Obsessive compulsive disorder


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Obsessive compulsive disorder

  2. 2.  Introduction History Obsessions and compulsions Causes Diagnosticchallenges Signs and Symptoms Treatment
  3. 3.  Obsessive compulsive disorder or OCD is an anxiety disorder Disorder causing worries, doubts, and superstitious beliefs during everyday life Leads to repetitive behaviours to reduce the associated anxiety or by a combination of obsessions and compulsions
  4. 4.  14th & 15th century thought people were possessed by the devil and treated by exorcism 17th century thought people were cleansing their guilt 20th century began treating with behavioural techniques
  5. 5.  Obsessions - Repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses that are difficult to dismiss or control Compulsions– repetitive behavioural responses can be resisted only with great difficulty
  6. 6.  Affects almost 3% of world’s population Start anytime from preschool to adulthood Typically between 20-24 Many different forms of OCD – differ from person to person Cause of OCD is still unknown
  7. 7.  Scientistsplit theories responsible for causes into two groups • Psychological - disorder where people are responsible for feelings they have • Biological - abnormalities in the brain  Due to injury  Birth defect
  8. 8.  Cause for OCD is often liked with neurotransmitter Serotonin Role of serotonin is to send chemical messages from one neuron to another OCD suffers may have damaged receptor sites that prevent serotonin from proper functioning Possible genetic mutation or gene disorder
  9. 9.  Although OCD appears to be fairly common, it is often misdiagnosed by doctors On average, patients wait 9 years from onset of symptoms to participating in effective treatment Sometimes confused with OCPD
  10. 10.  Doubts that youve locked the door or turned off the stove Thoughts that youve hurt someone in a traffic accident Fear of causing harm to yourself or others Superstitions - excessive attention to something considered lucky or unlucky Feeling of hair loss because of pulling hair
  11. 11.  Washing hands until your skin becomes raw Counting in certain patterns Arranging certain items to face the same way Fear that something bad will happen if they throw anything away
  12. 12.  The two main treatments for obsessive- compulsive disorder are: Psychotherapy • A type of therapy called cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) Medications • Use of Antidepressants to increase levels of serotonin, which may be lacking when you have OCD.
  13. 13.  Two components1. Exposure and response prevention: • Involves repeated exposure to source of obsessions • refrain from the compulsive behaviour Example: If you are a compulsive hand washer, you might be asked to touch the door handle and then be prevented from washing
  14. 14. 2. Cognitive therapy: • Involves shifting attention from catastrophic thoughts to something else • learn healthy and effective ways of responding to obsessive thoughts, without resorting to compulsive behaviour For Example: While experiencing OCD thoughts, you could listen to music, read, play a video game
  15. 15.  Inthe event of first symptoms, most commonly, antidepressants are tried first Antidepressants may be helpful for OCD because they increase levels of serotonin, which may be lacking when you have OCD FDA has approved certain drugs to treat OCD • Clomipramine (Anafranil) • Fluvoxamine (Luvox) • Fluoxetine (Prozac)
  16. 16.  Medication have to be continued for one to two years If your symptoms return on a lower dose, you may need to take medication indefinitely Some medications can have dangerous interactions with some food supplement
  17. 17.  OCD is a complicated issue Most cases are incurable Best form of treatment is CBT in combination with medication A lot more effort is needed to research the brain to know more about such disorders