Amsterdam: attractive for creative knowledge? Marco Bontje AMIDSt, University of Amsterdam Accommodating creative knowledg...
ACRE case study Amsterdam <ul><li>= Amsterdam Metropolitan Area: 35 municipalities, 2.2 million inhabitants, 1 million job...
Amsterdam Metropolitan Area Hilversum
Intra-regional specialisations: economy <ul><li>Amsterdam inner city: small-scale creativity, leisure, retail, tourism, hi...
Intra-regional specialisations: residential <ul><li>Amsterdam: dominated by 2 extremes - affordable social rental and (ver...
City-regional path dependence <ul><li>Golden Age heritage: traditions in trade, finance. cultural production/consumption… ...
Assets of Amsterdam Metropolitan Area <ul><li>Broad and diverse economic base </li></ul><ul><li>Strong presence of creativ...
Drawbacks of Amsterdam Metropolitan Area <ul><li>Uncertain future crucial sectors  (finance, logistics/transport, ICT… and...
(Dis)attractions for creative knowledge <ul><li>Companies / entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hard’:   real estate prices,...
Personal trajectories <ul><li>Moved to AMA for study </li></ul><ul><li>Family, friends </li></ul><ul><li>Job offer in regi...
Our findings so far in a nutshell (1) <ul><li>Creative knowledge workers… </li></ul><ul><li>cannot be generalised as ‘crea...
<ul><li>Creative knowledge companies  … </li></ul><ul><li>differ between sectors in importance given to soft and hard fact...
Policy implications? <ul><li>‘ Creative class’ is not useful as point of departure for city-regional development strategie...
“ Interesting, but tell me what I should do…” <ul><li>Our project does not deliver readymade policies… </li></ul><ul><li>…...
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Presentation Amsterdam Marco Bontje

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Presentation Amsterdam Marco Bontje

