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Beyond ZeroCarbon Housingexploring solutions to sustainability issues     beyond the zero carbon agenda2 4 th O c t o b e ...
©     Copyright Notice        A l l t h e m a te r i a l i n t h e s e s l i d e sm ay n o t b e u s e d o r re p ro d u c...
Creative Energy Homes           Mark Gillott     University of Nottingham     Creative Energy Homes      Professor Mark Gi...
DesignEnergyUsersTechnologiesWaterClimate Change
The Creative Energy Homes Site                          George Green                              (1793-1841)             ...
The Creative Energy Homes
The TarmacMasonry Homes
Tarmac Masonry Homes                        CreatIve Energy Homes - the siteCODE 4C0DE 6
Design Information                                        Code 4   Code 6•   Total heated floor area (m2)         88.7    ...
The wall constructions?  Typical current             Code Level 4                          Code level 6   Building Regs   ...
Wall constructions – external wallsU-value 0.19 W/m2K.        U-value 0.15 W/m2K.
Wall constructions – separating wallSeparating wall – modifiedE-WM-11. 2 x 100mm TarmacHemelite blocks (1360 kg/m3),Isover...
Roof construction• Asymmetric pitch trussed roof designed with an with the  long south facing elevation at a 22 degree ang...
Heating - biomass wood pellet boiler•   Heat to both dwellings is provided by a highly    efficient shared biomass boiler ...
Heating - biomass wood pellet boiler
Renewable Energy–solar hot water• Hot water is provided by 2 roof  mounted flat plate solar  thermal panels – 3.05m2  aper...
Renewable Energy – photovoltaic’s• 22m2 of solar photovoltaic panels which  convert sunlight directly into electricity  vi...
Tarmac Homes – Front Elevation                      Code 4   Code 6                                             Boiler flu...
Tarmac Homes - Rear Elevation                      Code 6           Code 4             Solar hot22.0m2                    ...
Air Tightness Test    Initial pressure test results – Green Close 10: 1.71 m3/m2/h @50Pa                                  ...
Heat Flux Monitoring
Heat Flux (W/m2)                     -10.00                                      -6.00                                    ...
COMPARABLE HEAT FLUX DATAWingfield, J., Miles-Shenton, D., and Bell, M., 2009, Evaluation of the Party Wall Thermal Bypass...
CO-HEATING TESTS                                                                                          MVHR UNIT       ...
Tarmac 12 Energy   Tarmac 10 EnergyConsumption Wh     Consumption Wh                                      POWER DATA: JUNE...
Tarmac 10 PV Energy   Tarmac 10 EnergyGeneration Wh         Consumption Wh                                         TARMAC ...
BIOMASS BOILER      System failure March      2011      Pellet quality is critical      to performance      Debris in hopp...
BIOMASS BOILER
The BASFPrototype House
The BASF Prototype House:Energy Efficiency + Affordability
The BASF House Design Brief• Energy efficient and to have as near as possible carbon zero emissions• Affordable and econom...
Key Features• Compact Form – detached, semi or  terrace• Low cost for first time buyers• MMC – construction speed with  le...
Key Features                                                   PCM                                                   Plast...
The BASF House:terrace or semi detached units
The BASF House: Plans
The BASF House: Materials                            (Rodrigues, 2009)
Images from BASF (www.house.basf.co.uk)
Performance Matters     Modelling           Measurement        Certification   MonitoringTAS Energy Modelling   Air Tightn...
Annual Power Profile                                                  lighting                                            ...
Annual Power Profile                                                                               Bedroom Sockets        ...
BIOMASS BOILER replaced with ASHP (spring 2011)                                                        Hoval’s Soilkit®   ...
TemperaturesMonitoring period July 2011 to Feb 2012
The Sunspace                       Mean Sunspace Temperature Data                  25                  20Temperature (C)  ...
Temperatures  Solar ThermalMonitoring period July 2011 to Feb 2012
Hot WaterMonitoring period July 2011 to Feb 2012
ASHP (COP)             Coefficient of Performance                          Monitoring period July 2011 to Feb 2012Mean COP...
Hot Water                      Solar                      ASHP                       Immersion                      Therma...
