Land pollution


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Land pollution

  2. 2. What is land pollution? Land pollution is the destruction of the earth’s land surfaces, often directly or indirectly as a result of human activities and their misuse of land resources. It occurs when waste is not disposed off properly, or can occur when humans throw chemicals unto the soil in the form of pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers during agricultural practices. Exploitation of minerals (mining activities) has also contributed to the destruction of the earth’s surface.
  3. 3. Since the Industrial Revolution, natural habitats have been destroyed, and environments have been polluted, causing diseases in both humans and many other species of animals. Human actions have also caused many large areas of land to lose or reduce their capacity to support life forms and ecosystems. This is know as land degradation.
  4. 4. So we shall see the more about Land and Environmental Pollution, the sources of the pollution, its consequences and a few things we can do to prevent further pollution and protect our environment.
  5. 5. Types of land pollution •There are different types of land pollution •Solid Waste •Pesticides and Fertilizer •Chemicals •Deforestation
  6. 6. • These include all the various kinds of rubbish we make at home, school, hospitals, market and work places. • Things like paper, plastic containers, bottles, cans, food and even used cars and broken electronic goods, broken furniture and hospital waste are all examples of solid waste. •Solid Waste
  7. 7. • Some of these are biodegradable (meaning they easily decay into organic matter). Examples include food droppings, paper products as well as vegetation
  8. 8. • Others are not biodegradable, and they include plastics, metals and aluminium cans, broken computer and car parts
  9. 9. •Because Solid Waste do not easily decay, they pile up in landfills (a place where all the city’s rubbish are sent), where they stay for thousands of years. These bring great harm to the land and people around it
  10. 10. •Pesticides and Fertilizer •Many farming activities engage in the application of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides for higher crop yield. This is good because we get more food •But can you think of what happens to the chemicals that are used on the crops and soils? •Sometimes, insects and small animals are killed and bigger animals that eat tiny animals (as in food chains) are also harmed. Finally, the chemicals may be washed down as it rains and over time, they end up in the water Give rise to Water Pollution.
  11. 11. •Chemicals •Chemical and nuclear power plants produce waste materials that have to be stored somewhere. Fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals manufacturers also produce lots of solid and liquid waste.
  12. 12. •In many cases they are stored in an environmentally safe way, but there are some that find their way into landfills and other less safe storage facilities. Sometimes they also find their way into leaking pipes and gutters. They end up polluting soils and making crops harmful to our health.
  13. 13. •Deforestation •Humans depend on trees for many things including life. Trees absorb carbon dioxide (a green house gas) from the air and enrich the air with Oxygen, which is needed for life. Trees provide wood for humans and a habitat to many land animals, insects and birds.
  14. 14. •Trees also, help replenish soils and help retain nutrients being washed away. Unfortunately, we have cut down millions of acres of tree for wood, construction, farming and mining purposes, and never planted new trees back. This is a type of land pollution.
  15. 15. Sources of land pollution. Agricultural sources: These include waste matter produced by crop, animal manure, and farm residues. They also include the chemical left over of all pesticides, fertilisers and insecticides used for agricultural activities
  16. 16. This includes piles of coal refuse and heaps of slag and underground debris. Mining and forestry activities that clear the land surfaces (clear cutting) and use 'skid trails' often leave the land unrestored . The surface is exposed to erosion which destroys the quality of the land. Mining sources:
  17. 17. Additionally, iron and other chemicals such as copper, mercury and lead from mining practices leach into the soil, polluting it and leaving it exposed to water bodies as well. Quarrying and Mining Waste
  18. 18. Wastes that are left over after sewage has been treated, biomass sludge, and settled solids. Some of these are sent directly to landfills whiles other treatment plants burn them to generate electricity. Both end up polluting the environment. Sewage Treatment: Sewage Sludge
  19. 19. Construction sources: These include waste like debris, wood, metals and plastics that are produced from construction activities
  20. 20. Deforestation: : Industrial sources: These include paints, chemicals, metals and aluminum, plastics and so on that are produces in the process of manufacturing goods. This is when trees are cut down for economic purposes, mining, farming and construction. In forests areas, trees absorbed and reflect about 20% of the intense heat from the sun, protecting and preserving its surface soils. Cutting down trees mean that the land is exposed to direct sunlight and rain, resulting in soil erosions, desertification and land degradation
  21. 21. Man is to blamed for most of the land degradation. Productive areas is fast reducing because of developmental activities such as human settlement, industries, roads , railways, airports etc. •Urbanization:-
  22. 22. Dumping of solid wastes is one of the most important factors which are responsible for the land pollution. In developing countries like India, the garbage and refuse products are simply dumped leading to land pollution. •Dumping:-
  23. 23. Effects of land pollution. There can be catastrophic consequences of land pollution in relation to humans, animals, water and soils. The effects are even worse if the garbage is not separated into organic, re- usable and recyclable waste. 1. Soil pollution: Soil pollution is another form of land pollution, where the upper layer of the soil is damaged. This is caused by the overuse of chemical fertilizers, soil erosion caused by running water and other pest control measures; this leads to loss of fertile land for agriculture, forest cover, fodder patches for grazing etc.