  1. 1. Amsterdam: attractive for creative knowledge? Marco Bontje AMIDSt, University of Amsterdam Accommodating creative knowledge: urban and regional policy perspectives Amsterdam, 27 May 2009
  2. 2. ACRE case study Amsterdam <ul><li>= Amsterdam Metropolitan Area: 35 municipalities, 2.2 million inhabitants, 1 million jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Leading concentration of creative and knowledge-intensive industries in Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>City of Amsterdam: long tradition as centre of creativity and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Amsterdam: strong ‘brand’? </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity and innovation key elements of recent city-regional development strategies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Amsterdam Metropolitan Area Hilversum
  4. 4. Intra-regional specialisations: economy <ul><li>Amsterdam inner city: small-scale creativity, leisure, retail, tourism, higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Amsterdam edges: finance, law, real estate, higher education, ICT, HQs, large-scale creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Amstelveen: advertising, consultancy </li></ul><ul><li>Haarlemmermeer: transport, logistics, ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Hilversum: large-scale creativity (audiovisual) </li></ul><ul><li>Almere: ICT, logistics, and??? (expansion space) </li></ul><ul><li>Zaanstad, Haarlem: industrial past, creative future? (affordable start-up space?) </li></ul><ul><li>Overall: advanced producer services dominant, (high tech) production almost absent </li></ul>
  5. 5. Intra-regional specialisations: residential <ul><li>Amsterdam: dominated by 2 extremes - affordable social rental and (very) expensive rental / owner-occupied apartments </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing pressure on inner city market (within A10 ring road), less wanted areas city edge </li></ul><ul><li>Luxury segments: Amsterdam-South, Gooi, dunes, Amstelveen </li></ul><ul><li>Haarlem: adding the ‘in-between’ segment? </li></ul><ul><li>Almere, Haarlemmermeer, Zaanstad: hybrid urban-suburban </li></ul><ul><li>Complete offer for creative knowledge workers throughout career? </li></ul>
  6. 6. City-regional path dependence <ul><li>Golden Age heritage: traditions in trade, finance. cultural production/consumption… </li></ul><ul><li>… and ‘cosmopolitan’ / ‘tolerant’ city? </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing: generally small-scale and always less important than services </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed blessings of mass social housing 20th century </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial development: tension between heritage protection and metropolitan ambitions </li></ul><ul><li>Schiphol Airport </li></ul><ul><li>City  Region: love-hate relationship, finally resulting in cooperation? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Assets of Amsterdam Metropolitan Area <ul><li>Broad and diverse economic base </li></ul><ul><li>Strong presence of creative & knowledge-intensive sectors: regional economy ready for 21st century? </li></ul><ul><li>Higher education </li></ul><ul><li>International connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone knows Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><li>Small city / region, but cosmopolitan in its people, economy and amenities </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive in Europe </li></ul>
  8. 8. Drawbacks of Amsterdam Metropolitan Area <ul><li>Uncertain future crucial sectors (finance, logistics/transport, ICT… and creativity?) </li></ul><ul><li>Small home market, (over-?)dependence international trade </li></ul><ul><li>Problematic prestige projects (North-South metro, South Axis, Rijksmuseum…) </li></ul><ul><li>Not competitive at global scale? </li></ul><ul><li>Housing market </li></ul><ul><li>Space in short supply </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion </li></ul>‘ Natural consequences’ of economic success?
  9. 9. (Dis)attractions for creative knowledge <ul><li>Companies / entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hard’: real estate prices, attractive business space, taxes, accessibility, infrastructure, expansion opportunities,… </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Soft’: reputation/image city/region, attractive living space, offer of leisure and culture,… </li></ul><ul><li>Personal trajectories </li></ul><ul><li>Workers / graduates </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Hard’: job & career perspective, housing market access & career (missing links?) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Soft’: offer of leisure and culture, attractive home & neighbourhood, job satisfaction… </li></ul><ul><li>Personal trajectories </li></ul>
  10. 10. Personal trajectories <ul><li>Moved to AMA for study </li></ul><ul><li>Family, friends </li></ul><ul><li>Job offer in region </li></ul><ul><li>Followed partner / started relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Started company @ home </li></ul><ul><li>Came across business partners (not always planned or conscious networking!) </li></ul><ul><li>Tourist visit first, return for business / career later </li></ul><ul><li> While ‘Florida factors’ were also frequently mentioned, they were hardly decisive reasons to move to or stay in region </li></ul>
  11. 11. Our findings so far in a nutshell (1) <ul><li>Creative knowledge workers… </li></ul><ul><li>cannot be generalised as ‘creative class’ </li></ul><ul><li>are very diverse in socio-economic status </li></ul><ul><li>do not all want to live in hectic inner city </li></ul><ul><li>have life courses and housing careers just like ‘normal people’ </li></ul><ul><li>are satisfied with AMA as living and working environment </li></ul><ul><li>often already live in AMA very long </li></ul><ul><li>are not ‘hyper-mobile’ </li></ul><ul><li>Often came to AMA for other reasons than job or career! </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Creative knowledge companies … </li></ul><ul><li>differ between sectors in importance given to soft and hard factors </li></ul><ul><li>differ between sectors in importance of city-region as base for recruitment, clients, networks </li></ul><ul><li>also differ between company size categories in importance of city-region </li></ul><ul><li>generally consider ‘soft factors’ important, but… </li></ul><ul><li>… not more important than ‘hard factors’ </li></ul><ul><li>… are often located at places directly related to personal trajectories of their founders/managers </li></ul>Our findings so far in a nutshell (2)
  13. 13. Policy implications? <ul><li>‘ Creative class’ is not useful as point of departure for city-regional development strategies… </li></ul><ul><li>… because there is no such thing as a ‘creative class’ behaving and thinking the same way! </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Soft factors’ important for attracting and retaining talent and companies in creative knowledge sectors, but… </li></ul><ul><li>… do not underestimate the ‘hard factors’… </li></ul><ul><li>… and try to take personal trajectories into account </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to address each individual’s trajectory, but at least plan for diversity! </li></ul>
  14. 14. “ Interesting, but tell me what I should do…” <ul><li>Our project does not deliver readymade policies… </li></ul><ul><li>… but hopefully contributes to a realistic policy approach of talents and companies in creative knowledge sectors… </li></ul><ul><li>… beyond ‘gurus’, ‘best practices’ and ‘utopian dreams’… </li></ul><ul><li>Your questions, remarks, ideas are welcome for our final project phase: policy recommendations! </li></ul>

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