BASF Climate Control Micronal PCM•   Microencapsulated paraffin wax in Knauf    Gypsum boards•   3kg of Micronal PCM per m...
Knauf PCM SmartBoard 23 Enthalpy             (Rodrigues, 2009)
EAHE
EAHE Pre-Assessment    • Winter    • Summer(Rodrigues, 2009)
The BASF House – EAHE On-site data              5th of June                                     w              (Rodrigues,...
PCM and EAHE      PCM follows temperature of living room   (Rodrigues, 2009)
The BASF House – PCM On-site data          May, June, July and August                 (Rodrigues, 2009)
PCM Further Investigation                                       The four sensors were                                     ...
18.00Night and daytime internal temperatures for the summer months are fairly high and in theoperational zone of the PCM –...
The BASF House in the Future                  Base Case = on-site data                  Case 2 = added EAHE               ...
iSEC: intelligent Smart Energy Community            electricity grid                                                      ...
iSEC: intelligent Smart Energy Community  Source:   Central Networks• Optimum utilisation of local energy  resources• Comm...
E.ON International Research Initiative 2012                SWITCHSmart Wireless Intelligent Control in HomesResponding to ...
OUTREACH: PUBLIC TOURS (over 3000 visitors per year)
Conclusions• Building performance evaluation needs to be far more widespread  in order for industry to learn from their mi...
More information at:www.creative-energy-homes.co.ukFind us on facebook
Beyond Zero Carbon Housing - Mark Gillott
Beyond Zero Carbon Housing - Mark Gillott
Beyond Zero Carbon Housing - Mark Gillott
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Beyond Zero Carbon Housing - Mark Gillott

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A one day symposium on zero/low carbon sustainable homes took place at The University of Nottingham on the 24th October, 2012. The event offered professionals within the construction industry a unique opportunity to gain added and significant insight into the innovations, policies and legislation which are driving the construction of zero/low carbon energy efficient homes both here in the UK and elsewhere in Europe. It explored solutions to sustainability issues “beyond” the zero carbon agenda. BZCH followed on from the successful ‘Towards Zero Carbon Housing’ symposium the University hosted in 2007. This event is part of the Europe Wide Ten Act10n project which is supported by the European Commission Intelligent Energy Europe.

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Transcript of "Beyond Zero Carbon Housing - Mark Gillott"

  1. 1. Beyond ZeroCarbon Housingexploring solutions to sustainability issues beyond the zero carbon agenda2 4 th O c t o b e r 2 0 1 2 a t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f N o t t i n g h a mDepartment of Architecture and Built Environment
  2. 2. © Copyright Notice A l l t h e m a te r i a l i n t h e s e s l i d e sm ay n o t b e u s e d o r re p ro d u c e d w i t h o u t t h e ex p re s s p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e a u t h o rs
  3. 3. Creative Energy Homes Mark Gillott University of Nottingham Creative Energy Homes Professor Mark Gillott | May 2012
  4. 4. DesignEnergyUsersTechnologiesWaterClimate Change
  5. 5. The Creative Energy Homes Site George Green (1793-1841) Nottingham Scientist & Physicist & user of wind power as a miller
  6. 6. The Creative Energy Homes
  7. 7. The TarmacMasonry Homes
  8. 8. Tarmac Masonry Homes CreatIve Energy Homes - the siteCODE 4C0DE 6
  9. 9. Design Information Code 4 Code 6• Total heated floor area (m2) 88.7 88.7• Air permeability (m3/(m2.h) @50Pa 4 2• Heat loss parameter 1.2 <0.8• Party wall E-WM-11 (dB Dntw +Ctr) 53 53• Low e lighting (%) 100 100• Water usage (l/p/day) 105 80• Storage space for cycles 2 2• Considerate contractor scheme• Secured by design (Part 2)• Lifetime homes compliant N/A• NHBC approved
  10. 10. The wall constructions? Typical current Code Level 4 Code level 6 Building Regs (44% C02 reduction) (Zero CO2) (2006) U-value 0.19 W/m2K U-value 0.15 W/m2KU-value 0.30 W/m2K 298mm 353mm 365mm103mm 100mm 103mm 100mm 150mm EPS 215mm DuroxFacing Hemelite Facing Hemelite insulation & Supabloc brick brick render finish 50mm clear Plasterboard 50mm clear Plasterboard 13mm cavity & 45mm on dabs cavity & 100mm on dabs Lightweight Kingspan Kingspan Plaster TW50 TW50
  11. 11. Wall constructions – external wallsU-value 0.19 W/m2K. U-value 0.15 W/m2K.
