saying in the world…” noble = kṣatriya, brahmin = brahmin, merchant = vaiśya, worker = śūdra  eputation depends on behavior
    • 35. edefines what a brāhmaṇa (brahmin) is by behavior, not birth (verse 396) scetics come under criticism as well (see verse 393-394)
    • 36. undertake to abstain from eating at the wrong time (the right time is eating once, after sunrise, before noon). undertake to abstain from singing, dancing, playing music, attending entertainment performances, wearing perfume, and using cosmetics and garlands (decorative accessories).
    • 37. efrain from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon). efrain from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances). efrain from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garland (decorative accessories). efrain from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on
    • 38. onsists of effort to prevent the arising of unwholesome mental states (greed, hatred, delusion)  To prevent unarisen unwholesome states  To abandon arisen unwholesome states ffort to arouse non-attachment, loving kindness, and wisdom  To arouse unarisen wholesome states  To develop arisen wholesome states
    • 39. ontemplation of the body ontemplation of feeling ontemplation of mind ontemplation of dharmas
    • 40. ractice of the four dhyanas/jhanas “Meditations” . One-pointedness . Beyond thought
    • 41. he Four Noble Truths can be compared to a medical diagnosis ruth of dukkha is like a disease ruth of the origin of the cause is like its cause he truth of the cession of dukkha is like the disease being cured