  24. 24. The effects of land pollution are very hazardous and can lead to the loss of ecosystems. When land is polluted, it directly or indirectly affects the climate patterns. 2. Change in climate patterns: 3.Cause Air pollution: Landfills across the city keep on growing due to increase in waste and are later burned which leads to air pollution. They become home for rodents, mice etc which in turn transmit diseases.
  25. 25. When deforestation is committed, the tree cover is compromised on. This leads to a steep imbalance in the rain cycle. A disturbed rain cycle affects a lot of factors. To begin with, the green cover is reduced. Trees and plants help balance the atmosphere, without them we are subjected to various concerns like Global warming, the green house effect, irregular rainfall and flash floods among other imbalances. 4. Environmental Impact:
  26. 26. The land when contaminated with toxic chemicals and pesticides lead to problem of skin cancer and human respiratory system. The toxic chemicals can reach our body through foods and vegetables that we eat as they are grown in polluted soil. 5. Effect on human health: The city looses its attraction as tourist destination as landfills do not look good when you move around the city. It leads to loss of revenue for the state government. 6. Distraction for Tourist:
  27. 27. The animal kingdom has suffered mostly in the past decades. They face a serious threat with regards to loss of habitat and natural environment. The constant human activity on land, is leaving it polluted; forcing these species to move further away and adapt to new regions or die trying to adjust. Several species are pushed to the verge of extinction, due to no homeland. Other issues that we face include increased temperature, unseasonal weather activity, acid rains etc. The discharge of chemicals on land, makes it dangerous for the ecosystem too. These chemicals are consumed by the animals and plants and thereby make their way in the ecosystem. This process is called bio magnification and is a serious threat to the ecology. 7. Effect on wildlife:
  28. 28. How to prevent land pollution •Like many other challenges, the best best way to solve problems is to understand it. This means learning about it (like what you are doing now) is the greatest step forward. People should be educated and made aware about the harmful effects of littering. Discuss with friends and family and talk about it…
  29. 29. The greatest prevention to land pollution is in the three ‘R's’ … Reduce Waste, Re-use things and Recycle things. This is true even for governments. They can also use the three ‘R’ rule to minimize the amount of waste that ends up in landfills. After the three 'R's, remember to turn the rest of the garbge into compost.
  30. 30. Reuse any items that you can. Items like clothing, bottles, wrapping paper and shopping bags can be used over and over again, rather than buying new things. Adoption of organic farming instead of using synthetic chemicals
  31. 31. Proper disposal of industrial wastes into secured landfill sites Proper collection, transportation and disposal of municipal wastes. Personal litter should be disposed properly. We can separate household waste at home for recycling.
  32. 32. More than half of our household waste could be recycled or re-used but once it is mixed up, it becomes more difficult to separate different components for recycling. This is also true for waste we make at school or hospitals.
  33. 33. 1.Buy biodegradable products. 2.Store all liquid chemicals and waste in spill- proof containers. 3.Eat organic foods that are grown without pesticides. Look out for fertilizer or pesticide free products when you go to the market. 4.Don’t use pesticides if you can. 5.Buy products that have little packaging. Wow! This is Easy!
  34. 34. So now you are aware about causes of Land Pollution!
  35. 35. Conclusion Certainly a country that is growing rapidly and developing in various fields. but in the rapid pace of development, many do not realize that it also carries side effects on the environment. So we have to go Sustainable Development.
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