  12. 12. Wall constructions – separating wallSeparating wall – modifiedE-WM-11. 2 x 100mm TarmacHemelite blocks (1360 kg/m3),Isover 100mm RD Wall Roll.Results of Acoustic test (PCT)Upstairs bedroom 60 dB Dntw +CtrDownstairs lounge 57 dB Dntw +CtrHealth & Wellbeing – 4 creditsi.e. greater than 53 dB
  13. 13. Roof construction• Asymmetric pitch trussed roof designed with an with the long south facing elevation at a 22 degree angle• Traditional roof coverings – felt, battens and concrete tiles• Incorporates sun pipe for daylight to stair wells• U-value = 0.11 W/m2K
  14. 14. Heating - biomass wood pellet boiler• Heat to both dwellings is provided by a highly efficient shared biomass boiler capable of generating up to 10 kW output.• Fuel source is renewable, C02 neutral, indigenous wood pellets• Individual controls and monitoring is designed to simulate a development with a district heating system.• Boiler has a fully automated vacuum feed system requiring little operating knowledge or maintenance.
  15. 15. Heating - biomass wood pellet boiler
  16. 16. Renewable Energy–solar hot water• Hot water is provided by 2 roof mounted flat plate solar thermal panels – 3.05m2 aperture area.• Cylinder capacity of 210 litres
  17. 17. Renewable Energy – photovoltaic’s• 22m2 of solar photovoltaic panels which convert sunlight directly into electricity via advanced semi conductors• Mounted on South facing elevation at 22 degrees to the horizon.• Generate an output capability 3.75 kW peak of electricity.• The output is designed to offset the total energy requirement for lighting, pumps and domestic appliances.
  18. 18. Tarmac Homes – Front Elevation Code 4 Code 6 Boiler flueMonodraughtSun pipesover the stairs Solid aircrete wall, external insulation & renderCavity brick andblockwork with Biomass pelletpartial fill cavity boiler room
  19. 19. Tarmac Homes - Rear Elevation Code 6 Code 4 Solar hot22.0m2 water panelsphotovoltaicpanelsSolid aircrete Over-hangerwall, roof to provideexternal solar shadinginsulation& render Biomass pelletSunspace for winter store Cavity brick & blockworkpassive solar gain with partial fill
  20. 20. Air Tightness Test Initial pressure test results – Green Close 10: 1.71 m3/m2/h @50Pa Green Close 12: 2.95m3/m2/h @ 50PaGreen Close 10 Average q50 q50 Result M³Test Pressurise Mechanical Mechanical Input Result M³ Test Date (hr*m²) @ 50Number /Depressurise Extracts Sealed Vents Sealed (hr*m²) @ 50 Pa Pa 1 27/05/2011 Pressurise Y Y 1.37 1.45 2 27/05/2011 De-Pressurise Y Y 1.53Green Close 12 Average q50 q50 Result M³Test Pressurise Mechanical Mechanical Input Result M³ Test Date (hr*m²) @ 50Number /Depressurise Extracts Sealed Vents Sealed (hr*m²) @ 50 Pa Pa 3 27/05/2011 Pressurise Y Y 1.74 1.97 4 27/05/2011 De-Pressurise Y Y 2.2
  21. 21. Heat Flux Monitoring
  22. 22. Heat Flux (W/m2) -10.00 -6.00 0.00 2.00 8.00 -8.00 -4.00 -2.00 4.00 6.00 10.00 12/03/2011 14/03/2011 16/03/2011 18/03/2011 20/03/2011 22/03/2011 24/03/2011 26/03/2011 28/03/2011 30/03/2011 01/04/2011 03/04/2011 05/04/2011 07/04/2011 09/04/2011 11/04/2011 13/04/2011Date 15/04/2011 17/04/2011 19/04/2011 21/04/2011 23/04/2011 25/04/2011 27/04/2011 29/04/2011 01/05/2011 03/05/2011 05/05/2011 07/05/2011 Mean Daily Heat Flux - Tarmac 10 & 12 09/05/2011 11/05/2011 13/05/2011 15/05/2011 Heat Flux Monitoring 17/05/2011 Heat Flux Heat Flux Tarmac 12 Tarmac 10 Mean Daily Mean Daily
  23. 23. COMPARABLE HEAT FLUX DATAWingfield, J., Miles-Shenton, D., and Bell, M., 2009, Evaluation of the Party Wall Thermal Bypass in MasonryDwellings, Centre for the Built Environment, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds
