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Hydrogen Fuel Cells

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This is a presentation given during our studies at the Moore School of Business of the University of South Carolina on hydrogen fuel cell technologies.

This is a presentation given during our studies at the Moore School of Business of the University of South Carolina on hydrogen fuel cell technologies.

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  • 1. Hydrogen Fuel Cell
    Bach, B.
    Abraham, S.
    Arnold-Fisher, E.
    Dupree, W. J.
    12/7/2007
  • 2. AGENDA
    Background
    Industry Drivers
    Application Types & Potential
    Transportation
    Portable
    Stationary
    Product Application Timeline
    Current Developments in Columbia
    Questions
  • 3. What is a Fuel Cell?
    • Hydrogen In
    • 4. Electricity Out
    • 5. Byproducts – Water, Heat
  • How do Fuel Cells work?
  • 6. Sources of Hydrogen
    www.minihydrogen.dk
  • 7. Hydrogen Production Today
    US Department of Energy
  • 8. OXYGEN
    (AIR)
    Fuel
    Reformer
    Converts
    to
    Hydrogen
    FUELCELL
    INVERTER
    AC POWEROUTPUT
    DC POWEROUTPUT
    HYDROGEN RICH GAS
    FUEL INPUT
    WATER
    HEATRECOVERY
    Heat used for Fuel Reforming
    Additional Heat
    Components of a Fuel Cell System
    National Institute of Standards & Technology
  • 9. Examples of Fuel Cell Applications
  • 10. Benefits of Fuel Cells
    • Low or No dangerous emissions
    • 11. Higher efficiencies
    • 12. Constant and consistent power
    • 13. No Moving Parts
    • 14. Portable fuel cell systems much lighter than batteries
    • 15. Smaller than regular batteries
  • Limitations of Fuel Cells
    • Transportation and storage of fuels (Hydrogen gas)
    • 16. Lack of Infrastructure
    • 17. Energy needed to produce Hydrogen from Water
    • 18. Large amounts of hydrogen needed to meet energy needs
    • 19. Consumer mistrust
    • 20. High Cost
    • 21. Currently do not have hydrogen production capacity
    • 22. Intolerability to freezing temperatures
  • Who is involved?
    Based on 2006 data
  • 23. World Fuel Cell Activity
    PWC Survey 2006
  • 24. Industry Leaders
    PWC Survey 2006
  • 25. Industry Gross Revenue
    PWC Survey 2007
  • 26. Industry Gross Revenue
    U.S. Census Bureau 2002 & PWC 2007
  • 27. Industry Success Factors
    RESEARCH
    &
    DEVELOPMENT
    INFRASTRUCTURE
    &
    STORAGE
    HYDROGEN
    PRODUCTION
  • 28. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
    US/South Korea Nuclear Hydrogen Program Example
    Nuclear Hydrogen Joint Development Center in Daejeon & San Diego
    Heat electrolysis at 800ºC (today 150ºC)
    Heat
    H2
    Water
  • 29. INFRA-STRUCTURE &
    STORAGE
    Research
    Leaders
    Japan
    Germany
    USA
    H2 Economy Case Study: Iceland
    HYTHANE Fuel (20% H2, 80% Gas)
    Aral
    Hydro
    Linde
  • 30. Types of Application
    R & D
    Global private sector research
    Fuel Cell Industry Research – SC Export Consortium
  • 31. Transportation
    400 fuel cell powered vehicle prototypes worldwide
    (BMW, Daihatsu, DaimlerChrysler, Fiat, Ford, GM, Honda, Hyundai, MAN/Neoplan, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan/Renault, PSA, Suzuki, Toyota, VW/Audi)
    US H2 daily production capacity fuels 20 million cars
    (243 million passenger vehicles registered in US)
    SolarToday.org/H2Mobility.org
  • 32. Cost Analysis
    Cost of producing Hydrogen: $1.5 to $3.5 per kg
    Without compression, storage or delivery costs
    Highly dependent on natural gas, electricity prices and economies of scale
    Estimated cost at pump: $20 per kg
    1kg of Hydrogen = Energy content of 1gal gasoline (at 2x efficiency)
    • Effective cost at pump: $10 per kg
    • 33. Price of average hydrogen powered car (internal combustion): Sticker + $50,000
    • 34. 50,000 miles cost of H2 car above regular car: $61,667
    (Assumption: 30 miles/gal at $3/gal gasoline)
    SolarToday.org/MSN.com
  • 35. Where to fill up your hydrogen car?
    299 H2 stations worldwide
    117,000 petroleum stations in US
  • 36. Future Outlook
    Average Annual Expected Sales of PEMFC/SPFC for Light-Duty Vehicles
    @ $10,000 per fuel cell = 730,000 vehicles
    Fuel Cell Industry Research – SC Export Consortium
  • 37. Portable: Military Applications
    Current Products:
    • Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS)
    Current Status:
    • 26 models in current use
    Future Market:
    • DoD investing 1.9 billion in (UAS) next 5 years
    Benefits:
    • Low noise, Low heat
    • 38. Run time double compared to alternatives
    Source: Millenium Cell (2007)
  • 39. Portable: Military Applications
    Current Products:
    • Soldier Power
    (72-hour, 30-50 watt power source)
    Current Status:
    • ProPack C-50
    Future Market:
    • Estimated 200 million dollar annual market.
    Benefits:
    • Lighter in weight
    • 40. Less expensive compared to alternatives.
    Source: Millenium Cell (2007)
  • 41. Portable: Emergency Response
    Current Products:
    • Extended Runtime Adapter
    Current Status:
    • XRT (Jadoo Power)
    • 42. In commercialization.
    Future Market:
    • Hurricane Katrina pushed demands
    for more reliable energy sources for first responders.
    Benefits:
    • Lightweight, extended runtime.
    Source: Jadoo Power (2007)
  • 43. Portable: Consumer
    Future Products:
    • Laptops, cell phones, mobile devices.
    Current Status:
    • In developmental, R&D Stages
    • 44. Numerous prototypes.
    Future Market:
    • Dependent upon fuel cell technology growth
    compared to battery technology.
    Benefits:
    • Lightweight, extended runtime.
    Source: Jadoo Power (2007)
  • 45. Stationary Market
    Current Products:
    • Back-up generators (industrial, small-business)
    • 46. Distributed Power
    Current Status:
    • 98 million dollar market (2006)
    Future Market:
    • Expected to reach 16.9 billion by 2012.
    Benefits:
    • Reliability, low-maintenance, longer operating life.
    Source: Ballard Power (2007), Winter Green Research (2006)
  • 47. Product Application Timeline
    Stationary
    Portable
    Transportation
    2007
    2010 - 2015
    2007
    2010 - 2015
    2007
    2010 - 2015
    2020 - 2030
  • 48. H2 Fuel Cells in Columbia, SC
    Current Projects
    Innovista
    Fuel Cell South
    Palmetto Fuel Cell Technologies
    USC Fuel Cell Research Group
    USC Fuel Cell Bus Project (liquid hydrogen refueling station 2008-2009)
  • 49. QUESTIONS?
    "Water will be the coal of the future," Jules Verne (1874)
    Pennsylvania State University

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