With the advent of industrial revolution, men have been replaced with machines and increasing use of machines has given birth to the greatest evils like low wages, long hours of work, poor working conditions etc…. All this has led to excessive exploitation of theBehind the unorganised workers by the profit seeking employers. origin This has necessitated the formation of trade unions so as to protect, maintain and improve the economic social and vocational interests of the members and to strengthen their bargaining power.
A trade union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals such as protectingMeaning the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions.
“A trade union is a continuous long term association of employees, formed and maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the interests of members in their working relationship.” - Dale YoderDefinitions “A trade union is a continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining and improving the conditions of their lives.” -Sydney and Beatrice Webb
2. Trade unions are generally permanent Characteristics combinations and not temporary or casual.3. Trade unions are formed by the collective actions of their members to strengthen their bargaining power.4. The basic objective of any trade union is to protect and promote economic, social and vocational interest of their members.5. The origin and growth of trade unions have been influenced by a number of socio-economic and political ideologies.6. Trade unions are adaptable to the changing socio-economic-legal-political environment.
Trade Unions provide job security to the employees/ workers Trade Unions can negotiate with management on the industrial conflicts. The workers interest can be safeguarded by the strength of unionism.Needs Trade unions ensure workers participation in management. The rights of workers viz. wages and conditions of work can be protected by the trade unions. Trade Unions also help in maintaining good industrial relations.
Developed by Sydney webb and Beatrice webb. An extension of the principle of democracy. Solution to industrial conflicts can be obtained Industrial through equality and collective agreements.democracy Trade Unions are considered as “institutions for approach overcoming managerial dictatorship.” In this approach, Trade unions are not considered as an instrument for the revolutionary over throw of capitalist order.
Developed by Prof.Robert F Hoxie, an American labour economist. This approach says that emerging of trade unions are not merely because of economic reasons but psychological environment of the workers. Social They have common interpretation of their socialPsychological situation and have common solution to their problems. Approach So they unite into a union. Thus, unionism is a result of group psychology which grows out of environmental conditions and temperamental attributes of its members.
Developed by Tannenbaun. Workers are engaging in an unconscious rebellion against authorization of industrial society. Fundamental cause of exploitation of workers is useCapitalism of machines.Approach Trade unions are the by products of an industrial society in which automation has destroyed the old way of life and robbed the worker of his identity. The union originally created by the workers to make their bargaining more effective, has now become so powerful
Developed by Karl Max and is also known as Marxist approach. This approach represents trade unions as instrumentAnti for destroying the capital class.Capitalism Trade unionism is necessary to bring revolutionary and fundamental changes in the social order of theApproach workers. Trade unions are considered as instrument to overthrow capitalism.
Developed by Mahatma Gandhi. Contrary to those of Karl Max Based upon the sarvodaya principles of truth, trusteeship and non violence.Sarvodaya Trade unions are economic institutions in whichApproach capital and labour are supplementary. Trade unions are essentially reformist organisations. According to the theory, trade unions are not anti capitalist, the idea is to take from capital, labours due share and no more.
Developed by Kerr, Dunlop, Harbison and Myres. According to this theory, workers often find their Protest work distasteful and their compensation never commensurate with their contribution.Approach Trade unions are formed as a means of protest, an expression of the workers resentment over the prevailing industrial system.
Developed by G.D.H.Cole. Control The ultimate objective of trade union is to have control of workers over the industry.Approach Although the immediate objective may be higher wages and better working conditions.
Developed by S.H.Slitcher Work Employees cannot exercise much control over working conditions through individual bargaining.Traditions Trade unions should help developing a system ofApproach work rules and traditions – “ A system of industrial jurisprudence”.