  24. 24. CO-HEATING TESTS MVHR UNIT Tarmac 10 Co Heat Test Data (December 2010) 3500 3000 y = 108.35W/K 2500 Total Power (W) 2000 y = 93.878 W/K 1500 Tarmac 10 Co Heat - No MVHR 1000 Tarmac 10 Co Heat - With MVHR 500 14.5 W/K associated with MVHR 0 0 5 Temperature Difference (Internal/External) 10 15 20 25 30
  25. 25. Tarmac 12 Energy Tarmac 10 EnergyConsumption Wh Consumption Wh POWER DATA: JUNE–AUGUST 2010
  26. 26. Tarmac 10 PV Energy Tarmac 10 EnergyGeneration Wh Consumption Wh TARMAC 10: JUNE - AUGUST 2010
  27. 27. BIOMASS BOILER System failure March 2011 Pellet quality is critical to performance Debris in hopper led to issues
  28. 28. BIOMASS BOILER
  29. 29. The BASFPrototype House
  30. 30. The BASF Prototype House:Energy Efficiency + Affordability
  31. 31. The BASF House Design Brief• Energy efficient and to have as near as possible carbon zero emissions• Affordable and economical design• Address the issue of shortage in skilled labour• Address the issue of lack of available building land• Offer heating and cooling solutions to ensure comfortable living
  32. 32. Key Features• Compact Form – detached, semi or terrace• Low cost for first time buyers• MMC – construction speed with less labour Concept ICF Ground Floor SIPS first floor & roof Official Opening
  33. 33. Key Features PCM Plaster Board PCM Thermal Mass Energy & Environmental Monitoring Solar ThermalBiomass ASHP Smart Home Controls Ground Air Heat Exchanger
  34. 34. The BASF House:terrace or semi detached units
  35. 35. The BASF House: Plans
  36. 36. The BASF House: Materials (Rodrigues, 2009)
  37. 37. Images from BASF (www.house.basf.co.uk)
  38. 38. Performance Matters Modelling Measurement Certification MonitoringTAS Energy Modelling Air Tightness TestBelow 15KWhr/m2/yr 3.7 m3/hr/m2 @50Pa
  39. 39. Annual Power Profile lighting 27% 35% Heating Ancillary Power White Goods Cooking 17% 11% Sockets 10% %March 2010 – February 2011Total Power Consumption – 3,816 kWh
  40. 40. Annual Power Profile Bedroom Sockets Living & Dining Room Sockets 437, 11% KWh, % Kitchen mid-height Sockets Fridge 1026, 27% Dishwasher 783, 21% Washing Machine Cooker Hob Oven 217, 6% 80, 2% Immersion Heater 114, Solar Kit 91, 2% 253, 7% 3% Biomass Boiler 172, 4% 266, 0.07 144, 4% Earth-Air Heat Exchanger 68, 2% 163, 4% Lighting OverallMarch 2010 – February 2011Total Power Consumption – 3,816 kWh
  41. 41. BIOMASS BOILER replaced with ASHP (spring 2011) Hoval’s Soilkit® 7.5m2 Solar ThermalHoval Solar Panasonic’s 9kW Air-to-Thermal waterStore Aquarea monobloc unit System configuration of combined ASHP and STC heating system
  42. 42. TemperaturesMonitoring period July 2011 to Feb 2012
  43. 43. The Sunspace Mean Sunspace Temperature Data 25 20Temperature (C) 15 Sunspace Temperature - Ground Floor 10 Sunspace Temperature - First Floor Sunspace Temperature - Upper Level 5 External Temperature 0 Month
  44. 44. Temperatures Solar ThermalMonitoring period July 2011 to Feb 2012
  45. 45. Hot WaterMonitoring period July 2011 to Feb 2012
  46. 46. ASHP (COP) Coefficient of Performance Monitoring period July 2011 to Feb 2012Mean COP for test period = 3.99(Manufacturer suggested COP for 9KW system: 4.1 at temperatures above 7C and than 2.5 attemperatures below -7C)
  47. 47. Hot Water Solar ASHP Immersion ThermalSystem Contribution for period July 2011 to Feb 2012STC 40% ASHP 59% Immersion 1%N.B. Immersion only used for 6 days during the test period – on 4 days in Decemberthis was due to routine system testing not user demand.
