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Presentation Amsterdam Marco Bontje Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Amsterdam: attractive for creative knowledge? Marco Bontje AMIDSt, University of Amsterdam Accommodating creative knowledge: urban and regional policy perspectives Amsterdam, 27 May 2009
  • 2. ACRE case study Amsterdam
    • = Amsterdam Metropolitan Area: 35 municipalities, 2.2 million inhabitants, 1 million jobs
    • Leading concentration of creative and knowledge-intensive industries in Netherlands
    • City of Amsterdam: long tradition as centre of creativity and knowledge
    • Amsterdam: strong ‘brand’?
    • Creativity and innovation key elements of recent city-regional development strategies
  • 3. Amsterdam Metropolitan Area Hilversum
  • 4. Intra-regional specialisations: economy
    • Amsterdam inner city: small-scale creativity, leisure, retail, tourism, higher education
    • Amsterdam edges: finance, law, real estate, higher education, ICT, HQs, large-scale creativity
    • Amstelveen: advertising, consultancy
    • Haarlemmermeer: transport, logistics, ICT
    • Hilversum: large-scale creativity (audiovisual)
    • Almere: ICT, logistics, and??? (expansion space)
    • Zaanstad, Haarlem: industrial past, creative future? (affordable start-up space?)
    • Overall: advanced producer services dominant, (high tech) production almost absent
  • 5. Intra-regional specialisations: residential
    • Amsterdam: dominated by 2 extremes - affordable social rental and (very) expensive rental / owner-occupied apartments
    • Increasing pressure on inner city market (within A10 ring road), less wanted areas city edge
    • Luxury segments: Amsterdam-South, Gooi, dunes, Amstelveen
    • Haarlem: adding the ‘in-between’ segment?
    • Almere, Haarlemmermeer, Zaanstad: hybrid urban-suburban
    • Complete offer for creative knowledge workers throughout career?
  • 6. City-regional path dependence
    • Golden Age heritage: traditions in trade, finance. cultural production/consumption…
    • … and ‘cosmopolitan’ / ‘tolerant’ city?
    • Manufacturing: generally small-scale and always less important than services
    • Mixed blessings of mass social housing 20th century
    • Spatial development: tension between heritage protection and metropolitan ambitions
    • Schiphol Airport
    • City  Region: love-hate relationship, finally resulting in cooperation?
  • 7. Assets of Amsterdam Metropolitan Area
    • Broad and diverse economic base
    • Strong presence of creative & knowledge-intensive sectors: regional economy ready for 21st century?
    • Higher education
    • International connectivity
    • Everyone knows Amsterdam
    • Small city / region, but cosmopolitan in its people, economy and amenities
    • Competitive in Europe
  • 8. Drawbacks of Amsterdam Metropolitan Area
    • Uncertain future crucial sectors (finance, logistics/transport, ICT… and creativity?)
    • Small home market, (over-?)dependence international trade
    • Problematic prestige projects (North-South metro, South Axis, Rijksmuseum…)
    • Not competitive at global scale?
    • Housing market
    • Space in short supply
    • Congestion
    ‘ Natural consequences’ of economic success?
  • 9. (Dis)attractions for creative knowledge
    • Companies / entrepreneurs
    • ‘ Hard’: real estate prices, attractive business space, taxes, accessibility, infrastructure, expansion opportunities,…
    • ‘ Soft’: reputation/image city/region, attractive living space, offer of leisure and culture,…
    • Personal trajectories
    • Workers / graduates
    • ‘ Hard’: job & career perspective, housing market access & career (missing links?)
    • ‘ Soft’: offer of leisure and culture, attractive home & neighbourhood, job satisfaction…
    • Personal trajectories
  • 10. Personal trajectories
    • Moved to AMA for study
    • Family, friends
    • Job offer in region
    • Followed partner / started relationship
    • Started company @ home
    • Came across business partners (not always planned or conscious networking!)
    • Tourist visit first, return for business / career later
    •  While ‘Florida factors’ were also frequently mentioned, they were hardly decisive reasons to move to or stay in region
  • 11. Our findings so far in a nutshell (1)
    • Creative knowledge workers…
    • cannot be generalised as ‘creative class’
    • are very diverse in socio-economic status
    • do not all want to live in hectic inner city
    • have life courses and housing careers just like ‘normal people’
    • are satisfied with AMA as living and working environment
    • often already live in AMA very long
    • are not ‘hyper-mobile’
    • Often came to AMA for other reasons than job or career!
  • 12.
    • Creative knowledge companies …
    • differ between sectors in importance given to soft and hard factors
    • differ between sectors in importance of city-region as base for recruitment, clients, networks
    • also differ between company size categories in importance of city-region
    • generally consider ‘soft factors’ important, but…
    • … not more important than ‘hard factors’
    • … are often located at places directly related to personal trajectories of their founders/managers
    Our findings so far in a nutshell (2)
  • 13. Policy implications?
    • ‘ Creative class’ is not useful as point of departure for city-regional development strategies…
    • … because there is no such thing as a ‘creative class’ behaving and thinking the same way!
    • ‘ Soft factors’ important for attracting and retaining talent and companies in creative knowledge sectors, but…
    • … do not underestimate the ‘hard factors’…
    • … and try to take personal trajectories into account
    • Impossible to address each individual’s trajectory, but at least plan for diversity!
  • 14. “ Interesting, but tell me what I should do…”
    • Our project does not deliver readymade policies…
    • … but hopefully contributes to a realistic policy approach of talents and companies in creative knowledge sectors…
    • … beyond ‘gurus’, ‘best practices’ and ‘utopian dreams’…
    • Your questions, remarks, ideas are welcome for our final project phase: policy recommendations!