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Ecology  jt2012
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Ecology jt2012






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    Ecology  jt2012 Ecology jt2012 Presentation Transcript

    • Ecology - C. 18The study of the interactions between organisms and the living and nonliving components of their environment.
    • Levels of Organization• Biosphere-everything living• Ecosystem-living and nonliving in an area• Community-group of populations• Population- # same species in an area• Organism-an individual Theme: Interconnectedness. No organism is isolated!
    • Coevolution of Species
    • Population DynamicsPopulation: Members of the same species livingin a particular place at the same time.
    • Measuring Population Density:The Mark-Recapture Method Formula for calculating population size: N = (M * C) / R N = population size M = individuals marked on first sampling effort C = individuals marked on second sampling effort R = individuals captured both times
    • Distribution
    • Measuring Populations• Demographics-study of population dynamics. How populations grow and what factors limit growth.• Per Capita Growth: BR-DR = GR
    • Models of Growth• Exponential Growth • Logistic Growth
    • Exponential Growth of Bacteria
    • Logistic GrowthFur Seals on Saint Paul Island, off the coast of Alaska
    • Limiting Factors & Carrying Capacity
    • Population Cycles: Predation
    • Human Population Growth
    • Survivorship Curves
    • Ecosystem Components• Abiotic Factors: non-living components such as sunlight, water, temperature, wind, natural disasters and rocks and soil.• Biotic Factors: living components (or biota) such as plants, animals, and microorganisms.
    • Communities- C. 19• All interacting organisms living in one area.
    • Biodiversity• The biodiversity of an area is a way of describing how many different organisms live there• Low biodiversity is a major problem that can occur to decrease the aesthetic and/or utilitarian value of an ecosystem• A variety of indices can be used to describe an area’s biodiversity
    • Invasive Species• An invasive species is one Dutch Elm Disease that when brought to a new area or part of an area is likely to cause or will cause environmental harm• Most often, the harm caused is a loss of biodiversity or loss of some other species• An exotic or alien species is one that is not native to an area
    • Species Interactions
    • Examples of Species Interactions •Mutualism• Commensalism •Parasitism
    • Keystone Species
    • CompetitionCompetitive Exclusion Resource Partitioning, Anolis lizards
    • Creating or Repairing: Succession
    • Successionin Iceland
    • Periodic DisturbancesIncreased sunlight and soil nutrients released from the tress that burnedin a forest fire in Yellowstone National Park greatly contributed to therecolonization of the land.
    • Energy in Ecosystems
    • Food Chain
    • Food Web
    • Trophic Levels
    • Energy Pyramids
    • Carbon Cycle
    • Nitrogen Cycle
    • Where do Organisms Live? Climate is a major Influence
    • Biomes: In General
    • Tropical Rain Forest
    • Temperate Deciduous Forest
    • Taiga
    • Savanna
    • Temperate Grassland
    • Chaparral
    • Desert
    • Tundra
    • Lakes
    • River
    • Wetland
    • Estuary
    • Intertidal Zone
    • Oceans
    • Coral Reefs
    • Benthic Zone