  48. 48. BASF Climate Control Micronal PCM• Microencapsulated paraffin wax in Knauf Gypsum boards• 3kg of Micronal PCM per m2• Melting/Solidifying temperatures: 23oC or 26oC• Heat storage capacity of 110 kJ/kg (330kJ/ m2) BASF’s Micronal microencapsulated PCM mixed in a gypsum board (Source: BASF Micronal Website www.micronal.de)
  49. 49. Knauf PCM SmartBoard 23 Enthalpy (Rodrigues, 2009)
  50. 50. EAHE
  51. 51. EAHE Pre-Assessment • Winter • Summer(Rodrigues, 2009)
  52. 52. The BASF House – EAHE On-site data 5th of June w (Rodrigues, 2009)
  53. 53. PCM and EAHE PCM follows temperature of living room (Rodrigues, 2009)
  54. 54. The BASF House – PCM On-site data May, June, July and August (Rodrigues, 2009)
  55. 55. PCM Further Investigation The four sensors were connected up to a data logger which recorded results from the four sensors every 20 minutes from the 16th July to the 2nd December 2011 Hukseflux HFP01 Heat Flux Plates
  56. 56. 18.00Night and daytime internal temperatures for the summer months are fairly high and in theoperational zone of the PCM – they do not drop below the lower end of the phase changezone (18 C)This problem can be solved by providing adequate night time ventilation to allow thetemperature to drop below the solidification level in the summerAdditionally the monitoring data shows that the temperature exceeded 26 deg C in thebedroom for 7.3% which means the PCM was not effective enough at reducing the internaltemperatures Graph showing the day and night time temperature and the PCM and plasterboard heat flux from 16th July to 30th September Source: Ruth Howlett, Temperature Regulation through the Utilisation of Phase Change Materials, UoN, Advanced Study Dissertation, Jan 2012
  57. 57. The BASF House in the Future Base Case = on-site data Case 2 = added EAHE Case 3 = house in 2020 Case 4 = house in 2050 Case 5 = house in 2080 CIBSE Overheating criteria: Bedrooms should not exceed 25oC but they do they should not be above 26oC for more than 1% of the time. Living rooms should not exceed 26oC but if they do they should not be above 28oC for more than 1% of the time. (Rodrigues, 2009)
  58. 58. iSEC: intelligent Smart Energy Community electricity grid weather Green Close power utilisationmicro-generation energy use monitoring & control energy storage occupancy
  59. 59. iSEC: intelligent Smart Energy Community Source: Central Networks• Optimum utilisation of local energy resources• Community-wide demand-side participation• Load levelling & reduced costs• Requirement to understand occupancy patterns for control and forecasting
  60. 60. E.ON International Research Initiative 2012 SWITCHSmart Wireless Intelligent Control in HomesResponding to the national grid Responding to onsite generation
  61. 61. OUTREACH: PUBLIC TOURS (over 3000 visitors per year)
  62. 62. Conclusions• Building performance evaluation needs to be far more widespread in order for industry to learn from their mistakes• Monitoring systems need constant monitoring!• Where there is a lack of performance it is due to multiple reasons• Need for education, training & dissemination• A requirement for better modelling predictions in regulations and in-situ testing to verify as built performance• Better control and use of demand side management technologies
  63. 63. More information at:www.creative-energy-homes.co.ukFind us on facebook
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